Presentation on theme: "By Priyanka Juneja, Sasha Ree, and Lauretta Zhao"— Presentation transcript:
1By Priyanka Juneja, Sasha Ree, and Lauretta Zhao Chinese RevolutionsBy Priyanka Juneja, Sasha Ree, and Lauretta Zhao
2Causes of the 1911 Chinese Revolution The Qing empire began to grow internally weak:PoliticallyThey were plagued by inefficient emperorsBad administrationSelling of government posts allowed embezzlementCorruption increasedNo Manchu controlDecentralization of government controlIncrease in local power undermining central governmentSocially and EconomicallyPopulation grew but poverty increasedFarmable land was limited and held mainly by wealthy lordsBy law, no one could move out of ChinaNo new technology or development to adhere to growing number of people’s needsGovernmental fiscal breakdownPoverty among the commoners meant inability to collect taxCorruptionDecentralizationRebellions cost moneyFiscal confusion on how to handle the money
3Causes of the 1911 Chinese Revolution (con’t) IdeologicallyAnti-manchu sentiment resurfaced as the central government lost control of common classMilitarilyTheir troops had become essentially uselessAdministrative confusion and lack of fundamental cooperation with the governmentPovertyLoss of will to fightInactivitySlacking on trainingExternal threats also compromised Qing legitimacyPolitical factorsInability to fight back made the Qing enter many unfavorable treaties that undermined the power of the Qing in the face of external foes and internal commonersMany traditional Chinese states were annexed by foreign powerBroken into different spheres of influence cutting of Qing controlSocial and Economic factorsCheaper foreign trade imports undermined the value of goods produced in ChinaForeign missionary activity inspired revolt among commonersImports began to exceed exportsExacerbated by war debtsLosses that created need to pay tributes
4Causes of the 1911 Chinese Revolution (con’t) Ideological factorsConfucian theory was brought under fire by western influence and thus questioned the foundation of Manchu governmentNationalism was inspired by the introduction of western ideals and created a national identity that was decidedly anti-ManchuAnti Manchu traditionAnti Manchu sentiment was strengthened as the old Chinese supremacy attitude resurfaced because of anger by domination of any foreign powerBeing anti-Manchu was a scapegoat for all the countries problems and acted like psychological comfort to those debating whether to embrace the theory or notQing Reform catalyzed overthrowEducational ReformSent students to study abroadBecame intellectuals dissatisfied with Manchu GovernmentBackbone of the revolutionPolitical ReformCreated holes for the provinces that allowed increased decentralization and allowed them to declare independence
5Causes of the 1911 Chinese Revolution (con’t) Military ReformMade them independent of Peking and therefore without a military the Manchu government was forced to abdicate in 1912Revolutionary MovementSocial problems after Sino-Japan warChinese defeat undermined the government and allowed small armed uprisings to occurIn the Peace Treaty of 1985 the troops used to fight Japan were disbanded and neglectedThey became revolutionariesJapan took Taiwan and as a result Taiwanese immigrants fled to Fukien and created social disorderWestern ideas spreadThe influence of European Revolution reverberated strongly throughout ChinaAcceptance of All out RebellionWestern influence and Japan outlined how backwards China wasWhen in foreign influence- subjection to racism created nationalismIndependence from government allowed room for rebellious thoughts and plansEducation abroad introduced them to radical ideas and activities
6Causes of the 1911 Chinese Revolution (con’t) Revolution In ChinaSun Yat-Sen’s revolution in S. ChinaHuang Hsing's revolution in C. ChinaUnsuccessfulHe joined Sun yat-Sen in JapanRevolution from JapanAbroad studies were in Japan- and most students were from S. ChinaAnti-Manchu sentiment was strong in S. China and spread to students studying in JapanProvincial lines divided them- no united revolutionary frontRadicalism increased and they created the Resist-Russia-Volunteer CorpsFinally they unified and created the evolutionary Alliance (T'ung-meng hui)
7Causes of the Chinese Republic to Communism The Japanese invaded China and took Qingdao port in Around this time World War 1 started and China sided with the allies in order to regain territory from the Japanese. However with the conclusion of the war, the treaty of Versailles simply reaffirmed Japanese claim to Chinese land which lead to a fair bit of discontent among the Chinese population. The May fourth Movement of some Beijing students against this, caught fire and spread across China. Sun Yat-Sen tried once again to reunite China by forging alliances with the societ union and between Guomindang and the Communist Party of China (CPC), but failed. Then Chiang Kaishek seized control of the Guomindang after Sun Yat-sen died in He cut ties with the CPC in 1927 and drove them to the mountains. In 1934 the CPC lead a revolt. They started the long march of 9500km to the capital with 80,000 troops. At first Chiang Kashek tried to forge an alliance but after the next Sino-Japan war- The red flag of Mao rained supreme.
8PIRATES From Qing Dynasty to Chinese Republic (1911) PoliticsJanuary 1, 1912 – Asia’s first constitutional democracy is founded by Sun Yat Sen: the Republic of ChinaSun wanted to be the absolute leader to “teach” China to become a democracyConfucian political system removedChinese Nationalist party (Kuomintang) established by Sun; won majority of seats in the first national election, but Sun was later forced into exile by Yuan Shikai, a military commander.Sun received help from Communist Russia, which supplied him with weapons, tactics, and advisors.IntellectualSun Yat Sen, the main revolutionary during this time, forms a new ideology which he calls “Three Principles of the People”, combining nationalism, democracy and socialismAnti-traditionalistReligionIconoclastic Nationalist party; wanted to begin a new China, so destruction of religious and ancestral temples beganAnti-traditionalist attitude of the Chinese elite leads to internal assault of traditional beliefsArt/ArchitectureForeign influences on art came into ChinaThere was a separation between the “conservatives” and “innovators”.Conservatives – wanted to preserve traditional Chinese art techniquesInnovators – wanted to reform Chinese art with foreign stylesTechnologyFew developments in technology during this period, as China is in a period of instability and turmoilEconomyAfter the fall of the Qing Dynasty, China’s economy was unstableAs Chinese warlords fought for power, China’s economy continued to weakenHowever, during WWI, demand for Chinese goods increased, spurring industrial productionSocietyConfucian social system rejected by the Republic of ChinaChina in turmoil and chaos at the time of Sun’s death
9PIRATES From Chinese Republic to Communism (1918-1921) PoliticsRussian Communists are admitted into the Kuomintang after agreeing to help Sun Yat SenSun’s successor, Chiang Kai-shek, eliminates Communist membership within the Kuomintang.The Communist Party began to have its own rebellions against Chiang’s government.May 4, 1919, students held demonstrations protesting the Treaty of Versailles, which gave Japan the Chinese province of Shantung.This is the beginning of the Communist uprising.IntellectualWanted to adopt Western sciencesNew literature written in vernacular Chinese, one of the most intellectually revolutionary periods ( )Called by some “The Chinese Renaissance”ReligionMarxist-inspired attitude toward religion; continued to destroy religious templesTraditional Chinese religion looked down uponArt/ArchitectureForeign influences on art came into ChinaThere was a separation between the “conservatives” and “innovators”.Conservatives – wanted to preserve traditional Chinese art techniquesInnovators – wanted to reform Chinese art with foreign stylesTechnologyFew developments in technology during this period, as China is in a period of instability and turmoilEconomyPolitical turmoil keeps economy from large developments – famine, war, etcStill, Chinese products are in demand elsewhere around the worldSocietyMay Fourth Movement – wanted to replace Confucian culture with more westernized cultureTraditional Chinese beliefs, everything from government to Chinese classics, were attacked
10Chronology of Changes in China Qing to Chinese Republic:1905 – Sun Yat-sen organized the anti-Manchu movement from Japan.1911 – Xinhai Revolution. Wuchang Uprising. Manchu dynasty overthrown.1911 – Sun Yat-sen declared the Chinese republic.1913 – Yuan Shi-kai became president.1916 – Yuan died. Period of disunity and warlords began.Chinese Republic to Communism:1916 – Warlord era begins1919 – May Fourth Movement1921 – Foundation of Communist Party of China1925 – Sun Yat-sen dies of cancer.1926 – Peasant communism spreads.1927 – Nanchung Uprising. Chinese Civil War. Creation of the Fourth Red Army.
11Chart of Chinese Government Structures Machu GovernmentRepublic of ChinaCommunist China- Manchu Emperor head- Strong Confucian base- Huge aristocratic and noble class- Power in the hands of a few-Anti-Manchu sentimentNo monarchBreak down of Confucianism- increase in westernization and modernizationThe formation of a primitive republicStill power being held in the hands of a fewFurther decentralization between provincesAnti-imperialist sentimentLoss of outer Mongolia and Tibet
12Revolutionary Leaders Sun Yat-sen: Anti-Manchu revolutionary and leader of the New Republic of China (1912)Chiang Kai-shek: 2nd leader of Chinese republicHuang Hsing: Anti - Manchu revolutionary
13Mao Tse-Dong: leader of CPC and first communist leader Major points of engagement during Chinese Revolution of concentrated in the south
14Communist Revolution- came from the Mountain bases to ShangXi province
15Methods to Gain Support Chinese Republic:There was already a lot of social unrest during the Qing Empire, so it was easy to get the citizens of China to go along with the Chinese Republic. The Chinese citizens had been suppressed by the Manchus for so long that they organized quite a few anti-Manchu movements, which spurred the development of the Chinese Republic.The first uprising in the 1911 Revolution was entirely against the imperial government’s plan to nationalize the railway. Many who supported the uprising were wealthy investors who wanted to keep their wealth, military commanders who wanted independence, and Sun Yat-sen. The Chinese citizens were angered by the imperial government’s decision and tried to protest. When there was no response from the government, they turned to the revolutionaries.Communist Party:The Communists were able to use the humiliation of Yuan Shi-kai and his brand of Confucianism as a motivating factor for the people to adopt Western science, culture, and democratic principles. The New Culture thinkers published their theories of many Western ideas, including government, education, culture, economics, and science in books and journals. They viciously attacked the traditional Chinese views of government, which sparked the May Fourth Movement.During the Versailles conference after World War I, it was decided that Japan would keep Shantung. The Chinese were furious about this and protested; however, it did nothing to help. Several leaders of the pro-Western movement were angry about China’s betrayal, which caused them to turn to Marxism. The New Culture Movement gestated the seeds of the Chinese Communist Party.
16Comparison of Government Structures End of Qing EmpireBeginning of Chinese Republicmassive social strifeeconomic stagnationexplosive population growthfamineanti-Manchu rebellionsbanned slaverybanned concubinesbanned arranged marriagebanned opium smokingbanned foot-bindingbanned judicial torturebanned worship of idolsmany internal feudsweak military because of undeveloped military technology compared to the rest of the worldmany conflicts with foreign powerssigned unequal treaties with foreign powersanti-Qingcentered on the Three principles of the People: nationalism, democracy, and people’s livelihoodended unequal treatiesbrief rule by Yuan Shikai who used military power to rulebrief rule by warlords who either made treaties with each other or fought against each othersupported peasants and workersdictatorial rule by Chiang Kai-Shek
17Comparison of Government Structures Chinese RepublicCommunismleaned towards Soviet Unionsuppressed worker strikesstrong military forceconcentration on destruction of the Communistsbacked up by the USAwanted political and economic modernization while maintaining the traditional Confucian valuesguidance of workers, peasants, and soldiers to the socialist revolutionabolition of private ownership of production equipmenttakeover of the state power and the construction of the dictatorship of the proletariatabolition of social classesrealization of communismorganized worker strikesbacked up by Joseph Stalinwanted to eliminate traditional Confucian culture and create a culture more similar to Western cultures
18Works Cited"CHINA IN THE 20TH CENTURY." Emayzine N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Feb </http://www.emayzine.com/>."Chinese Revolution." Encyclopedia . N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Feb <http://www.encyclopedia.com/>."From Republic to Communism." China Travel Guide . N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Feb <http://www.justchina.org/>.Hooker, Richard. "Modern China: The Chinese Communist Party." Information Technology Learning Systems Group . N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb <http://www.wsu.edu/>."Living in the Chinese Cosmos: Understanding Religion in Late-Imperial China." Asia for Educators. Columbia University, n.d. Web. 10 Feb <http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/>.Theobald, Ulrich. "Chinese History - The Republic of China ." The Republic of China ( ) event history. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Feb <http://www.chinaknowledge.de/>."Traditional Chinese Painting in the Twentieth Century ." The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Feb <http://www.metmuseum.org/>.Woo, Philip. "The Chinese Revolution of 1911." TheCorner. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb <http://www.thecorner.org/>.
19Jobs Priyanka Juneja – 1, part of 3 Sasha Ree – 4, part of 3 Lauretta Zhao – 2