Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Matter Luminous beings are we, not this crude matter! -Yoda, on the nature of The Force.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Matter Luminous beings are we, not this crude matter! -Yoda, on the nature of The Force."— Presentation transcript:

1 Matter Luminous beings are we, not this crude matter! -Yoda, on the nature of The Force

2 Matter Any substance in the universe Has mass, takes up space There are only two forms of existence in the Universe; matter and energy.

3 Ways to Classify Matter Composition Based on what types of particles make up a substance Based on what types of particles make up a substance Elements, Compounds, Mixtures Elements, Compounds, MixturesPhase Based on how particles are arranged because of Energy Based on how particles are arranged because of Energy Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma

4 Phases oSolids o Particles are locked in a regular, repeating pattern called a crystal lattice o Strong forces between certain solids lead to high melting points

5 More on Solids Hardness Describes how hard a solid is compared to other solids Describes how hard a solid is compared to other solids Based on the attractive forces between particles in a solid Based on the attractive forces between particles in a solid

6 Shape and Volume Solids do not change shape or volume without adding energy Wax, glass, Play-Doh, are amorphous solids – they change shape when energy is applied, but retain that shape afterwards

7 Phases Liquids Particles are touching, but not locked in pattern Particles are touching, but not locked in pattern Particles can slide past one another, causing the liquid to flow Particles can slide past one another, causing the liquid to flow

8 More on Liquids Viscosity Describes how well a liquid flows Describes how well a liquid flows Based on attractive forces between the particles Based on attractive forces between the particles

9 Shape and Volume Liquids do not change volume but do take the shape of their container The surface of a liquid is assumed to be parallel to the surface of the Earth when at rest Amorphous solids are also classified as super-cooled liquids

10 Phases Gases Particles are very far apart Particles are very far apart Particles collide with each other or their container rarely Particles collide with each other or their container rarely These collisions define the pressure of the gas

11 Shape and Volume Gases change shape and/or volume They take the shape of their container, expanding to fill the container Explains why aromatics/perfumes will spread across a room

12 Phases Plasma Like a gas, but MUCH higher energy Like a gas, but MUCH higher energy Particles collide with so much force, electrons are knocked off of atoms Particles collide with so much force, electrons are knocked off of atoms This creates a charged gas state This creates a charged gas state Plasmas are uncommon on Earth, as they start around 5000ºC Only in lightning, aurorae Only in lightning, aurorae

13 VolumeShape SolidDefiniteDefinite LiquidDefinite Takes shape of container Gas Expands to fill container Takes shape of container Plasma Expands to fill container Takes shape of container

14 What is the lowest energy state or phase of matter? 1.Solid 2.Liquid 3.Gas 4.Plasma

15 What phase of matter has particles sliding past one another? 1.Solid 2.Liquid 3.Gas 4.Plasma

16 What phase of matter is rarely found on Earth? 1.Solid 2.Liquid 3.Gas 4.Plasma

17 What is the highest energy state or phase of matter? 1.Solid 2.Liquid 3.Gas 4.Plasma

18 What phase of matter has particles locked in a regular, repeating pattern? 1.Solid 2.Liquid 3.Gas 4.Plasma

19

20 Phase Changes You must add or remove Heat Energy to change from one phase to another

21 Warming up! Three Phase Changes that require added heat energy: Melting Going from Solid Phase to Liquid Phase Going from Solid Phase to Liquid PhaseVaporization Going from Liquid Phase to Gas Phase Going from Liquid Phase to Gas PhaseSublimation Going from Solid Phase to Gas Phase Going from Solid Phase to Gas Phase

22 Cooling down! Two Phase Changes that require removal of heat energy: Condensation Going from Gas Phase to Liquid Phase Going from Gas Phase to Liquid PhaseFreezing Going from Liquid Phase to Solid Phase Going from Liquid Phase to Solid Phase

23

24 Composition Pure Substance Follow exact measures or proportions Follow exact measures or proportions Made up of only one kind of particle Made up of only one kind of particleMixtures Can be any amounts or kinds of particles Can be any amounts or kinds of particles

25 Pure Substances Elements Made of only one kind of atom Made of only one kind of atom All atoms of an element are alike All atoms of an element are alike Found on the Periodic Table Found on the Periodic TableCompounds Two or more atoms chemically combined Two or more atoms chemically combined Follows a formula Follows a formula Cannot be separated except: Cannot be separated except: by chemical means to form a new compound

26 Oxygen 1.Element 2.Compound

27 Carbon Dioxide 1.Element 2.Compound

28 Sodium Chloride 1.Element 2.Compound

29 Calcium 1.Element 2.Compound

30 Carbon Tetrachloride 1.Element 2.Compound

31 Mixtures Homogeneous Particles so small or so well mixed that the particles cant be seen Particles so small or so well mixed that the particles cant be seen Also called a solution Also called a solution

32 Solutions Can be any phase in another phase Parts – Solute – substance being dissolved, usually in less amount Solute – substance being dissolved, usually in less amount Solvent – substance doing the dissolving, usually in greater amount Solvent – substance doing the dissolving, usually in greater amount

33 If air is 78% Nitrogen and 21% Oxygen, which is the solvent? 1.Nitrogen 2.Oxygen

34 What is the solute in orange juice? 1.Water 2.Orange particles

35 Which is the solvent in sweet tea? 1.Sugar 2.Water 3.Tea 4.Ice

36 What is the solute in muddy water? 1.Water 2.Dirt particles

37 Types of Solutions Concentrated – high ratio of solute to solvent Dilute – low ratio of solute to solvent Alloy – solutions of metals Amalgam – solution in Mercury (liquid metal) Aqueous Solutions – water as the solvent

38 Solution Process Surround and Separate Particles of the solvent pull particles of solute into solution

39 Speeding Up Solutions Agitation Stirring makes particles collide more often Stirring makes particles collide more often Surface Area Grinding up a solute makes it easier to surround and separate them into solution Grinding up a solute makes it easier to surround and separate them into solutionTemperature Heating a solution speeds up the particles, increasing the number of collisions Heating a solution speeds up the particles, increasing the number of collisions NOTE: When dissolving a gas in a liquid, a colder liquid slows down the gas particles and dissolves more total gas NOTE: When dissolving a gas in a liquid, a colder liquid slows down the gas particles and dissolves more total gas

40 Which method of speeding up a solution explains why a powdered aspirin works faster than a tablet? 1.Agitation 2.Surface Area 3.Temperature

41 Which method of speeding up a solution explains why sugar dissolves better in fresh tea than iced tea? 1.Agitation 2.Surface Area 3.Temperature

42 Which method of speeding up a solution explains why Kool-Aid powder has to be stirred into water? 1.Agitation 2.Surface Area 3.Temperature

43 Which method of speeding up a solution explains why you cant make Cold Chocolate out of Hot Chocolate powder? 1.Agitation 2.Surface Area 3.Temperature

44 Which method of speeding up a solution explains why soup mix dissolves faster than bouillon cubes? 1.Agitation 2.Surface Area 3.Temperature

45 Describes how well a substance will dissolve in 100g of water at a given temperature Differs with each substance and temperature Solubility

46 Amounts of Solute Unsaturated Solution has not dissolved as much solute as it can hold Solution has not dissolved as much solute as it can hold More solute can be dissolved More solute can be dissolvedSaturated Solution has dissolved as much solute as it can hold Solution has dissolved as much solute as it can hold No more solute can be dissolved No more solute can be dissolvedSupersaturated Solution has dissolved more solute than it can hold Solution has dissolved more solute than it can hold Solute will come out of solution if disturbed until it reaches the Saturation Point Solute will come out of solution if disturbed until it reaches the Saturation Point

47

48 Heterogeneous Mixtures Mixtures that are not well mixed Particles are so large that they can be seen or picked out

49 Types of Heterogeneous Mixtures Suspensions Temporary mixtures Temporary mixtures Particles settle out upon standing Particles settle out upon standingColloid Particles do not settle out Particles do not settle out Appears as a homogeneous mixture, but the particles scatter light (Tyndall Effect) Appears as a homogeneous mixture, but the particles scatter light (Tyndall Effect)

50 Physical Properties Any description of a material Size, color, mass, etc. Size, color, mass, etc. Physical Changes Any change to a material that does not change the material Any change to a material that does not change the material Reversible Reversible

51 Chemical Properties Any description of a chemical reaction that a substance will undergo Flammability, inflammability, reacts with water Flammability, inflammability, reacts with water Chemical Changes Any change to a material that Any change to a material that Results in one or more new substances with different chemical and physical properties Has a resulting change in energy Not Reversible – except to undergo another chemical reaction Not Reversible – except to undergo another chemical reaction Also called Chemical Reactions Also called Chemical Reactions

52 Melting Ice 1.Chemical Property 2.Chemical Change 3.Physical Property 4.Physical Change

53 Hydrogen and Oxygen form Water 1.Chemical Property 2.Chemical Change 3.Physical Property 4.Physical Change

54 A blue car 1.Chemical Property 2.Chemical Change 3.Physical Property 4.Physical Change

55 Iron ore can be melted to form pure Iron 1.Chemical Property 2.Chemical Change 3.Physical Property 4.Physical Change

56 Matter & Its Properties MatterPhases Phase Changes Diagrams Pure Substances ElementsCompoundsMixtures Homogeneous Mixtures SolutionsAlloyAmalgamAqueousSolubility Heterogeneous Mixtures SuspensionsColloids Physical Properties Physical Changes Chemical Properties Chemical Changes


Download ppt "Matter Luminous beings are we, not this crude matter! -Yoda, on the nature of The Force."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google