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By Priyanka Juneja, Sasha Ree, and Lauretta Zhao

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1 By Priyanka Juneja, Sasha Ree, and Lauretta Zhao
Chinese Revolutions By Priyanka Juneja, Sasha Ree, and Lauretta Zhao

2 Causes of the 1911 Chinese Revolution
The Qing empire began to grow internally weak: Politically They were plagued by inefficient emperors Bad administration Selling of government posts allowed embezzlement Corruption increased No Manchu control Decentralization of government control Increase in local power undermining central government Socially and Economically Population grew but poverty increased Farmable land was limited and held mainly by wealthy lords By law, no one could move out of China No new technology or development to adhere to growing number of people’s needs Governmental fiscal breakdown Poverty among the commoners meant inability to collect tax Corruption Decentralization Rebellions cost money Fiscal confusion on how to handle the money

3 Causes of the 1911 Chinese Revolution (con’t)
Ideologically Anti-manchu sentiment resurfaced as the central government lost control of common class Militarily Their troops had become essentially useless Administrative confusion and lack of fundamental cooperation with the government Poverty Loss of will to fight Inactivity Slacking on training External threats also compromised Qing legitimacy Political factors Inability to fight back made the Qing enter many unfavorable treaties that undermined the power of the Qing in the face of external foes and internal commoners Many traditional Chinese states were annexed by foreign power Broken into different spheres of influence cutting of Qing control Social and Economic factors Cheaper foreign trade imports undermined the value of goods produced in China Foreign missionary activity inspired revolt among commoners Imports began to exceed exports Exacerbated by war debts Losses that created need to pay tributes

4 Causes of the 1911 Chinese Revolution (con’t)
Ideological factors Confucian theory was brought under fire by western influence and thus questioned the foundation of Manchu government Nationalism was inspired by the introduction of western ideals and created a national identity that was decidedly anti-Manchu Anti Manchu tradition Anti Manchu sentiment was strengthened as the old Chinese supremacy attitude resurfaced because of anger by domination of any foreign power Being anti-Manchu was a scapegoat for all the countries problems and acted like psychological comfort to those debating whether to embrace the theory or not Qing Reform catalyzed overthrow Educational Reform Sent students to study abroad Became intellectuals dissatisfied with Manchu Government Backbone of the revolution Political Reform Created holes for the provinces that allowed increased decentralization and allowed them to declare independence

5 Causes of the 1911 Chinese Revolution (con’t)
Military Reform Made them independent of Peking and therefore without a military the Manchu government was forced to abdicate in 1912 Revolutionary Movement Social problems after Sino-Japan war Chinese defeat undermined the government and allowed small armed uprisings to occur In the Peace Treaty of 1985 the troops used to fight Japan were disbanded and neglected They became revolutionaries Japan took Taiwan and as a result Taiwanese immigrants fled to Fukien and created social disorder Western ideas spread The influence of European Revolution reverberated strongly throughout China Acceptance of All out Rebellion Western influence and Japan outlined how backwards China was When in foreign influence- subjection to racism created nationalism Independence from government allowed room for rebellious thoughts and plans Education abroad introduced them to radical ideas and activities

6 Causes of the 1911 Chinese Revolution (con’t)
Revolution In China Sun Yat-Sen’s revolution in S. China Huang Hsing's revolution in C. China Unsuccessful He joined Sun yat-Sen in Japan Revolution from Japan Abroad studies were in Japan- and most students were from S. China Anti-Manchu sentiment was strong in S. China and spread to students studying in Japan Provincial lines divided them- no united revolutionary front Radicalism increased and they created the Resist-Russia-Volunteer Corps Finally they unified and created the evolutionary Alliance (T'ung-meng hui)

7 Causes of the Chinese Republic to Communism
The Japanese invaded China and took Qingdao port in Around this time World War 1 started and China sided with the allies in order to regain territory from the Japanese. However with the conclusion of the war, the treaty of Versailles simply reaffirmed Japanese claim to Chinese land which lead to a fair bit of discontent among the Chinese population. The May fourth Movement of some Beijing students against this, caught fire and spread across China. Sun Yat-Sen tried once again to reunite China by forging alliances with the societ union and between Guomindang and the Communist Party of China (CPC), but failed. Then Chiang Kaishek seized control of the Guomindang after Sun Yat-sen died in He cut ties with the CPC in 1927 and drove them to the mountains. In 1934 the CPC lead a revolt. They started the long march of 9500km to the capital with 80,000 troops. At first Chiang Kashek tried to forge an alliance but after the next Sino-Japan war- The red flag of Mao rained supreme.

8 PIRATES From Qing Dynasty to Chinese Republic (1911)
Politics January 1, 1912 – Asia’s first constitutional democracy is founded by Sun Yat Sen: the Republic of China Sun wanted to be the absolute leader to “teach” China to become a democracy Confucian political system removed Chinese Nationalist party (Kuomintang) established by Sun; won majority of seats in the first national election, but Sun was later forced into exile by Yuan Shikai, a military commander. Sun received help from Communist Russia, which supplied him with weapons, tactics, and advisors. Intellectual Sun Yat Sen, the main revolutionary during this time, forms a new ideology which he calls “Three Principles of the People”, combining nationalism, democracy and socialism Anti-traditionalist Religion Iconoclastic Nationalist party; wanted to begin a new China, so destruction of religious and ancestral temples began Anti-traditionalist attitude of the Chinese elite leads to internal assault of traditional beliefs Art/Architecture Foreign influences on art came into China There was a separation between the “conservatives” and “innovators”. Conservatives – wanted to preserve traditional Chinese art techniques Innovators – wanted to reform Chinese art with foreign styles Technology Few developments in technology during this period, as China is in a period of instability and turmoil Economy After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, China’s economy was unstable As Chinese warlords fought for power, China’s economy continued to weaken However, during WWI, demand for Chinese goods increased, spurring industrial production Society Confucian social system rejected by the Republic of China China in turmoil and chaos at the time of Sun’s death

9 PIRATES From Chinese Republic to Communism (1918-1921)
Politics Russian Communists are admitted into the Kuomintang after agreeing to help Sun Yat Sen Sun’s successor, Chiang Kai-shek, eliminates Communist membership within the Kuomintang. The Communist Party began to have its own rebellions against Chiang’s government. May 4, 1919, students held demonstrations protesting the Treaty of Versailles, which gave Japan the Chinese province of Shantung. This is the beginning of the Communist uprising. Intellectual Wanted to adopt Western sciences New literature written in vernacular Chinese, one of the most intellectually revolutionary periods ( ) Called by some “The Chinese Renaissance” Religion Marxist-inspired attitude toward religion; continued to destroy religious temples Traditional Chinese religion looked down upon Art/Architecture Foreign influences on art came into China There was a separation between the “conservatives” and “innovators”. Conservatives – wanted to preserve traditional Chinese art techniques Innovators – wanted to reform Chinese art with foreign styles Technology Few developments in technology during this period, as China is in a period of instability and turmoil Economy Political turmoil keeps economy from large developments – famine, war, etc Still, Chinese products are in demand elsewhere around the world Society May Fourth Movement – wanted to replace Confucian culture with more westernized culture Traditional Chinese beliefs, everything from government to Chinese classics, were attacked

10 Chronology of Changes in China
Qing to Chinese Republic: 1905 – Sun Yat-sen organized the anti-Manchu movement from Japan. 1911 – Xinhai Revolution. Wuchang Uprising. Manchu dynasty overthrown. 1911 – Sun Yat-sen declared the Chinese republic. 1913 – Yuan Shi-kai became president. 1916 – Yuan died. Period of disunity and warlords began. Chinese Republic to Communism: 1916 – Warlord era begins 1919 – May Fourth Movement 1921 – Foundation of Communist Party of China 1925 – Sun Yat-sen dies of cancer. 1926 – Peasant communism spreads. 1927 – Nanchung Uprising. Chinese Civil War. Creation of the Fourth Red Army.

11 Chart of Chinese Government Structures
Machu Government Republic of China Communist China - Manchu Emperor head - Strong Confucian base - Huge aristocratic and noble class - Power in the hands of a few -Anti-Manchu sentiment No monarch Break down of Confucianism- increase in westernization and modernization The formation of a primitive republic Still power being held in the hands of a few Further decentralization between provinces Anti-imperialist sentiment Loss of outer Mongolia and Tibet

12 Revolutionary Leaders
Sun Yat-sen: Anti-Manchu revolutionary and leader of the New Republic of China (1912) Chiang Kai-shek: 2nd leader of Chinese republic Huang Hsing: Anti - Manchu revolutionary

13 Mao Tse-Dong: leader of CPC and first communist leader
Major points of engagement during Chinese Revolution of concentrated in the south

14 Communist Revolution- came from the Mountain bases to ShangXi province

15 Methods to Gain Support
Chinese Republic: There was already a lot of social unrest during the Qing Empire, so it was easy to get the citizens of China to go along with the Chinese Republic. The Chinese citizens had been suppressed by the Manchus for so long that they organized quite a few anti-Manchu movements, which spurred the development of the Chinese Republic. The first uprising in the 1911 Revolution was entirely against the imperial government’s plan to nationalize the railway. Many who supported the uprising were wealthy investors who wanted to keep their wealth, military commanders who wanted independence, and Sun Yat-sen. The Chinese citizens were angered by the imperial government’s decision and tried to protest. When there was no response from the government, they turned to the revolutionaries. Communist Party: The Communists were able to use the humiliation of Yuan Shi-kai and his brand of Confucianism as a motivating factor for the people to adopt Western science, culture, and democratic principles. The New Culture thinkers published their theories of many Western ideas, including government, education, culture, economics, and science in books and journals. They viciously attacked the traditional Chinese views of government, which sparked the May Fourth Movement. During the Versailles conference after World War I, it was decided that Japan would keep Shantung. The Chinese were furious about this and protested; however, it did nothing to help. Several leaders of the pro-Western movement were angry about China’s betrayal, which caused them to turn to Marxism. The New Culture Movement gestated the seeds of the Chinese Communist Party.

16 Comparison of Government Structures
End of Qing Empire Beginning of Chinese Republic massive social strife economic stagnation explosive population growth famine anti-Manchu rebellions banned slavery banned concubines banned arranged marriage banned opium smoking banned foot-binding banned judicial torture banned worship of idols many internal feuds weak military because of undeveloped military technology compared to the rest of the world many conflicts with foreign powers signed unequal treaties with foreign powers anti-Qing centered on the Three principles of the People: nationalism, democracy, and people’s livelihood ended unequal treaties brief rule by Yuan Shikai who used military power to rule brief rule by warlords who either made treaties with each other or fought against each other supported peasants and workers dictatorial rule by Chiang Kai-Shek

17 Comparison of Government Structures
Chinese Republic Communism leaned towards Soviet Union suppressed worker strikes strong military force concentration on destruction of the Communists backed up by the USA wanted political and economic modernization while maintaining the traditional Confucian values guidance of workers, peasants, and soldiers to the socialist revolution abolition of private ownership of production equipment takeover of the state power and the construction of the dictatorship of the proletariat abolition of social classes realization of communism organized worker strikes backed up by Joseph Stalin wanted to eliminate traditional Confucian culture and create a culture more similar to Western cultures

18 Works Cited "CHINA IN THE 20TH CENTURY." Emayzine N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Feb </ "Chinese Revolution." Encyclopedia . N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Feb < "From Republic to Communism." China Travel Guide . N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Feb < Hooker, Richard. "Modern China: The Chinese Communist Party." Information Technology Learning Systems Group . N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb < "Living in the Chinese Cosmos: Understanding Religion in Late-Imperial China." Asia for Educators. Columbia University, n.d. Web. 10 Feb < Theobald, Ulrich. "Chinese History - The Republic of China ." The Republic of China ( ) event history. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Feb < "Traditional Chinese Painting in the Twentieth Century ." The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Feb < Woo, Philip. "The Chinese Revolution of 1911." TheCorner. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb <

19 Jobs Priyanka Juneja – 1, part of 3 Sasha Ree – 4, part of 3
Lauretta Zhao – 2

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