2I. Road to World War Nationalism Positive effect = unity within a countryNegative effect = competition with other nationsEurope’s Great Powers- France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Great Britain, Russia, and Italy were rivals
3ImperialismThe competition for over-seas colonies led to mistrust and competition and near warMilitarism- the policy of having a large, strong army that was prepared for war by being able to quickly mobilizedEuropean Arms Race- belief that to be truly great you had to have a large militaryMade citizens feel patriotic and foreigners frightened
4AlliancesDesigned to help keep peace in Europe, but would push everyone into warTriple Alliance (Bismarck)= Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy (Goal to unify against future French aggression)They also signed a treaty with Russia
5II. Kaiser Wilhelm II Built a strong German army; forced Bismarck to resignAllowed the treaty with Russia to lapse.Russia aligned with France out of fearwanted a powerful navy (better than Britain's)Britain aligned through an agreement (entente) with France in 1907 that they would not fight each other, then signed one with Russia
6Two Sets of Alliances Triple Alliance Germany Austria-Hungary Italy Triple EntenteEnglandFranceRussiaSome of these had additional alliances with other nations that eventually bound them together…Example: Russia with Serbia
7The BalkansEastern Europe; former parts of the Ottoman Empire that had gained independenceProblem- Slavic people were spread throughout the regionSerbians sought to join all Slavic people into one nation (Russia supported)Austria-Hungary held lots of land made of Slavs and Serbia wanted it!!!Both vowed to fight if necessary!
8The shot…. Serbians in Bosnia wanted the Austro-Hungarians out June 28, Heir to the throne (Archduke Franz Ferdinand) and his wife visited the capitalA 19 year old, Serbian member of the Black Hand group shot & killed them
9Austria blamed Serbia & sent them demands to avoid war Serbia accepted most, but Austria-Hungary still declared warBecause of their alliance, Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary
11Review from Yesterday Causes Sides Militarism Alliance System NationalismAssassination of Archduke FerdinandSidesAllies: Great Britain, France, RussiaCentral Powers: Austria-Hungary, Germany
12How WWI Affected the World During the middle of the war things really started to slow down (stalemate)Those major countries (who had been fighting from the beginning) were looking for other countries to join in the fight to tip the balances.The war spread from EuropeGallipoli Campaign – a fight in the DardanellesBattles in Asia and AfricaAmerica joins the fight
13America enters WWI When – 1917 Why – Unrestricted Submarine WarfareDefinition: sinking all ships in the Atlantic w/o warning the ships.Lusitainia and the SussexZimmerman NoteTelegram being sent by the Germans to the Mexicans that was intercepted by the BritishContents: If you attack America, we will help you get territoryResults – Tips the balance of the war
14How WWI Affected those left at Home Because this conflict involved so many countries and lasted so much longer than it was first thought a new mentality was used on the home-front: Total WarTotal War: when a country devotes ALL of its resources to winning the warFactories made war supplies, not consumer itemsAll people became employed at somethingRationing – buy and use only small amounts of the certain items“Meatless Mondays” / “Wheatless Wednesdays”
15World War I Concludes The War began to draw to a close WhyUSA joined the fight (Remember – tipped the scales)Russia jumped out of WW I earlyRussian Revolution (1917)MASSIVE loss of lifeTreaty of Brest-LitovskCommunism takes controlGerman people were tired of fightingEnding Date – November 1918
17Treaty of Versailles: A Flawed Peace A peace conference was set to take place in Versailles France (not far from Paris)There were 4 major countries who were involved in this meeting:Woodrow Wilson, USADavid Lloyd George, Great BritainGeorges Clemenceau, FranceVittorio Orlando, Italy
18Treaty of Versailles: A Flawed Peace Major ProvisionsLeague of Nations – peace organization, Germany excludedTerritorial Losses – Germany loses all of its overseas territories, and land gained during the warMilitary Restrictions – Germany was limited in the size of army, navy, and air forces that they could maintain.War Guilt – Germany had to assume TOTAL guilt for causing the war, and was forced to pay $33 billion in war debt over the next 30 years.*(*Hitler would refer to this when he gained power in the coming years)
19Propaganda:Information spreadTo advance a causeOr to damage anOpponent’s cause.