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Roman Empire 27 BCE- 476 CE. Augustus Caesar In 27 CE, Octavian was named by the Senate consul, tribune, and commander in chief for life. In 27 CE, Octavian.

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Presentation on theme: "Roman Empire 27 BCE- 476 CE. Augustus Caesar In 27 CE, Octavian was named by the Senate consul, tribune, and commander in chief for life. In 27 CE, Octavian."— Presentation transcript:

1 Roman Empire 27 BCE- 476 CE

2 Augustus Caesar In 27 CE, Octavian was named by the Senate consul, tribune, and commander in chief for life. In 27 CE, Octavian was named by the Senate consul, tribune, and commander in chief for life. He also took the name Augustus, which means Majestic One. He also took the name Augustus, which means Majestic One.

3 Augustus (Cont) Augustus ruled Rome for 40 years, from 27 BCE to 14 CE. Augustus ruled Rome for 40 years, from 27 BCE to 14 CE. He began to rebuild the city of Rome.He began to rebuild the city of Rome. He appointed governors and tax collectors.He appointed governors and tax collectors. He imported grain from the provinces of North Africa.He imported grain from the provinces of North Africa. Public works projects, such as roads, temples, and public buildings were constructed.Public works projects, such as roads, temples, and public buildings were constructed.

4 Augustus (Cont) Augustus boasted that he had found Rome a city of bricks and left it a city of marble. Augustus boasted that he had found Rome a city of bricks and left it a city of marble. In 31 BCE, the Pax Romana began. This was a peace that lasted until 180 CE. During this time, the Roman legions did not participate in any major conflicts and the people of the roman Empire lived and prospered. In 31 BCE, the Pax Romana began. This was a peace that lasted until 180 CE. During this time, the Roman legions did not participate in any major conflicts and the people of the roman Empire lived and prospered.

5 Julio-Claudian Emperors From 14 to 68 CE, there were 4 people that assumed the position of emperor. These four were related to Augustus. From 14 to 68 CE, there were 4 people that assumed the position of emperor. These four were related to Augustus. TiberiusTiberius CaligulaCaligula ClaudiusClaudius NeroNero

6 The Good Emperors Twenty-eight years after Neros death, there were several emperors whose skill as effective administrators earned them the title Good Emperors. Twenty-eight years after Neros death, there were several emperors whose skill as effective administrators earned them the title Good Emperors. NervaNerva TrajanTrajan HadrianHadrian Antonius PiusAntonius Pius Marcus AureliusMarcus Aurelius

7 Roman Rule By 27 BCE, there were some 70 million people living in the Roman Empire. By 27 BCE, there were some 70 million people living in the Roman Empire. To rule effectively, Augustus had to make many changes in the government of Rome. To rule effectively, Augustus had to make many changes in the government of Rome. These were in the areas of government appointments, law, and the military. These were in the areas of government appointments, law, and the military.

8 Roman Government Professional governors were appointed in the provinces. Professional governors were appointed in the provinces. Augustus took the title of Pontiflex Maximus. This joined the political and religious systems together. Augustus took the title of Pontiflex Maximus. This joined the political and religious systems together.

9 Roman Law As more provinces were added, the need for a system of laws grew. As more provinces were added, the need for a system of laws grew. Roman citizens were covered by the jus civile, or citizens law. Roman citizens were covered by the jus civile, or citizens law. Non-Roman citizens were covered by the jus gentium, or non-citizen law. Non-Roman citizens were covered by the jus gentium, or non-citizen law. Roman laws stressed the importance of the state over the individual. Roman laws stressed the importance of the state over the individual.

10 Roman Military Rome had a powerful military in the beginning of the empire. However, as the Pax Romana continued, the cost of maintaining a large army increased. Rome had a powerful military in the beginning of the empire. However, as the Pax Romana continued, the cost of maintaining a large army increased. Emperors began to reduce the number of Romans in the legions, especially in the provinces. The allowed provincial peoples to join and protect their provinces. Emperors began to reduce the number of Romans in the legions, especially in the provinces. The allowed provincial peoples to join and protect their provinces.

11 Romes Economy 50,000 miles of improved Roman roads allowed trade goods to travel throughout the empire. 50,000 miles of improved Roman roads allowed trade goods to travel throughout the empire. Many of these roads still exist. Many of these roads still exist.

12 Life During the Pax Romana Increased wealth. Increased wealth. Decreased importance of family. Fathers lost some of their power. Decreased importance of family. Fathers lost some of their power. Gap between rich and poor continued to widen. Gap between rich and poor continued to widen. Government continued the Bread and circuses program for the poor in the cities. Government continued the Bread and circuses program for the poor in the cities.

13 Life (Cont)

14 Romans constructed many public works projects throughout the empire. Romans constructed many public works projects throughout the empire. One of the most unique was the aqueducts that supplied Roman cities with water. One of the most unique was the aqueducts that supplied Roman cities with water.

15 Life (Cont) Much of the building in the provinces was completed by the Roman legions. Much of the building in the provinces was completed by the Roman legions. Once the provinces were secured, soldiers became builders to bring Rome anywhere that Romans settled. Once the provinces were secured, soldiers became builders to bring Rome anywhere that Romans settled. In some cases, the Romans allowed the royal families to remain in power as long as they followed Roman law. In some cases, the Romans allowed the royal families to remain in power as long as they followed Roman law.

16 Life (Cont) Romans also preserved Greek culture and literature. Romans also preserved Greek culture and literature. They also excelled in adapting the discoveries of other cultures and using them in different ways. Examples are the arch (Etruscan), columns (Greeks) and medicine (Greeks). They also excelled in adapting the discoveries of other cultures and using them in different ways. Examples are the arch (Etruscan), columns (Greeks) and medicine (Greeks).

17 Roman Contributions to Science and Architecture Road and bridge construction. Road and bridge construction. Perfected concrete Perfected concrete Vaulted domes Vaulted domes Amphitheaters Amphitheaters Arches Arches The Romans had no real contributions to science. What they did was gather information from other cultures. The Romans had no real contributions to science. What they did was gather information from other cultures.

18 Roman Architecture The Pantheon constructed during the reign of Hadrian. The Pantheon constructed during the reign of Hadrian. Built as a temple to Roman gods. Built as a temple to Roman gods. Largest free standing dome in the world until the 14 th century CE. Largest free standing dome in the world until the 14 th century CE.

19 Rise of Christianity In 6 CE, the Romans took over Judea. In 6 CE, the Romans took over Judea. The Romans allowed the Jews to continue their religion but treated the Jewish population cruelly. The Romans allowed the Jews to continue their religion but treated the Jewish population cruelly. The Jews took strength in their belief that a messiah would appear and drive the Romans from their lands. The Jews took strength in their belief that a messiah would appear and drive the Romans from their lands.

20 Rise of Christianity (Cont) From CE, a Jew named Jesus traveled throughout Judea preaching a new message. He preached that God was coming and that people should act with kindness and compassion and give up their sinful lives. From CE, a Jew named Jesus traveled throughout Judea preaching a new message. He preached that God was coming and that people should act with kindness and compassion and give up their sinful lives. The followers of Jesus believed that he was the messiah. The followers of Jesus believed that he was the messiah.

21 Rise of Christianity (Cont) The religious leaders of the Jewish religion and the Romans viewed Jesus as a rebel and a traitor. The religious leaders of the Jewish religion and the Romans viewed Jesus as a rebel and a traitor. The Romans arrested Jesus in Jerusalem as a political rebel and crucified him. The Romans arrested Jesus in Jerusalem as a political rebel and crucified him. After his death, his disciples began to spread his message. They began calling Jesus Christos or Greek for messiah. After his death, his disciples began to spread his message. They began calling Jesus Christos or Greek for messiah. One disciple, Paul traveled throughout the empire spreading the word of Jesus. One disciple, Paul traveled throughout the empire spreading the word of Jesus.

22 Rise of Christianity (Cont) The religion appealed to the poor, salves, and women. The religion appealed to the poor, salves, and women. The Romans treated the followers of this religion as traitors because the Christians refused to serve in the roman legions or recognize the emperor as a divine person. The Romans treated the followers of this religion as traitors because the Christians refused to serve in the roman legions or recognize the emperor as a divine person. For the next 200 years, the Romans persecuted the Christians on and off. For the next 200 years, the Romans persecuted the Christians on and off.

23 Rise of Christianity (Cont) In 312 CE, Constantine became the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity. In 312 CE, Constantine became the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity. One year later, he issued the Edict of Milan ant gave religious freedom to all of the empire. One year later, he issued the Edict of Milan ant gave religious freedom to all of the empire. In 392 CE, the emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the empire. In 392 CE, the emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the empire.

24 Early Christian Hierarchy Why was it necessary? Why was it necessary? What model did the church use? What model did the church use? How did the position of Pope come about? How did the position of Pope come about?

25 Early Church Hierarchy Patriarchs 5 Patriarchal cities – Rome, Antioch, Constantinople, Alexandria, Jerusalem ArchbishopsProvinces BishopsDiocese PriestsParishes

26 The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire expanded to its greatest extent during the reign of the emperor Trajan. The Roman Empire expanded to its greatest extent during the reign of the emperor Trajan. The Roman legions were responsible for protecting a border over 4000 miles long. The Roman legions were responsible for protecting a border over 4000 miles long.

27 Decline and Fall (Cont) The Pax Romana ended with the death of Marcus Aurelius in 180 CE. The Pax Romana ended with the death of Marcus Aurelius in 180 CE. From 192 to 284 CE, Rome was ruled by many different emperors, most of them were incompetent and killed by the Praetorian Guards. From 192 to 284 CE, Rome was ruled by many different emperors, most of them were incompetent and killed by the Praetorian Guards. This period became known as the 2 nd Century Crisis. This period became known as the 2 nd Century Crisis.

28 Decline and Fall – 2 nd Century Crisis Political instability Political instability Economic Decline Economic Decline Warfare disrupted trade and profits. It also destroyed farm lands.Warfare disrupted trade and profits. It also destroyed farm lands. The government began minting more coins, which lead to inflation.The government began minting more coins, which lead to inflation. Taxes increased to pay for the larger military needed to protect the borders from outside invaders.Taxes increased to pay for the larger military needed to protect the borders from outside invaders.

29 Decline and Fall – Unsuccessful Reforms Emperor Diocletian Emperor Diocletian Split the empire into two; the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. Ruled with a co-emperor.Split the empire into two; the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. Ruled with a co-emperor. West capital – Rome West capital – Rome East capital – Byzantium (Later Constantinople) East capital – Byzantium (Later Constantinople) Economic reforms – Edict of Prices – froze prices, required fathers to teach their sons an occupation, set a maximum price for goods, and required a person to stay in the same job. Economic reforms – Edict of Prices – froze prices, required fathers to teach their sons an occupation, set a maximum price for goods, and required a person to stay in the same job. When Diocletian retired in 305 CE, civil wars again break out. When Diocletian retired in 305 CE, civil wars again break out.

30 Decline and Fall – Cont) Emperor Constantine assumes power in 312CE and continues Diocletians reforms. He moved the capital to Constantinople. Emperor Constantine assumes power in 312CE and continues Diocletians reforms. He moved the capital to Constantinople. Theodosius becomes emperor in 337 CE and declares that the empire be permanently split upon his death. Theodosius becomes emperor in 337 CE and declares that the empire be permanently split upon his death.

31 Decline and Fall – Barbarian Invasions Germanic Tribes Germanic Tribes VisigothsVisigoths HunsHuns VandalsVandals FranksFranks GothsGoths Rome falls to Germanic tribes led by Odacer in 476 CERome falls to Germanic tribes led by Odacer in 476 CE


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