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The Muslim World Chapter 10 A.D. 600-1250. I. The Rise of Islam A. Important Places 1. Arabian Peninsula: trading crossroads to Europe, Africa, and Asia.

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Presentation on theme: "The Muslim World Chapter 10 A.D. 600-1250. I. The Rise of Islam A. Important Places 1. Arabian Peninsula: trading crossroads to Europe, Africa, and Asia."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Muslim World Chapter 10 A.D

2 I. The Rise of Islam A. Important Places 1. Arabian Peninsula: trading crossroads to Europe, Africa, and Asia 2. Mecca: a city in western Arabia where pilgrims came to worship Kaaba: shrine associated with Abraham, contained over 300 idols Kaaba: shrine associated with Abraham, contained over 300 idols Allah: God Allah: God

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4 Rise of Islam (contd) B. Muhammad 1. Born into powerful Meccan family 2. At 25, Married Khadijah (wealthy business woman) 3. At 40, heard voice of Gabriel; believed he was the last prophet 4. Taught that Allah was the one and only God 5. Known as The Prophet

5 Rise of Islam (contd) C. Islam : submission to the will of Allah 1. Religion founded by Muhammad 2. Muslims: one who has submitted Followers of Islam Followers of Islam D. Hostility 1. Neglect of Arab gods 2. Mecca would lose pilgrimage center

6 Rise of Islam (contd) E. Hijrah: Muhammads trek north that resulted in an drastic increase in followers 1. Fashioned agreement b/t Muslims and Jews 2. Became military leader 3. Returned to Mecca, destroyed the Kaaba 4. Meccans pledged loyalty to Muhammad 5. Died two years later at 62

7 II. Beliefs and Practices of Islam A. One God, Allah B. Individual responsible for his/her actions C. Five Pillars 1. Faith: There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. 2. Prayer: pray 5 times a day; facing Mecca Mosque: Islamic house of worship Mosque: Islamic house of worship 3. Alms: responsibility to support the less fortunate (through religious tax) 4. Fasting: during Ramadan (holy month), dont eat b/t dawn and sunset 5. Pilgrimage: Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca by physically and financially able Muslims

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9 Beliefs and Practices (contd) D. Other laws: 1. Forbidden to eat pork and drink intoxicating beverages 2. Friday afternoons are set aside for communal worship 3. No priests or central religious authority 4. Everyone worships Allah directly 5. Ulama: religious teachers who apply the words and deeds of Muhammad 6. Quran: holy book of Muhammad, written after his death Written in Arabic; only language of worship Written in Arabic; only language of worship

10 Beliefs and Practices (contd) E. Sunna: Muhammads example; best model for proper behavior F. Sharia: body of laws that regulates family life, moral conduct, and business and community life

11 Beliefs and Practices (contd) Islam 1. One God: Allah 2. Jesus prophet 3. Quran revealed to Muhammad 4. Ancestry to Abraham 5. Heaven, hell, day of judgment Christianity 1. One God 2. Jesus son of God 3. Bible (Gospels) revealed to Moses/New Testament writers 4. Ancestry to Abraham 5. Heaven, hell, day of judgment

12 III. Islam Expands A. Muhammads successors spread Islam 1. Community elected Abu-Bakr 1 st Caliph: successor 1 st Caliph: successor Jihad: an armed struggle against unbelievers Jihad: an armed struggle against unbelievers Muslim state controlled all of Arabia Muslim state controlled all of Arabia 2. Rightly guided caliphs Muslim armies conquer Syria & lower Egypt (parts of the Byzantine empire) Muslim armies conquer Syria & lower Egypt (parts of the Byzantine empire) By 750, Muslim empire stretched from Atlantic Ocean to the Indus River By 750, Muslim empire stretched from Atlantic Ocean to the Indus River

13 Islam Expands (contd) B. Reasons for success 1. Muhammads desire to spread Islam North 2. Disciplined and well commanded armies 3. Persecution suffered by people under Byzantine and Sassanid rule b/c they didnt support state religion 4. Muslims allowed conquered peoples to follow their own religion, but not spread it, as long as they paid the tax

14 IV. Internal Conflict Creates Crisis A. Civil War Uthman murdered; groups struggle for power Ali natural choice; assassinated; elective system dies with him Ali natural choice; assassinated; elective system dies with him 2. Umayyads rule Move capital from Mecca to Damascus Move capital from Mecca to Damascus Surrounded selves with wealth Surrounded selves with wealth Led to fundamental divisions Led to fundamental divisions

15 Internal Conflict Creates Crisis (contd) 3. Sunni/Shia Split Majority of Muslims accept Umayyads Majority of Muslims accept Umayyads Shia develop alternate view (shiites) Shia develop alternate view (shiites)

16 Internal Conflict Creates Crisis (contd) Sunni 1. Did not outwardly resist Umayyads 2. Believe the first four caliphs were rightly guided 3. Muslim rulers should follow the Sunna, or Muhammads example 4. Claim that the Shia have distorted the meaning of various passages in the Quran 5. 83% of population Shia 1. Develop alternate view to Umayyads 2. Believe that Ali, the Prophets son-in-law, should have succeeded Muhammad 3. Believe that all Muslim rulers should be descended from Muhammad; do not recognize the authority of the Sunna 4. Claim that the Sunni have distorted the meaning of various passages in the Quran % of population

17 Internal Conflict Creates Crisis (contd) B. Conflict Extends , Rebels overthrow Umayyads, Abbasids gain control 2. Murder remaining family members 3. Move capital to Baghdad, Iraq; great trade routes 4. Create strong bureaucracy ($ affairs)

18 Internal Conflict Creates Crisis (contd) C. Trade networks 1. Sea Trade-Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean 2. Currency Abbasid Dinar: single currency in empire Abbasid Dinar: single currency in empire Sakks: check; letter of credit exchanged for cash at any bank Sakks: check; letter of credit exchanged for cash at any bank 3. Large cities Cordoba: pop 200,000 Cordoba: pop 200,000 In contrast, Paris: 38,000 In contrast, Paris: 38,000 Fueled immense achievements in arts and sciences Fueled immense achievements in arts and sciences

19 V. Muslim Culture A. Society 1. Rise of Muslim Cities Many cultures combined Many cultures combined Attracted many people Attracted many people Baghdad approaches 1 million people Baghdad approaches 1 million people 2. 4 Social Classes: Upper classMuslim at birth Upper classMuslim at birth Second Classconverts to Islam Second Classconverts to Islam Third Classprotected peoples included Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians Third Classprotected peoples included Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians Lowest Classslaves (POWs; all non-Muslims) Lowest Classslaves (POWs; all non-Muslims)

20 Muslim Culture (contd) 3. Women Sharia gave Muslim women specific legal rights concerning marriage, family, and property Sharia gave Muslim women specific legal rights concerning marriage, family, and property Expected to submit to Muslim men Expected to submit to Muslim men Responsibilities varied with income Responsibilities varied with income Poor women worked fields, wealthier women responsible for household and servants Poor women worked fields, wealthier women responsible for household and servants Had access to education Had access to education Over time, women forced to live increasingly isolated lives Over time, women forced to live increasingly isolated lives

21 Muslim Culture (contd) 4. Art and Science flourishes Fall of Rome (476) created chaos in Europe; scholarship suffered Fall of Rome (476) created chaos in Europe; scholarship suffered Umayyads and Abbasids expanded knowledge Umayyads and Abbasids expanded knowledge a) Literature b) Art and Architecture Calligraphy Calligraphy c) Medical advances d) Math and Science e) Philosophy


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