Nikita Khrushchev 1956 secret speech @ 20th Congress of Communist Party (leads to ea. Eur. relax) cultural thaw/ Poland, Hungary some consumer goods production 1957 - Sputnik 1958 - peaceful coexistence 1959 - K tours U.S.; schedules Paris Summit for 1960
1960 - Paris Summit foiled by U-2 spy plane 1961 - Berlin Wall/Pigs 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis 1963 - Nuclear Test Ban Treaty - hot line Hardliners feel K. has lost his effectiveness… British film – 1964 – dark comedy by Stanley Kubrick
Leonid Brezhnev Repression; KGB strengthened 1968 - Prague Spring Crushed ---- Brezhnev Doctrine Supports US antagonists; eg: Vietnam 1971 - SALT I; freezes certain weapons programs 1972 - Grain sales from US to SU
1974 - DÉTENTE 1975 - Helsinki agreements European countries recognize the existing borders of European nations, the principle of national sovereignty, and non- interference in internal affairs, and commitment to human rights 1979 - Soviet invasion of Afghanistan 1982 - Brezhnev dies Andropov/ Chernenko
Change comes to Soviet Union 1985 Gorbachev faces problems: –lack of economic growth –decline in consumer goods; long lines –absenteeism at work; alcoholism –loss in Afghanistan –inability to continue arms race – dissident opposition – nationalism in republics
Gorbachev Reforms economic perestroikaeconomic perestroika – (but not fast enough for many; eg: Yeltsin) –reduces role of state corporations –encourages foreign investment –allows transition to market economy –trips to US - 1987
PoliticalperestroikaPolitical perestroika –Appointment of some liberals –1988 - dissidents & non-communists can be elected to Congress of Peoples Deputies –1989 renounces Brezhnev Doctrine- –Impact on eastern Soviet bloc Foreign minister Shevardnadze encourages renunciation of Brezhnev Doctrine
1990 - end to restrictions on religion –Lithuania declares independence from SU Gorb. unable to stem the tide… 1990 – Nobel Peace Prize
Russia -Boris Yeltsin steers a different course for Russia - wants more rapid change calls for Gorbachevs resignation Yeltsin president of Russia But - hard-liners attempted coup ag Gorb (fails) –Yeltsin supports Gorbs return Yeltsin suspends communist party in Russia Dec 1991 - Gorbachev resigns - end of the Soviet union...
Meanwhile in the satellites... Soviet The end of Soviet dominance & the fall of communism
Poland - 10 years Hungary - 10 months E. Germany - 10 weeks Czechoslovakia - 10 days Rumania - 10 hours Background: Regime change…
Poland 1956 – revolt Golmulka (56-70)- new communist leader –but halted collectivization of agriculture –established trade with west –acceptable to Moscow; stayed in Warsaw Pact Gierek (70-80) –greater freedom - Solidarity grows –1980 ….
Aug 1980 - Lenin shipyard strike at Gdansk (Danzig) –Lech Walesa – –spokesperson for Solidarity trade union - strikes –Govt grants concessions USSR presses Polish govt to suppress revolt –General Jaruzelski…
1981 - Jaruzelski imposes martial law: –(2007 – facing charges) –strikes crushed; Solidarity suspended 1982 - Solidarity declared illegal 1983 – Nobel Peace Prize - Walesa by 88 changes in SU cause increasing discontent in Poland J. repeals martial law; Solidarity legal 89 elections - Solidarity wins BIG
–When Walesa & others were arrested under Jaruzelskis martial law, Walesa had said: –At this moment, you lost. We are arrested, but you have driven a nail into your communist coffin... You'll come back to us on your knees. The success of non-violent civil disobedience 1990-1995 President of Polish Republic
Hungary 1956 - Uprising in Budapest Imre Nagy headed new communist govt. –greater independence for Hungary –Soviet troops to withdraw –withdrawal from Warsaw Pact Soviet invasion - 1956 –Nagy deposed; later executed –Janos Kadar new premier
More open and more market econ. development than most E. Euro 1985 - support for political pluralism 1989 Janos Kadar out communist party socialist party Hungarian Democratic Forum initiates reform - free elections
East Germany 1949 - Communist Government established –industries dismantled by Soviets 1971 - Erich Honecker becomes premier (had been in charge of building the Berlin Wall in 61) –no reforms even while Gorbachev was making changes in SU –growing # of dissidents
1989 - demonstrations -Gorbachev declines to back communists Honecker resigns (Oct 89); Krenz replaces – promises reforms Russian foreign minister Shevardnadze - each country has right to absolute freedom of choice East Germans interpret free to leave (unintentional)…...
November 89 - order for the Berlin Wall to be torn down communist party changed name to socialist fall of Krenz govt March 1990 - free elections - unification supporters October 3, 1990 - reunification of Germany
1989 The Velvet Revolution Dec - Dubcek - chairman of parliament & Havel - President Jan 1, 1993 - Czech Rep Slovakia Vaclav Havel – poet/playwright leads Civic Forum party which forces Husak to resign (68)
Romania Most repressive and isolated Ceausescu - cult of personality; nepotism C. attempted distance from Moscow during Gorby changes harsh persecutions/ economic disasters Dec 15, 1989 - security forces open fire on demonstrators in Hungarian region of Romania Dec 24, 1989…
C & wife captured as try to flee tried & shot free elections May 1990 -
Yugoslavia Marshall Josef Broz Tito communist dictator 1946- 1980 suppression of ethnic conflict 1980s - Serbs dominated govt Rising Nationalism…
- Slobodan Milosovic - repression of Albanian nationalism in Kosovo - Serb occupation withdrawal of republics: Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia, Bosnia... Civil wars as Yugo govt attempts to prevent… Slovenia, Croatia...
Civil War in Bosnia Yugoslav Serbs attempt to militarily halt division of Yugoslavia Bosnia: –1/3 Croat, Muslim, Serb ; Serbs refuse to accept independence from Yugo –Radovan Karadzic - Bosnian Serb leader –ethnic cleansing…
Dayton Peace Accords1995 - Dayton Peace Accords - –division within single state: Bosnian- Croat federation & Serb republic
Challenges in former USSR & Satellites ….. lack of democratic traditions –no other political parties –emergence of nationalist rt. wing parties –restyled communists ----socialists economic turmoil –Transition to market economy: corruption, organized crime, homelessness, food shortages ethnic rivalries –Bosnia, Georgia, Chechnya, Kosovo, Azerbaijan, Armenia
Discontent of Ethnic Minorities Kosovo – 1996-1999 war with Yugoslavia Most population Albanian NATO attack on Yugoslavia – 1999; protected status 2008 – declared complete independence as a sovereign state Milosevic – war crimes trial