Presentation on theme: "AP World Review. Six Themes The impact of interaction among major societies, such as, trade, international exchange, war, and diplomacy. The relationship."— Presentation transcript:
AP World Review
Six Themes The impact of interaction among major societies, such as, trade, international exchange, war, and diplomacy. The relationship of change and continuity across the periods of World History. Impact of technology and demography on people and the environment, including population change, manufacturing, agriculture, etc. Systems of organization and gender structure. Cultural and intellectual development and interactions among societies. Change over time in function and structures of political states.
Building Blocks of Civilization What is a civilization? – Economic system – Political organization – Moral code (religion) – Written language and intellectual tradition.
Early Man Beginnings of Humans – Hominids: 3 to 4 million years on earth. – Hominids are primates. – Earliest hominids called Australopithecine. – Bipeds Other types of Early man include Homo Habilis, Homo Erectus, and Homo Sapien
Stone Age Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Age). – Tools were used. – Simple huts. – Fire. – Hunter/gatherer societies. – Family or clan groupings. – Art and music also practiced.
Stone Age (Cont) Agricultural Revolution: Neolithic Revolution – Occurred around the end of the Great Ice Age. – Rapid population growth. – Need for a change in food supply. – New skills needed. Pastoralism and agriculture – begins with domestication of plants and animals.
Results of the Agricultural Revolution Many diversified crops developed. Development of communities and villages. – Not based on family ties. – Lead to the formation of cities. Early religions form around harvest and planting seasons. Specialization of Labor. – Improved tools. – Development of social classes.
River Valley Civilizations Mesopotamia. – Tigris and Euphrates River valleys. – Fertile Crescent. – Written Language: Cuneiform. – Epic of Gilgamesh. – Hammurabis Code.
River Civilizations Egypt – Nile River valley: Upper and Lower Egypt – Inundation: regular flooding schedule – Monarchy: Pharaoh & small class of priests. – Duality: Complex religion and mummification. – Many great inventions and advances.
River Civilizations Indus Valley – Indus and Ganges Rivers – Reason for decline unknown. – Highly unified and organized government. – Artistic.
River Civilizations Yellow River valley. – Shang – Chinas first dynasty. – Monarchy – Bronze work, silk making, pottery, jade. – Zhou Dynasty: Many advances Mandate of Heaven.
Middle East Civilizations Persians – Created one of the largest empires in world history: From Turkey to Libya. – Cyrus the Great-first king, Darius the Great – Advanced postal system, roads, single currency, and decentralized government. – Zoroastrianism: Primary religion. – Fell to Alexander the Great.
Middle East Civilizations Phoenicians – Syria and Lebanon. – Advanced export economy. – Skilled traders. – Established Cathage. – First alphabet.
Ancient Greece Aegean, Minoan, Mycenaean Civilizations. – Trading societies. – Conquest (Trojan War) – Joined into a single culture called Hellenes or Greeks.
Ancient Greece Athens and Sparta – Athens: educated, great thinkers – Sparta: warrior society, military strength, self reliance. Beginnings of Democracy – Began in Athens – Pericles – Not fully enfranchised. – Most representative government in ancient world.
Ancient Greece Peloponnesian War – Conflict between Athens and Sparta. – Left Greek city-states weak. – Open to conquest by the Persians and then Macedonians (Alexander the Great). Alexander the Great – Great conqueror, took over Asia, Persian Empire, territory to borders of India. – Spread Greek culture throughout Eurasia.
Ancient Greece Hellenic Culture – Science was important, geometry, physics, mathematics, and astronomy. – Poetry (Homer), Drama (Sophocles/Euripides), Philosophy (Socrates, Plato)
Ancient Rome Roman Republic – Tensions between Plebeians (lower class) and Patricians (upper class). – Beginning of Roman expansion. – Punic Wars –Three campaigns against Carthage. –Rome was victorious. – Began expanding to the East (Greece, Balkans).
Ancient Rome Collapse of Roman Republic – Too much expansion. – Social problems and civil wars. – Unification of leadership under one person. Roman Empire – Julius Caesar, Octavian (Caesar Augustus)
Han Dynasty Strongest Chinese dynasty. Expansionist Empire – Postal system. – Roads. – Defensive fortifications (Great Wall). Weak leadership caused collapse – Corruption and leadership issues.
India Aryans – Nomadic group invaded India. – Earliest Europeans. – Conquered the Dravidians (Dark skinned Indians). – Established warrior aristocracy. – Established Sanskrit. – Vedic and early Hindu faith.
India Caste System Priests (Brahmins) Warriors and political rulers (Kshatruyas). Commoners. Servants and Peasants. The Untouchables. – Born into caste. Cannot be changed.
India Mauryan Empire – Ashoka – 1 st emperor. – Converted to Buddhism. – Collapsed from outside attacks. Gupta Empire – Religious tolerance. – Muslim invaders.
Religions Judaism – Hebrews – Monotheistic Main deity - Yahweh – Covenant Islam – Founded by Muhammad – Five Pillars of Faith. – Allah
Religions Buddhism – Four Noble Truths – Eightfold Path Daosim (Taoism) – The Way – Harmony with nature.
Caliphates Split in Islamic believers after the death of Muhammad. – Sunni and Shiite – Caliph – Leader of the Islamic faith. Umayyad Caliphate Abbasid Caliphate – Golden Age of Islamic Culture
Amerindian Civilizations Olmec – Mother civilization for Central America. Maya – Teotihuacan – Located in Mexico and Central America. – Religion included human sacrifice. – Ended by constant state of war.
Amerindian Civilizations Inca – Located along the Andes Mountains of Peru. – Specially adapted to high mountain altitudes. – Domesticated llamas. Aztec – Tribute System.
Forms of Government Oligarchy – Rule by a small group of elite families. Monarch – Leadership by one person passed through family. – Absolute and Constitutional Monarchy. Republic – Citizens all participate in government. Democracy – All citizens play the same role in government Theocracy – Ruled by church or priests (No separation)
Middle Ages Collapse of Roman Empire led to fragmented leadership in Europe and the rise of the Byzantine Empire – Emperor Justinian. – Constantinople. Feudalism – Manor System Self-sufficient. Serfdom
Middle Ages Great Schism – Catholic Church gains much power. – Split between Western Church and Byzantine Church. Monasticism – Monastery orders dedicated to the service of God. – Vows of Chastity and Poverty.
European Relationships One Hundred Years War – England and France Caused political entanglements. Frances attempt to regain English territory. Trade competition. Holy Roman Empire Spain and Portugal – Muslim invasion – Reconquesta
Crusades Causes – Religious fervor. – European desire for trade. – Personal Ambitions. First Crusade – Byzantine empire asked for help against Muslim Turks. – Christians capture Jerusalem.
Crusades More crusades - none successful. Effects of the Crusades – More awareness of the world as a whole. – Increased tensions between Muslims and Christians. – Increased trade.
Black Death Bubonic Plague – Traveled from Asia over Silk Road. – Carried by fleas on rats. – Killed 1/3 of European Population. – Caused society to modernize and gave more rights to the poor.
Renaissance Printing Press – Johannes Gutenberg Classicism – Greater understanding and appreciation of Greek and Roman culture. Important people – Da Vinci – Michelangelo – Titan
Protestant Reformation Failed attempts at Catholic Church reforms. Martin Luther – Protested indulgences. – Formed Lutheran Church. John Calvin – Predestination.
Protestant Reformation Anglican Church (Church of England) – Formed for political reasons against Popes authority. Catholic Counter Reformation – Council of Trent – Inquisition.
Islamic World Berber States – Nomads – First to convert to Islam Mali. Mansa Musa – Mali – Very Rich – Muslim that traveled throughout Africa and Middle East.
Islamic World Songhai – Askia Mohammed. Islamic Achievements – Arabic Numerals – Algebra/Trig Delhi Sultanate – Introduced Islam to India.
Mongol Expansion Khanates – Genghis – Khubilai Conquest of China Yuan Dynasty Mongol Advances – Stirrups – Advanced horse warfare – Inclusion of conquered peoples Golden Horde and IlKhan – Conflict over religion.
Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires Ottoman Empire – Major leader – Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. – Took over Constantinople – Long decline s Safavid Empire – Persia – Shiite Muslims
Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires Mughal Empire – India – Hindu majority ruled by Muslim minority. All three Gunpowder Empires
Absolutism Absolute monarchies – Nation states emerge from feudal societies. – Common languages develop. – National identity. – Strong, unlimited power of monarch. Rulers – Louis XIV, Habsburg rulers, Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, Ivan the Terrible, etc.
Constitutionalism Monarchy with limited power. – Parliamentary governments. Formed Great Britain English Civil War –Oliver Cromwell – Military dictator of England. – Restoration William and Mary
Scientific Revolution – Accelerated pace of scientific discovery. – Modern thinking on scientific reason and logic. Great thinkers of Scientific Revolution – Sir Isaac Newton – Galileo
Enlightenment – Emphasis on scientific method. – Faith in the power of human reason. – Criticism of the Church to some extent. Great Thinkers of the Enlightenment – Voltaire – Rousseau – Locke
Ming/Qing China Reaction to Mongol Dynasty – Used Mongol foundations to build empire. – Naval forces Voyages of Zheng He – Very artistic (Ming ware) Qing (Manchu) Dynasty – Established by Manchu peoples. – Full scale European trade begins in China. – Last dynasty of China.
Japanese Shogunate Japanese feudalism – Shogun – Daimyo – Samurai – Bushido Comparison of Japanese and European Feudalism = Japanese feudal system more centralized.
Japanese Shogunate Shogunates – Kamakura and Ashikaga came first. – Most famous is Tokugawa Shogunate. Founded by Tokugawa Ieyasu. Dictatorship, highly centralized government. Confucian ideas. Closed ports to trade which caused economic collapse.
Exploration and Colonization Economic motivation for exploration – Trade routes to India. New Technologies – Caravel – Astrolabe – Compass – Rudder
Exploration and Colonization Explorers – Henry the Navigator – Columbus – Magellan Treaty of Tordesillias – World divided by the Pope for exploration
Exploration and Colonization Spanish and Portuguese colonization – Conquistadors Cortez-Aztec Pizzaro-Inca North American Colonization – French, English, Dutch, Spanish split North America. – Tried to find Northwest Passage.
Slavery and the Slave Trade Slavery existed before but Atlantic Slave Trade was new. Factors for the expansion of Slave Trade. – Labor intensive crops (sugar, tobacco, cotton). – Slaves better suited to climate of New World. – Ending of Encomienda system. First controlled by Portuguese
Slavery and the Slave Trade Middle Passage – Trade route from Africa to New World that carried slaves. – Small ships, many casualties from voyage. Triangular Trade – Major route of World Ocean Trade – Middle Passage was second leg.
Colonization of the New World New Spain – Viceroyalties – Three types of conquest Microbial (diseases) Economic Cultural Mining and sugar production
Colonization of the New World Social Stratification – Peninsulares. Creoles, Mestizos. Portuguese in Brazil – Major sugar cane plantations. – Boom/Bust economy.
Columbian Exchange Exchange of Plants, Animals, Foods, and Diseases between the New World and the Old World. – Horses, sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs from Old World. Provided food and labor. – Squash, beans, sweet potatoes, peppers, peanuts, tomatoes. – Increased areas to grow cotton, sugar cane, tobacco and cacao. Part of Massive Colonization Movement.
French Revolution Causes of the French Revolution. – Wide spread social and economic gap. – Unfair taxes. – Growing middle class. – Influence of Enlightenment ideas. – Poor leadership and massive financial debt.
French Revolution Three estates. – Third Estate forms National Assembly from the Estates-General. – Sans-Culottes – Radical peasants in Paris. Phases of the Revolution. – Moderate Period – limited power of church and land reforms. – Radical Period – Executions, Jacobins. – Conservative Period – Directory and rise of Napoleon.
Capitalism Adam Smith (New economic theory). – Free Trade. – Laissez faire (Let it alone). – Invisible Hand. – Supply and Demand.
Industrialization Pre-conditions for Industrialization – Inventions – spinning jenny, water frame – Increased reliance on coal. Industrial Revolution – Textile Industry. – Stream and Electricity. – Effects on social classes. Middle class benefits. Poor working conditions.
Socialism, Marxism, and Communism Socialism – Economic competition is inherently unfair. – Popular in France. Marxism – More radical form of socialism. – Proletariat, Bourgeoisie, Class struggle. Communism – Same as Marxism.
Imperialism Causes – Economic factors. Need for raw materials. – Military factors. New weapons. Coal sources.
Imperialism – Social factors. Population growth. Making fortunes. – Cultural factors. Conquer inferior people aka White Mans Burden. Social Darwinism.
Imperialists World Great Britain – India – China/SE Asia America – Hawaii – Pacific Ocean – Caribbean
Imperialists World Scramble for Africa – Africa divided up between imperial powers. – Berlin Conference Japan resists imperial take over by West.
Decline of Qing China Opium War – Opium used to end trade deficit between China and GB. – First Opium War Treaty of Nanking – 5 Chinese ports opened. GB gets Hong Kong as colony. Taiping Rebellion – Civil War in China – Thousands die.
Decline of Qing China Dowager Empress Cixi – Conservative, oppressive, leader of Qing China. – Controlled nephew on the throne. When he tried to reform China, she had him removed. Boxer Rebellion – Rebellion against foreigners in China – Not successful.
Meiji Restoration Japanese Modernization. – New constitution based on US. – Parliament formed (Diet). – Mostly an oligarchy. Zaibatsu. – State sponsored businesses. – Industry and private enterprise. – Poor working conditions for the lower class. Increased urbanization. Beginnings of Japanese expansionism.
Japanese Expansionism Sino-Japanese War – Japan wants part of China trade. – Takes over Korea and trading port. – Used US Open Door Policy to justify actions. Russo-Japanese War – Caused by competition over Manchuria. – Surprise attack by Japanese on Russian positions. – Japan wins. Begins to warn world of imperial leanings.
Revolutions in the Americas American Revolution – Ending colonial ties to Great Britain. Forms republic. Constitution. Haitian Revolution – Slave revolt (only successful one in history). Toussaint LOverture Latin American Independence – Creole Rebellion. – Simon Bolivar, Pedro Hidalgo, Morelos.
Latin American Rebuilding Troubles in governing. – Constitutions. – Many dictatorships. Economic Issues. – Boom/Bust economies. Social and Racial Divisions. Limited Modernizations & Industrialization. Mexico – French intervention, Maximillian, Napoleon III – Benito Juarez
World War One Causes – Competition between Empires – Secret alliances – Tensions in the Balkans – Assassination of the Archduke. Central Powers
World War One Warfare – Trench warfare on Western Front – Naval warfare and submarines Treaty of Versailles: Wilsons 14 Points – Great Britain & France wanted revenge. War Guilt Clause Loss of Territory Disarmament Reparations
Russian Revolution and Communism Russian Revolution – 1917 Lenin and Bolsheviks overthrow the Czar. – After Lenins death, Stalin gains control Economic Reforms – Year Plans Five Year Plans – Heavy industry Collectivization Political Oppression – Little political freedoms – Siberian Labor Camps
Rise of Fascism German Fascism – Began as a lack of confidence in Weimar Republic – Against Communist Party which was also strong. – Anti-Semitic Italian Fascism – Appealed to WWI veterans – Extreme nationalism/racial prejudice – Led by Mussolini March on Rome leads to control of country. Eventually allies with the Germans
Nazism Led by Adolph Hitler – Charismatic leader – Wrote Mein Kampf – Last Chancellor of Weimar Republic – Head of German Reichstag – Passed Enabling Act, suspended Constitution. He ruled by decree. Outlawed all opposition Limited personal freedoms Began persecuting Jews and others.
World War Two Axis and allies – Axis = Germany, Italy, and Japan – Allies = US, Great Britain, France, USSR Appeasement Policy – After a number of aggressive moves, Allies continue to back down. – Japan continues expansion into China New technology – Aircraft carriers/Bombers – Radar – Atomic weapons.
World War Two Blitzkrieg – lightning war used by Germans Germans took over all but Great Britain – Battle of Britain Blitz Japanese aggression in Pacific – Pearl Harbor
World War Two Turning Point 1942 – Losses by Axis Midway El Alamein Stalingrad D-Day Invasion – June 6, 1944 Atomic Bombs on Japan
Holocaust and War Crimes Rape of Nanking – Japanese troops storm city, raping and killing civilians. Comfort Women – Women forced to serve as prostitutes for Japanese soldiers.
Holocaust and War Crimes Holocaust – Systematic genocide of Jewish people and other ethnicities. – Final Solution – Concentration Camps Extermination camps Zyclon B Cremation Chambers Total dead: In excessive of 12 million people. 6 million were Jews.
Chinese Communism After Qing Dynasty, China ruled by Nationalist Party. – Led by Sun Yat-Sen – After Sun Yat-Sen dies, Chang Kai-Shek takes over Chinese Communist Party – Led by Mao Zedong – Lead revolution against nationalists. – Early defeats lead to Long March – Helped by Japanese Invasion – Eventually Communists succeed and Nationalists flee to Taiwan.
Korean War First test of containment Policy – South Korea vs North Korea – US supports South Korea – China and Russia support North Korea – MacArthur Brilliant General but arrogant Fired for not following orders War ended at original line of division – 38 th Parallel.
Cold War Non-military aggression between Communist and Capitalist countries. Spread of Soviet influence and control – Eastern Europe fall under Soviet control – Soviets violate promises made at Yalta Conference. – Berlin Blockage and division of Berlin.
Cold War US Containment Policy – Marshall Plan – Formation of NATO Arms Race – Began after 1949 when Soviets demonstrated nuclear weapons. – Nuclear aggression and build up between US and USSR – MAD Mutually Assured Destruction.
Cold War s Nikita Khrushchev gains power in USSR Space Race – Soviets launch Sputnik in 1957 US frightened because USSR had first space rocket Cuban Revolution – Fidel Castro makes Cuba a communist country – Communist country 90 miles from US
Cold War s U-2 spy plane shot down over USSR JFK – Bay of Pigs Invasion: Attempt by US to overthrow Castro – Results in soviet nuclear weapons stationed in Cuba Attempt to destroy missiles could start a nuclear war with USSR Kennedy blockages Cuba and Soviets back down
Cold War s US lands on the Moon – Wins space Race Split between Chinese Communists and Soviet Communists – Mao disagrees with Soviet view of socialism. – Borders between the two become more hostile
Cold War s Vietnam War – French Indo-China Vietnam was a colony of France but France too weak to control it. – Ho Chi Minh Leader of Communist Party in North Vietnam – US support French and enters the war to help south Vietnam – Domino Theory – French/US defeat
End of the Cold War Detente – General relaxation of tensions between the super powers. 1980s – Soviets invade Afghanistan Oil supply threatened Damaged relations – Olympic Games boycotted US in 1980 and USSR in 1984
End of the Cold War USSR begins to collapse internally – Mikhail Gorbachev leads USSR in 1985 Attempts reforms Perestroika (restructuring)=economic reforms Glasnost=Openness cultural liberation Berlin Wall and Iron Curtain comes down in USSR collapses
Patterns of Decolonization Wars fought to gain independence Education of native peoples led to easier decolonization Ethnic and religious differences cause major issues for new countries Exploitation of natural resources Sides taken in Cold War
Post War Middle East The regions importance as a supply of petroleum Contradiction between a desire to modernize and Islamic traditions Destabilizing effect of Arab/Israeli Conflict
Establishment of Israel Established as a state for displaced Jews from the Holocaust Britain controlled region of Palestine Gave region over to become the State of Israel Displaced millions of Palestinian Arabs to neighboring nations.
Major Trends of the 20 th Century Major population growth Rise in consumer society Social activism – 1960s peace protests Terrorism – Arab/Israeli conflicts Changes in gender relations Rise of mass media – TV, film, and radio as sources of info and entertainment
Post Cold War Conflicts Gulf War – Iraq invades Kuwait US-led coalition frees Kuwait Yugoslavian War – Serbian aggression against Albanian and Bosnian minorities in Losovo Weapons of Mass Destruction – Limiting production and testing of nuclear weapons. Proliferation of small arms – Guns, semi-automatic and automatic