Nikita Khrushchev 1956 secret 20th Congress of Communist Party (leads to ea. Eur. relax) cultural thaw/ Poland, Hungary some consumer goods production Sputnik peaceful coexistence K tours U.S.; schedules Paris Summit for 1960
Paris Summit foiled by U-2 spy plane Berlin Wall/Pigs 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis Nuclear Test Ban Treaty - hot line Hardliners feel K. has lost his effectiveness… British film – 1964 – dark comedy by Stanley Kubrick
Leonid Brezhnev Repression; KGB strengthened Prague Spring Crushed ---- Brezhnev Doctrine Supports US antagonists; eg: Vietnam SALT I; freezes certain weapons programs Grain sales from US to SU
DÉTENTE Helsinki agreements European countries recognize the existing borders of European nations, the principle of national sovereignty, and non- interference in internal affairs, and commitment to human rights Soviet invasion of Afghanistan Brezhnev dies Andropov/ Chernenko
Change comes to Soviet Union 1985 Gorbachev faces problems: –lack of economic growth –decline in consumer goods; long lines –absenteeism at work; alcoholism –loss in Afghanistan –inability to continue arms race – dissident opposition – nationalism in republics
Gorbachev Reforms economic perestroikaeconomic perestroika – (but not fast enough for many; eg: Yeltsin) –reduces role of state corporations –encourages foreign investment –allows transition to market economy –trips to US
PoliticalperestroikaPolitical perestroika –Appointment of some liberals – dissidents & non-communists can be elected to Congress of Peoples Deputies –1989 renounces Brezhnev Doctrine- –Impact on eastern Soviet bloc Foreign minister Shevardnadze encourages renunciation of Brezhnev Doctrine
end to restrictions on religion –Lithuania declares independence from SU Gorb. unable to stem the tide… 1990 – Nobel Peace Prize
Yeltsin – leader of Russian Republic
Russia -Boris Yeltsin steers a different course for Russia - wants more rapid change calls for Gorbachevs resignation Yeltsin president of Russia But - hard-liners attempted coup ag Gorb (fails) –Yeltsin supports Gorbs return Yeltsin suspends communist party in Russia Dec Gorbachev resigns - end of the Soviet union...
Meanwhile in the satellites... Soviet The end of Soviet dominance & the fall of communism
Poland - 10 years Hungary - 10 months E. Germany - 10 weeks Czechoslovakia - 10 days Rumania - 10 hours Background: Regime change…
Poland 1956 – revolt Golmulka (56-70)- new communist leader –but halted collectivization of agriculture –established trade with west –acceptable to Moscow; stayed in Warsaw Pact Gierek (70-80) –greater freedom - Solidarity grows –1980 ….
Aug Lenin shipyard strike at Gdansk (Danzig) –Lech Walesa – –spokesperson for Solidarity trade union - strikes –Govt grants concessions USSR presses Polish govt to suppress revolt –General Jaruzelski…
Jaruzelski imposes martial law: –(2007 – facing charges) –strikes crushed; Solidarity suspended Solidarity declared illegal 1983 – Nobel Peace Prize - Walesa by 88 changes in SU cause increasing discontent in Poland J. repeals martial law; Solidarity legal 89 elections - Solidarity wins BIG
–When Walesa & others were arrested under Jaruzelskis martial law, Walesa had said: –At this moment, you lost. We are arrested, but you have driven a nail into your communist coffin... You'll come back to us on your knees. The success of non-violent civil disobedience President of Polish Republic
Hungary Uprising in Budapest Imre Nagy headed new communist govt. –greater independence for Hungary –Soviet troops to withdraw –withdrawal from Warsaw Pact Soviet invasion –Nagy deposed; later executed –Janos Kadar new premier
More open and more market econ. development than most E. Euro support for political pluralism 1989 Janos Kadar out communist party socialist party Hungarian Democratic Forum initiates reform - free elections
East Germany Communist Government established –industries dismantled by Soviets Erich Honecker becomes premier (had been in charge of building the Berlin Wall in 61) –no reforms even while Gorbachev was making changes in SU –growing # of dissidents
demonstrations -Gorbachev declines to back communists Honecker resigns (Oct 89); Krenz replaces – promises reforms Russian foreign minister Shevardnadze - each country has right to absolute freedom of choice East Germans interpret free to leave (unintentional)…...
November 89 - order for the Berlin Wall to be torn down communist party changed name to socialist fall of Krenz govt March free elections - unification supporters October 3, reunification of Germany
1989 The Velvet Revolution Dec - Dubcek - chairman of parliament & Havel - President Jan 1, Czech Rep Slovakia Vaclav Havel – poet/playwright leads Civic Forum party which forces Husak to resign (68)
Romania Most repressive and isolated Ceausescu - cult of personality; nepotism C. attempted distance from Moscow during Gorby changes harsh persecutions/ economic disasters Dec 15, security forces open fire on demonstrators in Hungarian region of Romania Dec 24, 1989…
C & wife captured as try to flee tried & shot free elections May
Yugoslavia Marshall Josef Broz Tito communist dictator suppression of ethnic conflict 1980s - Serbs dominated govt Rising Nationalism…
- Slobodan Milosovic - repression of Albanian nationalism in Kosovo - Serb occupation withdrawal of republics: Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia, Bosnia... Civil wars as Yugo govt attempts to prevent… Slovenia, Croatia...
Civil War in Bosnia Yugoslav Serbs attempt to militarily halt division of Yugoslavia Bosnia: –1/3 Croat, Muslim, Serb ; Serbs refuse to accept independence from Yugo –Radovan Karadzic - Bosnian Serb leader –ethnic cleansing…
Dayton Peace Accords Dayton Peace Accords - –division within single state: Bosnian- Croat federation & Serb republic
Challenges in former USSR & Satellites ….. lack of democratic traditions –no other political parties –emergence of nationalist rt. wing parties –restyled communists ----socialists economic turmoil –Transition to market economy: corruption, organized crime, homelessness, food shortages ethnic rivalries –Bosnia, Georgia, Chechnya, Kosovo, Azerbaijan, Armenia
Discontent of Ethnic Minorities Kosovo – war with Yugoslavia Most population Albanian NATO attack on Yugoslavia – 1999; protected status 2008 – declared complete independence as a sovereign state Milosevic – war crimes trial