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AP World Review.

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1 AP World Review

2 Six Themes The impact of interaction among major societies, such as, trade, international exchange, war, and diplomacy. The relationship of change and continuity across the periods of World History. Impact of technology and demography on people and the environment, including population change, manufacturing, agriculture, etc. Systems of organization and gender structure. Cultural and intellectual development and interactions among societies. Change over time in function and structures of political states.

3 Building Blocks of Civilization
What is a civilization? Economic system Political organization Moral code (religion) Written language and intellectual tradition.

4 Early Man Beginnings of Humans
Hominids: 3 to 4 million years on earth. Hominids are primates. Earliest hominids called Australopithecine. Bipeds Other types of Early man include Homo Habilis, Homo Erectus, and Homo Sapien

5 Stone Age Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Age). Tools were used.
Simple huts. Fire. Hunter/gatherer societies. Family or clan groupings. Art and music also practiced.

6 Stone Age (Con’t) Agricultural Revolution: Neolithic Revolution
Occurred around the end of the Great Ice Age. Rapid population growth. Need for a change in food supply. New skills needed. Pastoralism and agriculture begins with domestication of plants and animals.

7 Results of the Agricultural Revolution
Many diversified crops developed. Development of communities and villages. Not based on family ties. Lead to the formation of cities. Early religions form around harvest and planting seasons. Specialization of Labor. Improved tools. Development of social classes.

8 River Valley Civilizations
Mesopotamia. Tigris and Euphrates River valleys. Fertile Crescent. Written Language: Cuneiform. Epic of Gilgamesh. Hammurabi’s Code.

9 River Civilizations Egypt Nile River valley: Upper and Lower Egypt
Inundation: regular flooding schedule Monarchy: Pharaoh & small class of priests. Duality: Complex religion and mummification. Many great inventions and advances.

10 River Civilizations Indus Valley Indus and Ganges Rivers
Reason for decline unknown. Highly unified and organized government. Artistic.

11 River Civilizations Yellow River valley.
Shang – China’s first dynasty. Monarchy Bronze work, silk making, pottery, jade. Zhou Dynasty: Many advances Mandate of Heaven.

12 Middle East Civilizations
Persians Created one of the largest empires in world history: From Turkey to Libya. Cyrus the Great-first king, Darius the Great Advanced postal system, roads, single currency, and decentralized government. Zoroastrianism: Primary religion. Fell to Alexander the Great.

13 Middle East Civilizations
Phoenicians Syria and Lebanon. Advanced export economy. Skilled traders. Established Cathage. First alphabet.

14 Ancient Greece Aegean, Minoan, Mycenaean Civilizations.
Trading societies. Conquest (Trojan War) Joined into a single culture called Hellenes or Greeks.

15 Ancient Greece Athens and Sparta Beginnings of Democracy
Athens: educated, great thinkers Sparta: warrior society, military strength, self reliance. Beginnings of Democracy Began in Athens Pericles Not fully enfranchised. Most representative government in ancient world.

16 Ancient Greece Peloponnesian War Alexander the Great
Conflict between Athens and Sparta. Left Greek city-states weak. Open to conquest by the Persians and then Macedonians (Alexander the Great). Alexander the Great Great conqueror, took over Asia, Persian Empire, territory to borders of India. Spread Greek culture throughout Eurasia.

17 Ancient Greece Hellenic Culture
Science was important, geometry, physics, mathematics, and astronomy. Poetry (Homer), Drama (Sophocles/Euripides), Philosophy (Socrates, Plato)

18 Ancient Rome Roman Republic
Tensions between Plebeians (lower class) and Patricians (upper class). Beginning of Roman expansion. Punic Wars Three campaigns against Carthage. Rome was victorious. Began expanding to the East (Greece, Balkans).

19 Ancient Rome Collapse of Roman Republic Roman Empire
Too much expansion. Social problems and civil wars. Unification of leadership under one person. Roman Empire Julius Caesar, Octavian (Caesar Augustus)

20 Han Dynasty Strongest Chinese dynasty. Expansionist Empire
Postal system. Roads. Defensive fortifications (Great Wall). Weak leadership caused collapse Corruption and leadership issues.

21 India Aryans Nomadic group invaded India. Earliest Europeans.
Conquered the Dravidians (Dark skinned Indians). Established warrior aristocracy. Established Sanskrit. Vedic and early Hindu faith.

22 India Caste System Born into caste. Cannot be changed.
Priests (Brahmins) Warriors and political rulers (Kshatruyas). Commoners. Servants and Peasants. The “Untouchables.” Born into caste. Cannot be changed.

23 India Mauryan Empire Gupta Empire Ashoka – 1st emperor.
Converted to Buddhism. Collapsed from outside attacks. Gupta Empire Religious tolerance. Muslim invaders.

24 Religions Judaism Islam Hebrews Monotheistic Covenant
Main deity - Yahweh Covenant Islam Founded by Muhammad Five Pillars of Faith. Allah

25 Religions Christianity Hinduism Messiah: Jesus Evangelical.
Bramin, Multiple gods, Darma, Karma. Multiple Reincarnations.

26 Religions Buddhism Daosim (Taoism) Four Noble Truths Eightfold Path
The Way Harmony with nature.

27 Caliphates Split in Islamic believers after the death of Muhammad.
Sunni and Shiite “Caliph” – Leader of the Islamic faith. Umayyad Caliphate Abbasid Caliphate Golden Age of Islamic Culture

28 Amerindian Civilizations
Olmec Mother civilization for Central America. Maya Teotihuacan Located in Mexico and Central America. Religion included human sacrifice. Ended by constant state of war.

29 Amerindian Civilizations
Inca Located along the Andes Mountains of Peru. Specially adapted to high mountain altitudes. Domesticated llamas. Aztec Tribute System.

30 Forms of Government Oligarchy Monarch Republic Democracy Theocracy
Rule by a small group of elite families. Monarch Leadership by one person passed through family. Absolute and Constitutional Monarchy. Republic Citizens all participate in government. Democracy All citizens play the same role in government Theocracy Ruled by church or priests (No separation)

31 Middle Ages Collapse of Roman Empire led to fragmented leadership in Europe and the rise of the Byzantine Empire Emperor Justinian. Constantinople. Feudalism Manor System Self-sufficient. Serfdom

32 Middle Ages Great Schism Monasticism Catholic Church gains much power.
Split between “Western” Church and Byzantine Church. Monasticism Monastery orders dedicated to the service of God. Vows of Chastity and Poverty.

33 European Relationships
One Hundred Years’ War England and France Caused political entanglements. France’s attempt to regain English territory. Trade competition. Holy Roman Empire Spain and Portugal Muslim invasion Reconquesta

34 Crusades Causes First Crusade Religious fervor.
European desire for trade. Personal Ambitions. First Crusade Byzantine empire asked for help against Muslim Turks. Christians capture Jerusalem.

35 Crusades More crusades - none successful. Effects of the Crusades
More awareness of the world as a whole. Increased tensions between Muslims and Christians. Increased trade.

36 Black Death Bubonic Plague Traveled from Asia over Silk Road.
Carried by fleas on rats. Killed 1/3 of European Population. Caused society to modernize and gave more rights to the poor.

37 Renaissance Printing Press Classicism Important people
Johannes Gutenberg Classicism Greater understanding and appreciation of Greek and Roman culture. Important people Da Vinci Michelangelo Titan

38 Protestant Reformation
Failed attempts at Catholic Church reforms. Martin Luther Protested indulgences. Formed Lutheran Church. John Calvin Predestination.

39 Protestant Reformation
Anglican Church (Church of England) Formed for political reasons against Pope’s authority. Catholic Counter Reformation Council of Trent Inquisition.

40 Islamic World Berber States Mansa Musa – Mali Nomads
First to convert to Islam Mali. Mansa Musa – Mali Very Rich Muslim that traveled throughout Africa and Middle East.

41 Islamic World Songhai Islamic Achievements Delhi Sultanate
Askia Mohammed. Islamic Achievements Arabic Numerals Algebra/Trig Delhi Sultanate Introduced Islam to India.

42 Mongol Expansion Khanates Mongol Advances Golden Horde and Il”Khan
Genghis Khubilai Conquest of China “Yuan Dynasty” Mongol Advances Stirrups Advanced horse warfare Inclusion of conquered peoples Golden Horde and Il”Khan Conflict over religion.

43 Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires
Ottoman Empire Major leader – Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. Took over Constantinople Long decline ’s Safavid Empire Persia Shiite Muslims

44 Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires
India Hindu majority ruled by Muslim minority. All three “Gunpowder Empires”

45 Absolutism Absolute monarchies Rulers
Nation states emerge from feudal societies. Common languages develop. National identity. Strong, unlimited power of monarch. Rulers Louis XIV, Habsburg rulers, Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, Ivan the Terrible, etc.

46 Constitutionalism Monarchy with limited power.
Parliamentary governments. Formed Great Britain English Civil War Oliver Cromwell – Military dictator of England. Restoration William and Mary

47 Scientific Revolution
Accelerated pace of scientific discovery. Modern thinking on scientific reason and logic. Great thinkers of Scientific Revolution Sir Isaac Newton Galileo

48 Enlightenment Enlightenment Great Thinkers of the Enlightenment
Emphasis on scientific method. Faith in the power of human reason. Criticism of the Church to some extent. Great Thinkers of the Enlightenment Voltaire Rousseau Locke

49 Ming/Qing China Reaction to Mongol Dynasty Qing (Manchu) Dynasty
Used Mongol foundations to build empire. Naval forces Voyages of Zheng He Very artistic (Ming ware) Qing (Manchu) Dynasty Established by Manchu peoples. Full scale European trade begins in China. Last dynasty of China.

50 Japanese Shogunate Japanese feudalism
Daimyo Samurai Bushido Comparison of Japanese and European Feudalism = Japanese feudal system more centralized.

51 Japanese Shogunate Shogunates Kamakura and Ashikaga came first.
Most famous is Tokugawa Shogunate. Founded by Tokugawa Ieyasu. Dictatorship, highly centralized government. Confucian ideas. Closed ports to trade which caused economic collapse.

52 Exploration and Colonization
Economic motivation for exploration Trade routes to India. New Technologies Caravel Astrolabe Compass Rudder

53 Exploration and Colonization
Explorers Henry the Navigator Columbus Magellan Treaty of Tordesillias World divided by the Pope for exploration

54 Exploration and Colonization
Spanish and Portuguese colonization Conquistadors Cortez-Aztec Pizzaro-Inca North American Colonization French, English, Dutch, Spanish split North America. Tried to find “Northwest Passage.”

55 Slavery and the Slave Trade
Slavery existed before but Atlantic Slave Trade was new. Factors for the expansion of Slave Trade. Labor intensive crops (sugar, tobacco, cotton). Slaves better suited to climate of New World. Ending of Encomienda system. First controlled by Portuguese

56 Slavery and the Slave Trade
Middle Passage Trade route from Africa to New World that carried slaves. Small ships, many casualties from voyage. Triangular Trade Major route of World Ocean Trade Middle Passage was second leg.

57 Colonization of the New World
New Spain Viceroyalties Three types of conquest Microbial (diseases) Economic Cultural Mining and sugar production

58 Colonization of the New World
Social Stratification Peninsulares. Creoles, Mestizos. Portuguese in Brazil Major sugar cane plantations. Boom/Bust economy.

59 Columbian Exchange Exchange of Plants, Animals, Foods, and Diseases between the New World and the Old World. Horses, sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs from Old World. Provided food and labor. Squash, beans, sweet potatoes, peppers, peanuts, tomatoes. Increased areas to grow cotton, sugar cane, tobacco and cacao. Part of Massive Colonization Movement.

60 French Revolution Causes of the French Revolution.
Wide spread social and economic gap. Unfair taxes. Growing middle class. Influence of Enlightenment ideas. Poor leadership and massive financial debt.

61 French Revolution Three estates. Phases of the Revolution.
Third Estate forms National Assembly from the Estates-General. Sans-Culottes – Radical peasants in Paris. Phases of the Revolution. Moderate Period – limited power of church and land reforms. Radical Period – Executions, Jacobins. Conservative Period – Directory and rise of Napoleon.

62 Capitalism Adam Smith (New economic theory). Free Trade.
Laissez faire (Let it alone). Invisible Hand. Supply and Demand.

63 Industrialization Pre-conditions for Industrialization
Inventions – spinning jenny, water frame Increased reliance on coal. Industrial Revolution Textile Industry. Stream and Electricity. Effects on social classes. Middle class benefits. Poor working conditions.

64 Socialism, Marxism, and Communism
Economic competition is inherently unfair. Popular in France. Marxism More radical form of socialism. Proletariat, Bourgeoisie, Class struggle. Communism Same as Marxism.

65 Imperialism Causes Economic factors. Military factors.
Need for raw materials. Military factors. New weapons. Coal sources.

66 Imperialism Social factors. Cultural factors. Population growth.
Making fortunes. Cultural factors. Conquer “inferior’ people aka “White Man’s Burden.” Social Darwinism.

67 Imperialist’s World Great Britain America India China/SE Asia Hawaii
Pacific Ocean Caribbean

68 Imperialist’s World Scramble for Africa
Africa divided up between imperial powers. Berlin Conference Japan resists imperial take over by West.

69 Decline of Qing China Opium War Taiping Rebellion
Opium used to end trade deficit between China and GB. First Opium War Treaty of Nanking – 5 Chinese ports opened. GB gets Hong Kong as colony. Taiping Rebellion Civil War in China Thousands die.

70 Decline of Qing China Dowager Empress Cixi Boxer Rebellion
Conservative, oppressive, leader of Qing China. Controlled nephew on the throne. When he tried to reform China, she had him removed. Boxer Rebellion Rebellion against foreigners in China Not successful.

71 Meiji Restoration Japanese Modernization. Zaibatsu.
New constitution based on US. Parliament formed (Diet). Mostly an oligarchy. Zaibatsu. State sponsored businesses. Industry and private enterprise. Poor working conditions for the lower class. Increased urbanization. Beginnings of Japanese expansionism.

72 Japanese Expansionism
Sino-Japanese War Japan wants part of China trade. Takes over Korea and trading port. Used US Open Door Policy to justify actions. Russo-Japanese War Caused by competition over Manchuria. Surprise attack by Japanese on Russian positions. Japan wins. Begins to warn world of imperial leanings.

73 Revolutions in the Americas
American Revolution Ending colonial ties to Great Britain. Forms republic. Constitution. Haitian Revolution Slave revolt (only successful one in history). Toussaint L’Overture Latin American Independence Creole Rebellion. Simon Bolivar, Pedro Hidalgo, Morelos.

74 Latin American Rebuilding
Troubles in governing. Constitutions. Many dictatorships. Economic Issues. Boom/Bust economies. Social and Racial Divisions. Limited Modernizations & Industrialization. Mexico French intervention, Maximillian, Napoleon III Benito Juarez

75 World War One Causes Central Powers Competition between Empires
Secret alliances Tensions in the Balkans Assassination of the Archduke. Central Powers

76 World War One Warfare Treaty of Versailles: Wilson’s 14 Points
Trench warfare on Western Front Naval warfare and submarines Treaty of Versailles: Wilson’s 14 Points Great Britain & France wanted revenge. War Guilt Clause Loss of Territory Disarmament Reparations

77 Russian Revolution and Communism
1917 Lenin and Bolsheviks overthrow the Czar. After Lenin’s death, Stalin gains control Economic Reforms Year Plans Five Year Plans – Heavy industry Collectivization Political Oppression Little political freedoms Siberian Labor Camps

78 Rise of Fascism German Fascism Italian Fascism
Began as a lack of confidence in Weimar Republic Against Communist Party which was also strong. Anti-Semitic Italian Fascism Appealed to WWI veterans Extreme nationalism/racial prejudice Led by Mussolini March on Rome leads to control of country. Eventually allies with the Germans

79 Nazism Led by Adolph Hitler Outlawed all opposition
Charismatic leader Wrote “Mein Kampf” Last Chancellor of Weimar Republic Head of German Reichstag Passed Enabling Act, suspended Constitution. He ruled by decree. Outlawed all opposition Limited personal freedoms Began persecuting Jews and others.

80 World War Two Axis and allies Appeasement Policy New technology
Axis = Germany, Italy, and Japan Allies = US, Great Britain, France, USSR Appeasement Policy After a number of aggressive moves, Allies continue to back down. Japan continues expansion into China New technology Aircraft carriers/Bombers Radar Atomic weapons.

81 World War Two Blitzkrieg Germans took over all but Great Britain
lightning war used by Germans Germans took over all but Great Britain Battle of Britain Blitz Japanese aggression in Pacific Pearl Harbor

82 World War Two Turning Point 1942 D-Day Invasion – June 6, 1944
Losses by Axis Midway El Alamein Stalingrad D-Day Invasion – June 6, 1944 Atomic Bombs on Japan

83 Holocaust and War Crimes
Rape of Nanking Japanese troops storm city, raping and killing civilians. Comfort Women Women forced to serve as prostitutes for Japanese soldiers.

84 Holocaust and War Crimes
Systematic genocide of Jewish people and other ethnicities. Final Solution Concentration Camps Extermination camps Zyclon B Cremation Chambers Total dead: In excessive of 12 million people. 6 million were Jews.

85 Chinese Communism After Qing Dynasty, China ruled by Nationalist Party. Led by Sun Yat-Sen After Sun Yat-Sen dies, Chang Kai-Shek takes over Chinese Communist Party Led by Mao Zedong Lead revolution against nationalists. Early defeats lead to Long March Helped by Japanese Invasion Eventually Communists succeed and Nationalists flee to Taiwan.

86 Korean War First test of containment Policy
South Korea vs North Korea US supports South Korea China and Russia support North Korea MacArthur Brilliant General but arrogant Fired for not following orders War ended at original line of division – 38th Parallel.

87 Cold War Non-military aggression between Communist and Capitalist countries. Spread of Soviet influence and control Eastern Europe fall under Soviet control Soviets violate promises made at Yalta Conference. Berlin Blockage and division of Berlin.

88 Cold War US Containment Policy Arms Race Marshall Plan
Formation of NATO Arms Race Began after 1949 when Soviets demonstrated nuclear weapons. Nuclear aggression and build up between US and USSR – “MAD” Mutually Assured Destruction.

89 Cold War 1950-1960’s Nikita Khrushchev gains power in USSR Space Race
Soviets launch Sputnik in 1957 US frightened because USSR had first space rocket Cuban Revolution Fidel Castro makes Cuba a communist country Communist country 90 miles from US

90 Cold War 1950-1960’s U-2 spy plane shot down over USSR JFK
Bay of Pigs Invasion: Attempt by US to overthrow Castro Results in soviet nuclear weapons stationed in Cuba Attempt to destroy missiles could start a nuclear war with USSR Kennedy blockages Cuba and Soviets back down

91 Cold War 1960-1970’s US lands on the Moon
Wins space Race Split between Chinese Communists and Soviet Communists Mao disagrees with Soviet view of socialism. Borders between the two become more hostile

92 Cold War 1960-1970’s Vietnam War French Indo-China Ho Chi Minh
Vietnam was a colony of France but France too weak to control it. Ho Chi Minh Leader of Communist Party in North Vietnam US support French and enters the war to help south Vietnam Domino Theory French/US defeat

93 End of the Cold War D’etente – General relaxation of tensions between the super powers. 1980’s Soviets invade Afghanistan Oil supply threatened Damaged relations Olympic Games boycotted US in 1980 and USSR in 1984

94 End of the Cold War USSR begins to collapse internally
Mikhail Gorbachev leads USSR in 1985 Attempts reforms “Perestroika” (restructuring)=economic reforms Glasnost=“Openness” cultural liberation Berlin Wall and Iron Curtain comes down in 1989 1991 USSR collapses

95 Patterns of Decolonization
Wars fought to gain independence Education of native peoples led to easier decolonization Ethnic and religious differences cause major issues for new countries Exploitation of natural resources Sides taken in Cold War

96 Post War Middle East The regions’ importance as a supply of petroleum
Contradiction between a desire to modernize and Islamic traditions Destabilizing effect of Arab/Israeli Conflict

97 Establishment of Israel
Established as a state for displaced Jews from the Holocaust Britain controlled region of Palestine Gave region over to become the State of Israel Displaced millions of Palestinian Arabs to neighboring nations.

98 Major Trends of the 20th Century
Major population growth Rise in consumer society Social activism 1960’s peace protests Terrorism Arab/Israeli conflicts Changes in gender relations Rise of mass media TV, film, and radio as sources of info and entertainment

99 Post Cold War Conflicts
Gulf War Iraq invades Kuwait US-led coalition frees Kuwait Yugoslavian War Serbian aggression against Albanian and Bosnian minorities in Losovo Weapons of Mass Destruction Limiting production and testing of nuclear weapons. Proliferation of small arms Guns, semi-automatic and automatic

100 AP World History Good Luck! Don’t stress!

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