2Augustus CaesarIn 27 CE, Octavian was named by the Senate consul, tribune, and commander in chief for life.He also took the name “Augustus,” which means “Majestic One.”
3Augustus (Con’t)Augustus ruled Rome for 40 years, from 27 BCE to 14 CE.He began to rebuild the city of Rome.He appointed governors and tax collectors.He imported grain from the provinces of North Africa.Public works projects, such as roads, temples, and public buildings were constructed.
4Augustus (Con’t)Augustus boasted that he had “found Rome a city of bricks and left it a city of marble.”In 31 BCE, the Pax Romana began. This was a peace that lasted until 180 CE. During this time, the Roman legions did not participate in any major conflicts and the people of the roman Empire lived and prospered.
5Julio-Claudian Emperors From 14 to 68 CE, there were 4 people that assumed the position of emperor. These four were related to Augustus.TiberiusCaligulaClaudiusNero
6The Good EmperorsTwenty-eight years after Nero’s death, there were several emperors whose skill as effective administrators earned them the title “Good Emperors.”NervaTrajanHadrianAntonius PiusMarcus Aurelius
7Roman RuleBy 27 BCE, there were some 70 million people living in the Roman Empire.To rule effectively, Augustus had to make many changes in the government of Rome.These were in the areas of government appointments, law, and the military.
8Roman GovernmentProfessional governors were appointed in the provinces.Augustus took the title of “Pontiflex Maximus.” This joined the political and religious systems together.
9Roman LawAs more provinces were added, the need for a system of laws grew.Roman citizens were covered by the jus civile, or citizens law.Non-Roman citizens were covered by the jus gentium, or non-citizen law.Roman laws stressed the importance of the state over the individual.
10Roman MilitaryRome had a powerful military in the beginning of the empire. However, as the Pax Romana continued, the cost of maintaining a large army increased.Emperors began to reduce the number of Romans in the legions, especially in the provinces. The allowed provincial peoples to join and protect their provinces.
11Rome’s Economy50,000 miles of improved Roman roads allowed trade goods to travel throughout the empire.Many of these roads still exist.
12Life During the Pax Romana Increased wealth.Decreased importance of family. Fathers lost some of their power.Gap between rich and poor continued to widen.Government continued the “Bread and circuses” program for the poor in the cities.
14Life (Con’t)Romans constructed many public works projects throughout the empire.One of the most unique was the aqueducts that supplied Roman cities with water.
15Life (Con’t)Much of the building in the provinces was completed by the Roman legions.Once the provinces were secured, soldiers became builders to bring Rome anywhere that Romans settled.In some cases, the Romans allowed the royal families to remain in power as long as they followed Roman law.
16Life (Con’t) Romans also preserved Greek culture and literature. They also excelled in adapting the discoveries of other cultures and using them in different ways. Examples are the arch (Etruscan), columns (Greeks) and medicine (Greeks).
17Roman Contributions to Science and Architecture Road and bridge construction.Perfected concreteVaulted domesAmphitheatersArchesThe Romans had no real contributions to science. What they did was gather information from other cultures.
18Roman ArchitectureThe Pantheon constructed during the reign of Hadrian.Built as a temple to Roman gods.Largest free standing dome in the world until the 14th century CE.
19Rise of Christianity In 6 CE, the Romans took over Judea. The Romans allowed the Jews to continue their religion but treated the Jewish population cruelly.The Jews took strength in their belief that a messiah would appear and drive the Romans from their lands.
20Rise of Christianity (Con’t) From CE, a Jew named Jesus traveled throughout Judea preaching a new message. He preached that God was coming and that people should act with kindness and compassion and give up their sinful lives.The followers of Jesus believed that he was the messiah.
21Rise of Christianity (Con’t) The religious leaders of the Jewish religion and the Romans viewed Jesus as a rebel and a traitor.The Romans arrested Jesus in Jerusalem as a political rebel and crucified him.After his death, his disciples began to spread his message. They began calling Jesus “Christos” or Greek for messiah.One disciple, Paul traveled throughout the empire spreading the word of Jesus.
22Rise of Christianity (Con’t) The religion appealed to the poor, salves, and women.The Romans treated the followers of this religion as traitors because the Christians refused to serve in the roman legions or recognize the emperor as a divine person.For the next 200 years, the Romans persecuted the Christians on and off.
23Rise of Christianity (Con’t) In 312 CE, Constantine became the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity.One year later, he issued the Edict of Milan ant gave religious freedom to all of the empire.In 392 CE, the emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the empire.
24Early Christian Hierarchy Why was it necessary?What model did the church use?How did the position of Pope come about?
26The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire expanded to its greatest extent during the reign of the emperor Trajan.The Roman legions were responsible for protecting a border over 4000 miles long.
27Decline and Fall (Con’t) The Pax Romana ended with the death of Marcus Aurelius in 180 CE.From 192 to 284 CE, Rome was ruled by many different emperors, most of them were incompetent and killed by the Praetorian Guards.This period became known as the 2nd Century Crisis.
28Decline and Fall – 2nd Century Crisis Political instabilityEconomic DeclineWarfare disrupted trade and profits. It also destroyed farm lands.The government began minting more coins, which lead to inflation.Taxes increased to pay for the larger military needed to protect the borders from outside invaders.
29Decline and Fall – Unsuccessful Reforms Emperor DiocletianSplit the empire into two; the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. Ruled with a co-emperor.West capital – RomeEast capital – Byzantium (Later Constantinople)Economic reforms – Edict of Prices – froze prices, required fathers to teach their sons an occupation, set a maximum price for goods, and required a person to stay in the same job.When Diocletian retired in 305 CE, civil wars again break out.
30Decline and Fall – Con’t) Emperor Constantine assumes power in 312CE and continues Diocletian’s reforms. He moved the capital to Constantinople.Theodosius becomes emperor in 337 CE and declares that the empire be permanently split upon his death.
31Decline and Fall – Barbarian Invasions Germanic TribesVisigothsHunsVandalsFranksGothsRome falls to Germanic tribes led by Odacer in 476 CE