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The Muslim World Chapter 10 A.D. 600-1250.

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Presentation on theme: "The Muslim World Chapter 10 A.D. 600-1250."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Muslim World Chapter 10 A.D

2 I. The Rise of Islam Important Places
Arabian Peninsula: trading crossroads to Europe, Africa, and Asia Mecca: a city in western Arabia where pilgrims came to worship Ka’aba: shrine associated with Abraham, contained over 300 idols Allah: God

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4 Rise of Islam (cont’d) Muhammad Born into powerful Meccan family
At 25, Married Khadijah (wealthy business woman) At 40, heard voice of Gabriel; believed he was the last prophet Taught that Allah was the one and only God Known as The Prophet

5 Rise of Islam (cont’d) Islam : “submission to the will of Allah”
Religion founded by Muhammad Muslims: “one who has submitted” Followers of Islam Hostility Neglect of Arab gods Mecca would lose pilgrimage center

6 Rise of Islam (cont’d) Hijrah: Muhammad’s trek north that resulted in an drastic increase in followers Fashioned agreement b/t Muslims and Jews Became military leader Returned to Mecca, destroyed the Ka’aba Meccans pledged loyalty to Muhammad Died two years later at 62

7 II. Beliefs and Practices of Islam
One God, Allah Individual responsible for his/her actions Five Pillars Faith: “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.” Prayer: pray 5 times a day; facing Mecca Mosque: Islamic house of worship Alms: responsibility to support the less fortunate (through religious tax) Fasting: during Ramadan (holy month), don’t eat b/t dawn and sunset Pilgrimage: Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca by physically and financially able Muslims

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9 Beliefs and Practices (cont’d)
Other laws: Forbidden to eat pork and drink intoxicating beverages Friday afternoons are set aside for communal worship No priests or central religious authority Everyone worships Allah directly Ulama: religious teachers who apply the words and deeds of Muhammad Qur’an: holy book of Muhammad, written after his death Written in Arabic; only language of worship

10 Beliefs and Practices (cont’d)
Sunna: Muhammad’s example; best model for proper behavior Shari’a: body of laws that regulates family life, moral conduct, and business and community life

11 Beliefs and Practices (cont’d)
Islam One God: Allah Jesus prophet Qur’an revealed to Muhammad Ancestry to Abraham Heaven, hell, day of judgment Christianity One God Jesus son of God Bible (Gospels) revealed to Moses/New Testament writers Ancestry to Abraham Heaven, hell, day of judgment

12 III. Islam Expands Muhammad’s successors spread Islam
Community elected Abu-Bakr 1st Caliph: “successor” Jihad: an armed struggle against unbelievers Muslim state controlled all of Arabia “Rightly guided” caliphs Muslim armies conquer Syria & lower Egypt (parts of the Byzantine empire) By 750, Muslim empire stretched from Atlantic Ocean to the Indus River

13 Islam Expands (cont’d)
Reasons for success Muhammad’s desire to spread Islam North Disciplined and well commanded armies Persecution suffered by people under Byzantine and Sassanid rule b/c they didn’t support state religion Muslims allowed conquered peoples to follow their own religion, but not spread it, as long as they paid the tax

14 IV. Internal Conflict Creates Crisis
Civil War 656- Uthman murdered; groups struggle for power Ali natural choice; assassinated; elective system dies with him Umayyads rule Move capital from Mecca to Damascus Surrounded selves with wealth Led to fundamental divisions

15 Internal Conflict Creates Crisis (cont’d)
Sunni/Shi’a Split Majority of Muslims accept Umayyads Shi’a develop alternate view (shi’ites)

16 Internal Conflict Creates Crisis (cont’d)
Sunni Did not outwardly resist Umayyads Believe the first four caliphs were “rightly guided” Muslim rulers should follow the Sunna, or “Muhammad’s example” Claim that the Shi’a have distorted the meaning of various passages in the Qur’an 83% of population Shi’a Develop alternate view to Umayyads Believe that Ali, the Prophet’s son-in-law, should have succeeded Muhammad Believe that all Muslim rulers should be descended from Muhammad; do not recognize the authority of the Sunna Claim that the Sunni have distorted the meaning of various passages in the Qur’an 16 % of population

17 Internal Conflict Creates Crisis (cont’d)
Conflict Extends 750, Rebels overthrow Umayyads, Abbasids gain control Murder remaining family members Move capital to Baghdad, Iraq; great trade routes Create strong bureaucracy ($ affairs)

18 Internal Conflict Creates Crisis (cont’d)
Trade networks Sea Trade-Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean Currency Abbasid Dinar: single currency in empire Sakks: “check”; letter of credit exchanged for cash at any bank Large cities Cordoba: pop 200,000 In contrast, Paris: 38,000 Fueled immense achievements in arts and sciences

19 V. Muslim Culture Society Rise of Muslim Cities 4 Social Classes:
Many cultures combined Attracted many people Baghdad approaches 1 million people 4 Social Classes: Upper class—Muslim at birth Second Class—converts to Islam Third Class—”protected peoples” included Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians Lowest Class—slaves (POWs; all non-Muslims)

20 Muslim Culture (cont’d)
Women Shari’a gave Muslim women specific legal rights concerning marriage, family, and property Expected to submit to Muslim men Responsibilities varied with income Poor women worked fields, wealthier women responsible for household and servants Had access to education Over time, women forced to live increasingly isolated lives

21 Muslim Culture (cont’d)
Art and Science flourishes Fall of Rome (476) created chaos in Europe; scholarship suffered Umayyads and Abbasids expanded knowledge Literature Art and Architecture Calligraphy Medical advances Math and Science Philosophy


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