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Vertebrate Classes All in Chordate Phylum

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Presentation on theme: "Vertebrate Classes All in Chordate Phylum"— Presentation transcript:

1 Vertebrate Classes All in Chordate Phylum

2 All vertebrates have… Bilateral symmetry
Fully developed coelom with organs Closed circulatory system Endoskeleton with spinal cord

3 Vertebrate Classes Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals

4 Orders of Fish Lamprey and hagfish (jawless) bony fish
Shark (cartilage)

5 Lampreys/Hagfish Jawless Fish
Lampreys attach to fish-parasites Have “round sucker like mouths” Hagfish are Scavengers of dead and dying fish on ocean bottom

6 Sharks, Skates, Rays No swim bladder Jaws
The shark’s mouth has 6 to 20 rows of backward-pointing teeth Some can detect blood from an injured animal as far as 500 miles away No swim bladder

7 Bony Fish Most are familiar fishes and include snake-like eels, salmon, trout, bass, herring, tallapia and lantern fish (most fish we eat)

8 Bony Fish Fishes are the most numerous of all vertebrates and most widespread in their distribution Ectothermic


10 Obtain Oxygen Fish obtain O2 through their gills
Fish can extract 85 % of the oxygen passing over the gills Blood goes to the gills, is oxygenated and sent to all parts of the body Single loop circulation in fish

11 Fish have a two chambered heart.
This is efficient for the fish since it is in water, but would not work for land animals who need more energy.

12 2 chamber heart The disadvantage of a 2 chambered heart is its slow delivery MUCH more energy required to move on land (or in air) = more O2 needed faster

13 Fish Reproduction Usually external fertilization
Large numbers of eggs are fertilized during Spawning – when fish reproduce

14 Sockeye Salmon

15 Cartilage Fish Ectothermic
Barndoor skate (Dipturus laevis) Cartilage Fish Ectothermic Sharks, Skates and Rays fertilization is internal-most are born live Some sharks lay eggs Skate

16 Variety of Rays There are many different types of rays including
stingrays, electric rays, butterfly rays, round rays, manta rays, guitarfish, and sawfish.

17 Early aquatic adaptations
Teeth (everyone) – evolved from skin Shift from scavenging to predation (lampreys) Jaws (sharks and bony fish) provide biting force

18 Later aquatic adaptations
Bony fish evolve swim bladder This is an air bag that allows fish to move up and down in water-called buoyancy sharks sink when not swimming Swim bladder adapted to be lungs on land

19 Transitional fish / amphibian?
Tiktaalik roseae

20 Amphibians Salamander Frog Toad



23 Amphibians on land Four legs are an adaptation to walk on land-These are adapted fish fins at right angles from body Ectotherms- Body temperature the same as the surrounding temperature. Hibernate or Estivate depending on climate

24 3 Chamber Heart 2 atria – 1 from body (deoxygenated), 1 from lungs (oxygenated) 1 ventricle – pumps blood to lungs and body O2 through lungs and moist skin called coetaneous respiration

25 3 chamber heart Advantage of a 3 chambered heart
Blood getting to body cells faster (heart pumps directly to body) Disadvantage of a 3 chambered heart: Deoxygenated blood mixes with oxygenated blood in atria

26 Amphibian Reproduction
Must live near water for 2 reasons 1) External fertilization - Reproduce in water (lay eggs there) egg  tadpole  young frog  adult Called Metamorphosis 2) Go to water to keep skin moist to obtain oxygen

27 Bullfrogs Eat Everything

28 Reptiles

29 Reptiles turtle crocodile snake

30 Adaptation-Claws Strong, bony skeletons and toes with claws
Claws-aid in climbing, digging and movement in various terrains

31 More Reptile Adaptations
Adaptations evolved which allow reptiles to live totally on land. 1) Scales to prevent water loss 2) The most important adaptation for living on land is the amniotic egg

32 Reptilian Scales

33 Eggs Amniotic egg – has all the water and nutrients inside for embryo to survive

34 Reptile limitations Disadvantage of Ectothermy:
Must live in warm areas Cannot be active at night

35 Regulating Body Temperature
Ectotherm (“cold-blooded”) – animal does not maintain a constant body temperature Outside Temp = Body Temp

36 Ectothermy Become sluggish in very cold temperature
Bask in the sun or seek shade

37 Ectothermy Advantages Disadvantages No energy used to keep warm
Restricted to warm climates only Active only during day

38 Heart Heart of most Reptiles-3 chambers
Disadvantage: Oxygenated and Deoxygenated blood mixes-less efficient Crocodiles and alligators have a ventricle that is totally separated into two pumping chambers-4 chambers

39 Double loop circulation

40 Transitional bird / reptile

41 Birds

42 Birds Adaptations for Flight: Feathers, wings, hollow bones
Adaptation for living on land: Amniotic Egg like reptiles

43 Endothermy Endotherm (“warm-blooded”) keeping a constant body
temperature Advantages: Can be active even in colder biomes Can be active at night (nocturnal predators) Disadvantages: Requires lots of energy (must find food often)

44 Hummingbirds

45 4 chamber heart 2 atria – 1 from body (deoxygenated), 1 from lungs (oxygenated) 2 ventricles – 1 pumps to lungs , 1 pumps to body

46 4 chamber heart Even more energy needed for cells
Birds = energy for flight Mammals = energy for large brains NO mixture of blood in 4 chamber heart

47 Digestive and Excretory system
Food passes from the mouth cavity straight to the esophagus. The crop stores and moistens food. Then passes through the gizzard, a muscular organ that kneads and crushes the food

48 Respiratory System Air enters nostrils at base of beakDown trachea past song boxenters two primary bronchiito lungs 75% bypasses the lungs and flows directly to posterior to sacssacs connect with air spaces in bones, filling the hollow bones with air. When bird exhales the carbon dioxide rich air from the lungs, oxygen rich air is forced out of the posterior air sacs into lungs.

49 Adapations for Flight Air sacs allow birds to take in more oxygen for cellular respiration Hollow bones is a adaptation to decrease weight take in more oxygen for cellular respiration.

50 Transitional reptile / mammal
Egg-laying Mammals or Monotremes Platypus



53 Evolution and Adaptations
Mammals belong to the class Mammalia, which includes 4000 species Most dominant land animals on earth.

54 Circulatory System Mammalian heart has 4 chambers
Mammals have a muscle , the diaphragm that aids in lung breathing

55 Adaptations that distinguish Mammals from other vertebrates:
Hair which helps in insulation Mammary glands that produce milk for the young.

56 Mammals 19 orders of mammals 17 nourish unborn young by the placenta
The others are: egg laying Monotremes and Marsupials

57 Marsupials Marsupials give birth to tiny immature young that crawl to a pouch on the mothers belly immediately after they are born.

58 Characteristics of Placental Mammals
Placental mammals carry unborn young in the uterus until young can survive in the wild. Oxygen and nutrients are transferred from mother’s blood to baby’s blood

59 Placental Characteristics
The placenta is a membrane providing oxygen and nutrients and removal of CO2 and waste between the mother and developing young Gestation period is the time which mammals develop in mother’s uterus

60 Mammals Hairy Armadillo Also endothermic
Hairy Saki-Monkey Also endothermic Hair helps to insulate, maintain internal body temperature Paraguaian Hairy Dwarf Porcupine Hairy Armadillo

61 Mammals Large brain size (learning / communicating)
Disadvantage: longer time needed for brain development Solution: longer gestation period in mom and intensive parental care early on (including milk from mammary glands)

62 The End

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