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Intro to Evolution Evolution simply means change over time. many things evolve, including languages, and your view of the world.

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Presentation on theme: "Intro to Evolution Evolution simply means change over time. many things evolve, including languages, and your view of the world."— Presentation transcript:

1 Intro to Evolution Evolution simply means change over time. many things evolve, including languages, and your view of the world.

2 Intro to Evolution This unit is meant to introduce you to: the development of current evolutionary theory and subtopics processes which influence the change of species over time This unit is not meant to: tell you what you have to believe

3 Intro to Evolution This unit is a spectacular view into what science truly is: we are constantly learning new things on our own and from others making mistakes and learning from them making revisions based on new data improving on techniques that work or dont work at all. taking data and attempting to determine its meaning figuring out the how of things

4 Unit 5 – Lecture 1

5 Evolutionary Timeline The evolutionary timeline is divided into sections of time called eras – which are then divided into smaller units of time called periods. units of time are determined through use of radiometric dating methods, fossil/rock identification, and geographic strata [rock layers]. evolutionists estimate the age of the earth to be approximately 4.5 billion years old

6 Evol. Timeline – contd Hadean: 3.8-4.5 billion years ago think Hades very hot very little free oxygen, lots of CO 2 lots of N 2 [nitrogen] gas lots of water vapor

7 Evol. Timeline – contd Precambrian [anything from hadean to cambrian…] cyanobacteria and other prokaryotes sponges & cnidarians [jellyfish/ anemone]

8 Evol. Timeline – contd Paleozoic [542 mya – 251 mya] six periods – need to know: Cambrian [1 st of six] sudden occurrence - explosion of life [Cambrian Explosion] seen in fossil record worms, sea stars, trilobites, fish, reptiles… other chordates and hard-bodied organisms

9 Evol. Timeline – contd Mesozoic [251 mya – 65 mya] three periods : Triassic – small mammals Jurassic – dinosaurs Cretaceous – flowering plants

10 Evol. Timeline – contd Cenozoic: 65.5 million years ago - present lots of mammals

11

12 Continental Drift Continental Drift Theory states that continents have moved throughout history continents are still moving approx 6cm a year Plate Techtonics explains HOW continents move

13 Continental Drift – contd Continental Movement: Pangaea – central land mass Laurasia [northern continents] & Gondwana [southern continents] end of Mesozoic = modern continents [Triassic]

14 Discuss What is the difference between Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics?

15 Fossils Fossil – evidence of an organism which lived long ago paleontologist – scientist who studies ancient life most fossils are found in sedimentary rock

16 Fossils – contd Types of Fossils: trace fossils – animal markings [footprint, trail, burrow]

17 Fossils – contd Types of Fossils: casts– mineralization of a space left by a decayed organism [most fossils you think of] molds– empty space in rock from a decayed org.

18 Fossils – contd Types of Fossils: imprints – made typically by thin objects that have been pressed into an area

19 Fossils – contd Types of Fossils: carbonized – high temps & pressures expel gaseous elements leaving only carbon

20 Fossils – contd Types of Fossils: petrified – entire organism is replaced by mineral matter.

21 Fossils – contd Types of Fossils: ice- or amber- preserved fossils [True-Form Fossils]

22 Fossils – contd Types of Fossils: permineralization – pores are filled with mineral matter without getting rid of organic [carbon] material

23 Fossils – contd Types of Fossils: coprolite – fossilized dino poop

24 Discuss Name and describe 5 types of fossils.

25 Fossils – contd What do we know about this fossilized organism?

26 Fossils – contd Fossils CAN Tell Us…[sometimes] what an organism looked like what kinds of food it probably ate exceptions…like the panda – has very sharp teeth for eating rough bamboo what type of area it may have lived in / climate geography of the area it lived in

27 Fossils – contd Fossils CANT Tell Us… what colors an organism was almost anything about behavior science does attempt some basic conclusions about organisms based on how they are found nests [nurturing], found traditionally in large groups [may have been a pack organism], etc. what it sounded like we can make comparisons and guess at times based on structure similarities

28 Discuss Discuss with a partner certain things that we can and cant learn from fossils.

29 Dating Methods Relative Dating – dating new samples based off of comparison to previously dated materials uses circular reasoning: dating rocks by their fossils dating fossils by the rock in which they are found

30 Dating Methods – contd Relative Dating [contd] geologic layers as in the record are not actually found in their stated order anywhere on earth; they are approximated based on comparison of fossils and other rock these things can lead to misinterpretation

31 Dating Methods – contd Radiometric Dating – examining the chemical half- life of a substance in the sample to determine its approximate age

32 Dating Methods – contd Radiometric Dating [contd] half-life – the amount of time it takes for half of a substance to change [decay] into another substance based on isotopes isotope – atoms of an element with a different number of neutrons than is typical the measured isotopes are radioactive and slowly become non-reactive [this is what is measured]

33 Dating Methods – contd Radiometric Dating [contd] ex: Carbon-14 dating, Potassium-Argon dating,

34 Discuss What is the difference between relative dating and radiometric dating?

35 Dating Methods – contd Problems with Radiometric Dating must know original amount of substance present to calculate time must assume constant decay must know no outside influence occurred [like water, extra heat or pressure, other substances which react]

36 Dating Methods – contd Problems with Radiometric Dating cant date rocks which have been in water, but many fossils are formed in sedimentary rock in this case, rock ages are dated by the fossils found in them that have been previously identified recent samples showing millions of years Mt. St. Helens – dated 10 yrs after eruption; showed almost 3 million years date samples showing negative age

37 Discuss What are potential problems in relative dating and in radiometric dating?

38 Science! There are ways that ALL techniques can be refined and improved – thats the job of science – to keep learning more and going farther with research and doing many trials [when possible] to get to the most accurate data possible. To Know.

39 Homework Complete the Stego/Horse worksheet you received.


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