2Six ThemesThe impact of interaction among major societies, such as, trade, international exchange, war, and diplomacy.The relationship of change and continuity across the periods of World History.Impact of technology and demography on people and the environment, including population change, manufacturing, agriculture, etc.Systems of organization and gender structure.Cultural and intellectual development and interactions among societies.Change over time in function and structures of political states.
3Building Blocks of Civilization What is a civilization?Economic systemPolitical organizationMoral code (religion)Written language and intellectual tradition.
4Early Man Beginnings of Humans Hominids: 3 to 4 million years on earth.Hominids are primates.Earliest hominids called Australopithecine.BipedsOther types of Early man include Homo Habilis, Homo Erectus, and Homo Sapien
5Stone Age Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Age). Tools were used. Simple huts.Fire.Hunter/gatherer societies.Family or clan groupings.Art and music also practiced.
6Stone Age (Con’t) Agricultural Revolution: Neolithic Revolution Occurred around the end of the Great Ice Age.Rapid population growth.Need for a change in food supply.New skills needed.Pastoralism and agriculturebegins with domestication of plants and animals.
7Results of the Agricultural Revolution Many diversified crops developed.Development of communities and villages.Not based on family ties.Lead to the formation of cities.Early religions form around harvest and planting seasons.Specialization of Labor.Improved tools.Development of social classes.
8River Valley Civilizations Mesopotamia.Tigris and Euphrates River valleys.Fertile Crescent.Written Language: Cuneiform.Epic of Gilgamesh.Hammurabi’s Code.
9River Civilizations Egypt Nile River valley: Upper and Lower Egypt Inundation: regular flooding scheduleMonarchy: Pharaoh & small class of priests.Duality: Complex religion and mummification.Many great inventions and advances.
10River Civilizations Indus Valley Indus and Ganges Rivers Reason for decline unknown.Highly unified and organized government.Artistic.
11River Civilizations Yellow River valley. Shang – China’s first dynasty.MonarchyBronze work, silk making, pottery, jade.Zhou Dynasty: Many advancesMandate of Heaven.
12Middle East Civilizations PersiansCreated one of the largest empires in world history: From Turkey to Libya.Cyrus the Great-first king, Darius the GreatAdvanced postal system, roads, single currency, and decentralized government.Zoroastrianism: Primary religion.Fell to Alexander the Great.
13Middle East Civilizations PhoeniciansSyria and Lebanon.Advanced export economy.Skilled traders.Established Cathage.First alphabet.
14Ancient Greece Aegean, Minoan, Mycenaean Civilizations. Trading societies.Conquest (Trojan War)Joined into a single culture called Hellenes or Greeks.
15Ancient Greece Athens and Sparta Beginnings of Democracy Athens: educated, great thinkersSparta: warrior society, military strength, self reliance.Beginnings of DemocracyBegan in AthensPericlesNot fully enfranchised.Most representative government in ancient world.
16Ancient Greece Peloponnesian War Alexander the Great Conflict between Athens and Sparta.Left Greek city-states weak.Open to conquest by the Persians and then Macedonians (Alexander the Great).Alexander the GreatGreat conqueror, took over Asia, Persian Empire, territory to borders of India.Spread Greek culture throughout Eurasia.
17Ancient Greece Hellenic Culture Science was important, geometry, physics, mathematics, and astronomy.Poetry (Homer), Drama (Sophocles/Euripides), Philosophy (Socrates, Plato)
18Ancient Rome Roman Republic Tensions between Plebeians (lower class) and Patricians (upper class).Beginning of Roman expansion.Punic WarsThree campaigns against Carthage.Rome was victorious.Began expanding to the East (Greece, Balkans).
19Ancient Rome Collapse of Roman Republic Roman Empire Too much expansion.Social problems and civil wars.Unification of leadership under one person.Roman EmpireJulius Caesar, Octavian (Caesar Augustus)
20Han Dynasty Strongest Chinese dynasty. Expansionist Empire Postal system.Roads.Defensive fortifications (Great Wall).Weak leadership caused collapseCorruption and leadership issues.
21India Aryans Nomadic group invaded India. Earliest Europeans. Conquered the Dravidians (Dark skinned Indians).Established warrior aristocracy.Established Sanskrit.Vedic and early Hindu faith.
22India Caste System Born into caste. Cannot be changed. Priests (Brahmins)Warriors and political rulers (Kshatruyas).Commoners.Servants and Peasants.The “Untouchables.”Born into caste. Cannot be changed.
23India Mauryan Empire Gupta Empire Ashoka – 1st emperor. Converted to Buddhism.Collapsed from outside attacks.Gupta EmpireReligious tolerance.Muslim invaders.
24Religions Judaism Islam Hebrews Monotheistic Covenant Main deity - YahwehCovenantIslamFounded by MuhammadFive Pillars of Faith.Allah
26Religions Buddhism Daosim (Taoism) Four Noble Truths Eightfold Path The WayHarmony with nature.
27Caliphates Split in Islamic believers after the death of Muhammad. Sunni and Shiite“Caliph” – Leader of the Islamic faith.Umayyad CaliphateAbbasid CaliphateGolden Age of Islamic Culture
28Amerindian Civilizations OlmecMother civilization for Central America.MayaTeotihuacanLocated in Mexico and Central America.Religion included human sacrifice.Ended by constant state of war.
29Amerindian Civilizations IncaLocated along the Andes Mountains of Peru.Specially adapted to high mountain altitudes.Domesticated llamas.AztecTribute System.
30Forms of Government Oligarchy Monarch Republic Democracy Theocracy Rule by a small group of elite families.MonarchLeadership by one person passed through family.Absolute and Constitutional Monarchy.RepublicCitizens all participate in government.DemocracyAll citizens play the same role in governmentTheocracyRuled by church or priests (No separation)
31Middle AgesCollapse of Roman Empire led to fragmented leadership in Europe and the rise of the Byzantine EmpireEmperor Justinian.Constantinople.FeudalismManor SystemSelf-sufficient.Serfdom
32Middle Ages Great Schism Monasticism Catholic Church gains much power. Split between “Western” Church and Byzantine Church.MonasticismMonastery orders dedicated to the service of God.Vows of Chastity and Poverty.
33European Relationships One Hundred Years’ WarEngland and FranceCaused political entanglements.France’s attempt to regain English territory.Trade competition.Holy Roman EmpireSpain and PortugalMuslim invasionReconquesta
34Crusades Causes First Crusade Religious fervor. European desire for trade.Personal Ambitions.First CrusadeByzantine empire asked for help against Muslim Turks.Christians capture Jerusalem.
35Crusades More crusades - none successful. Effects of the Crusades More awareness of the world as a whole.Increased tensions between Muslims and Christians.Increased trade.
36Black Death Bubonic Plague Traveled from Asia over Silk Road. Carried by fleas on rats.Killed 1/3 of European Population.Caused society to modernize and gave more rights to the poor.
37Renaissance Printing Press Classicism Important people Johannes GutenbergClassicismGreater understanding and appreciation of Greek and Roman culture.Important peopleDa VinciMichelangeloTitan
38Protestant Reformation Failed attempts at Catholic Church reforms.Martin LutherProtested indulgences.Formed Lutheran Church.John CalvinPredestination.
39Protestant Reformation Anglican Church (Church of England)Formed for political reasons against Pope’s authority.Catholic Counter ReformationCouncil of TrentInquisition.
40Islamic World Berber States Mansa Musa – Mali Nomads First to convert to Islam Mali.Mansa Musa – MaliVery RichMuslim that traveled throughout Africa and Middle East.
41Islamic World Songhai Islamic Achievements Delhi Sultanate Askia Mohammed.Islamic AchievementsArabic NumeralsAlgebra/TrigDelhi SultanateIntroduced Islam to India.
42Mongol Expansion Khanates Mongol Advances Golden Horde and Il”Khan GenghisKhubilaiConquest of China “Yuan Dynasty”Mongol AdvancesStirrupsAdvanced horse warfareInclusion of conquered peoplesGolden Horde and Il”KhanConflict over religion.
43Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires Ottoman EmpireMajor leader – Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.Took over ConstantinopleLong decline ’sSafavid EmpirePersiaShiite Muslims
44Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires IndiaHindu majority ruled by Muslim minority.All three “Gunpowder Empires”
45Absolutism Absolute monarchies Rulers Nation states emerge from feudal societies.Common languages develop.National identity.Strong, unlimited power of monarch.RulersLouis XIV, Habsburg rulers, Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, Ivan the Terrible, etc.
46Constitutionalism Monarchy with limited power. Parliamentary governments.Formed Great BritainEnglish Civil WarOliver Cromwell – Military dictator of England.RestorationWilliam and Mary
47Scientific Revolution Accelerated pace of scientific discovery.Modern thinking on scientific reason and logic.Great thinkers of Scientific RevolutionSir Isaac NewtonGalileo
48Enlightenment Enlightenment Great Thinkers of the Enlightenment Emphasis on scientific method.Faith in the power of human reason.Criticism of the Church to some extent.Great Thinkers of the EnlightenmentVoltaireRousseauLocke
49Ming/Qing China Reaction to Mongol Dynasty Qing (Manchu) Dynasty Used Mongol foundations to build empire.Naval forcesVoyages of Zheng HeVery artistic (Ming ware)Qing (Manchu) DynastyEstablished by Manchu peoples.Full scale European trade begins in China.Last dynasty of China.
50Japanese Shogunate Japanese feudalism DaimyoSamuraiBushidoComparison of Japanese and European Feudalism = Japanese feudal system more centralized.
51Japanese Shogunate Shogunates Kamakura and Ashikaga came first. Most famous is Tokugawa Shogunate.Founded by Tokugawa Ieyasu.Dictatorship, highly centralized government.Confucian ideas.Closed ports to trade which caused economic collapse.
52Exploration and Colonization Economic motivation for explorationTrade routes to India.New TechnologiesCaravelAstrolabeCompassRudder
53Exploration and Colonization ExplorersHenry the NavigatorColumbusMagellanTreaty of TordesilliasWorld divided by the Pope for exploration
54Exploration and Colonization Spanish and Portuguese colonizationConquistadorsCortez-AztecPizzaro-IncaNorth American ColonizationFrench, English, Dutch, Spanish split North America.Tried to find “Northwest Passage.”
55Slavery and the Slave Trade Slavery existed before but Atlantic Slave Trade was new.Factors for the expansion of Slave Trade.Labor intensive crops (sugar, tobacco, cotton).Slaves better suited to climate of New World.Ending of Encomienda system.First controlled by Portuguese
56Slavery and the Slave Trade Middle PassageTrade route from Africa to New World that carried slaves.Small ships, many casualties from voyage.Triangular TradeMajor route of World Ocean TradeMiddle Passage was second leg.
57Colonization of the New World New SpainViceroyaltiesThree types of conquestMicrobial (diseases)EconomicCulturalMining and sugar production
58Colonization of the New World Social StratificationPeninsulares. Creoles, Mestizos.Portuguese in BrazilMajor sugar cane plantations.Boom/Bust economy.
59Columbian ExchangeExchange of Plants, Animals, Foods, and Diseases between the New World and the Old World.Horses, sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs from Old World.Provided food and labor.Squash, beans, sweet potatoes, peppers, peanuts, tomatoes.Increased areas to grow cotton, sugar cane, tobacco and cacao.Part of Massive Colonization Movement.
60French Revolution Causes of the French Revolution. Wide spread social and economic gap.Unfair taxes.Growing middle class.Influence of Enlightenment ideas.Poor leadership and massive financial debt.
61French Revolution Three estates. Phases of the Revolution. Third Estate forms National Assembly from the Estates-General.Sans-Culottes – Radical peasants in Paris.Phases of the Revolution.Moderate Period – limited power of church and land reforms.Radical Period – Executions, Jacobins.Conservative Period – Directory and rise of Napoleon.
62Capitalism Adam Smith (New economic theory). Free Trade. Laissez faire (Let it alone).Invisible Hand.Supply and Demand.
63Industrialization Pre-conditions for Industrialization Inventions – spinning jenny, water frameIncreased reliance on coal.Industrial RevolutionTextile Industry.Stream and Electricity.Effects on social classes.Middle class benefits.Poor working conditions.
64Socialism, Marxism, and Communism Economic competition is inherently unfair.Popular in France.MarxismMore radical form of socialism.Proletariat, Bourgeoisie, Class struggle.CommunismSame as Marxism.
65Imperialism Causes Economic factors. Military factors. Need for raw materials.Military factors.New weapons.Coal sources.
66Imperialism Social factors. Cultural factors. Population growth. Making fortunes.Cultural factors.Conquer “inferior’ people aka “White Man’s Burden.”Social Darwinism.
67Imperialist’s World Great Britain America India China/SE Asia Hawaii Pacific OceanCaribbean
68Imperialist’s World Scramble for Africa Africa divided up between imperial powers.Berlin ConferenceJapan resists imperial take over by West.
69Decline of Qing China Opium War Taiping Rebellion Opium used to end trade deficit between China and GB.First Opium WarTreaty of Nanking – 5 Chinese ports opened. GB gets Hong Kong as colony.Taiping RebellionCivil War in ChinaThousands die.
70Decline of Qing China Dowager Empress Cixi Boxer Rebellion Conservative, oppressive, leader of Qing China.Controlled nephew on the throne. When he tried to reform China, she had him removed.Boxer RebellionRebellion against foreigners in ChinaNot successful.
71Meiji Restoration Japanese Modernization. Zaibatsu. New constitution based on US.Parliament formed (Diet).Mostly an oligarchy.Zaibatsu.State sponsored businesses.Industry and private enterprise.Poor working conditions for the lower class.Increased urbanization.Beginnings of Japanese expansionism.
72Japanese Expansionism Sino-Japanese WarJapan wants part of China trade.Takes over Korea and trading port.Used US Open Door Policy to justify actions.Russo-Japanese WarCaused by competition over Manchuria.Surprise attack by Japanese on Russian positions.Japan wins.Begins to warn world of imperial leanings.
73Revolutions in the Americas American RevolutionEnding colonial ties to Great Britain.Forms republic.Constitution.Haitian RevolutionSlave revolt (only successful one in history).Toussaint L’OvertureLatin American IndependenceCreole Rebellion.Simon Bolivar, Pedro Hidalgo, Morelos.
74Latin American Rebuilding Troubles in governing.Constitutions.Many dictatorships.Economic Issues.Boom/Bust economies.Social and Racial Divisions.Limited Modernizations & Industrialization.MexicoFrench intervention, Maximillian, Napoleon IIIBenito Juarez
75World War One Causes Central Powers Competition between Empires Secret alliancesTensions in the BalkansAssassination of the Archduke.Central Powers
76World War One Warfare Treaty of Versailles: Wilson’s 14 Points Trench warfare on Western FrontNaval warfare and submarinesTreaty of Versailles: Wilson’s 14 PointsGreat Britain & France wanted revenge.War Guilt ClauseLoss of TerritoryDisarmamentReparations
77Russian Revolution and Communism 1917 Lenin and Bolsheviks overthrow the Czar.After Lenin’s death, Stalin gains controlEconomic ReformsYear PlansFive Year Plans – Heavy industryCollectivizationPolitical OppressionLittle political freedomsSiberian Labor Camps
78Rise of Fascism German Fascism Italian Fascism Began as a lack of confidence in Weimar RepublicAgainst Communist Party which was also strong.Anti-SemiticItalian FascismAppealed to WWI veteransExtreme nationalism/racial prejudiceLed by MussoliniMarch on Rome leads to control of country.Eventually allies with the Germans
79Nazism Led by Adolph Hitler Outlawed all opposition Charismatic leaderWrote “Mein Kampf”Last Chancellor of Weimar RepublicHead of German ReichstagPassed Enabling Act, suspended Constitution. He ruled by decree.Outlawed all oppositionLimited personal freedomsBegan persecuting Jews and others.
80World War Two Axis and allies Appeasement Policy New technology Axis = Germany, Italy, and JapanAllies = US, Great Britain, France, USSRAppeasement PolicyAfter a number of aggressive moves, Allies continue to back down.Japan continues expansion into ChinaNew technologyAircraft carriers/BombersRadarAtomic weapons.
81World War Two Blitzkrieg Germans took over all but Great Britain lightning war used by GermansGermans took over all but Great BritainBattle of BritainBlitzJapanese aggression in PacificPearl Harbor
82World War Two Turning Point 1942 D-Day Invasion – June 6, 1944 Losses by AxisMidwayEl AlameinStalingradD-Day Invasion – June 6, 1944Atomic Bombs on Japan
83Holocaust and War Crimes Rape of NankingJapanese troops storm city, raping and killing civilians.Comfort WomenWomen forced to serve as prostitutes for Japanese soldiers.
84Holocaust and War Crimes Systematic genocide of Jewish people and other ethnicities.Final SolutionConcentration CampsExtermination campsZyclon BCremation ChambersTotal dead: In excessive of 12 million people. 6 million were Jews.
85Chinese CommunismAfter Qing Dynasty, China ruled by Nationalist Party.Led by Sun Yat-SenAfter Sun Yat-Sen dies, Chang Kai-Shek takes overChinese Communist PartyLed by Mao ZedongLead revolution against nationalists.Early defeats lead to Long MarchHelped by Japanese InvasionEventually Communists succeed and Nationalists flee to Taiwan.
86Korean War First test of containment Policy South Korea vs North KoreaUS supports South KoreaChina and Russia support North KoreaMacArthurBrilliant General but arrogantFired for not following ordersWar ended at original line of division – 38th Parallel.
87Cold WarNon-military aggression between Communist and Capitalist countries.Spread of Soviet influence and controlEastern Europe fall under Soviet controlSoviets violate promises made at Yalta Conference.Berlin Blockage and division of Berlin.
88Cold War US Containment Policy Arms Race Marshall Plan Formation of NATOArms RaceBegan after 1949 when Soviets demonstrated nuclear weapons.Nuclear aggression and build up between US and USSR – “MAD” Mutually Assured Destruction.
89Cold War 1950-1960’s Nikita Khrushchev gains power in USSR Space Race Soviets launch Sputnik in 1957US frightened because USSR had first space rocketCuban RevolutionFidel Castro makes Cuba a communist countryCommunist country 90 miles from US
90Cold War 1950-1960’s U-2 spy plane shot down over USSR JFK Bay of Pigs Invasion: Attempt by US to overthrow CastroResults in soviet nuclear weapons stationed in CubaAttempt to destroy missiles could start a nuclear war with USSRKennedy blockages Cuba and Soviets back down
91Cold War 1960-1970’s US lands on the Moon Wins space RaceSplit between Chinese Communists and Soviet CommunistsMao disagrees with Soviet view of socialism.Borders between the two become more hostile
92Cold War 1960-1970’s Vietnam War French Indo-China Ho Chi Minh Vietnam was a colony of France but France too weak to control it.Ho Chi MinhLeader of Communist Party in North VietnamUS support French and enters the war to help south VietnamDomino TheoryFrench/US defeat
93End of the Cold WarD’etente – General relaxation of tensions between the super powers.1980’sSoviets invade AfghanistanOil supply threatenedDamaged relationsOlympic Games boycottedUS in 1980 and USSR in 1984
94End of the Cold War USSR begins to collapse internally Mikhail Gorbachev leads USSR in 1985Attempts reforms “Perestroika” (restructuring)=economic reformsGlasnost=“Openness” cultural liberationBerlin Wall and Iron Curtain comes down in 19891991 USSR collapses
95Patterns of Decolonization Wars fought to gain independenceEducation of native peoples led to easier decolonizationEthnic and religious differences cause major issues for new countriesExploitation of natural resourcesSides taken in Cold War
96Post War Middle East The regions’ importance as a supply of petroleum Contradiction between a desire to modernize and Islamic traditionsDestabilizing effect of Arab/Israeli Conflict
97Establishment of Israel Established as a state for displaced Jews from the HolocaustBritain controlled region of PalestineGave region over to become the State of IsraelDisplaced millions of Palestinian Arabs to neighboring nations.
98Major Trends of the 20th Century Major population growthRise in consumer societySocial activism1960’s peace protestsTerrorismArab/Israeli conflictsChanges in gender relationsRise of mass mediaTV, film, and radio as sources of info and entertainment
99Post Cold War Conflicts Gulf WarIraq invades KuwaitUS-led coalition frees KuwaitYugoslavian WarSerbian aggression against Albanian and Bosnian minorities in LosovoWeapons of Mass DestructionLimiting production and testing of nuclear weapons.Proliferation of small armsGuns, semi-automatic and automatic