2The Six Old KilnsRefers to the six traditional medieval pottery centers of Japan.ShigarakiBizenTanbaEchizenSetoTokoname
3The Six Old KilnsIn Japan the terms "Nihon Rokkoyo" or "Chuse Rokkoyo" refer to the six typical pottery centers of the medieval period. These pottery centers were know for creating three general categories of clay ware.These three categories are : Sueki, Hajiki and Shiki.This presentation will introduce these types of ceramics first before going into firing processes and surface decoration.
4Sueki PotterySueki was made in ancient Japan, and was usually gray and vitreous. The products of sueki were fired to yellow heat, at between degrees in a reduction atmosphere. Sueki products were generally made on the wheel, and usually served the function of everyday utensils and ceremonial vessels.
5Hajiki PotteryProduction of Hajiki began in the Kofun period around the 4th century. Hajiki was usually reddish bisque ware used for everyday utensils and ceremonial vessels. It was fired at lower temperatures (from 600 to 800) than the "sueki" ware, which was produced around the same time.
6Shiki PotteryShiki is the oldest glazed bisque ware in Japan. A three color lead glaze, "sansai-enyu", was applied to this work. It was fired to relatively low temperatures (around 800 degrees), and it was produced in the Heian period ( ).
7Japanese Firing Process: Raku The word Raku means, “joy,” or “happiness.”The process of Raku firing involves heating glazed pots to 1875 degrees, opening the kiln and removing the molten pot with a pair of tongs. The artwork is placed in a container of organic material and closed to create a reduction chamber. The fast cooling process makes a crackle pattern in the clay body called crazing and intense colors.
8Japanese Firing Process: Smoke Smoke firing takes place in a metal or brick container. The pots are packed in wood shavings and sawdust until the kiln is full. A fire is lit and the kiln is covered and left to burn out. Shavings smolder and the smoke and fumes burn permanently into the clay surface. The colors which result are quite unpredictable being influenced by the type of sawdust, the density of the packing, and the location of the pots within the kiln.
9Japanese Surface Decoration:Mishima Mishima is the process of creating grooves in the clay that are later filled with an opposing color of clay. It is similar to drawing on the surface of a clay object.