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IIIIII Molecular Geometry (p. 232 – 236) Ch. 8 – Molecular Structure.

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Presentation on theme: "IIIIII Molecular Geometry (p. 232 – 236) Ch. 8 – Molecular Structure."— Presentation transcript:

1 IIIIII Molecular Geometry (p. 232 – 236) Ch. 8 – Molecular Structure

2 Teacher Notes – Why VSEPR?

3 A. VSEPR Theory Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory Electron pairs orient themselves in order to minimize repulsive forces

4 A. VSEPR Theory Types of e - Pairs Bonding pairs – form bonds Lone pairs – nonbonding e - Total e - pairs– bonding + lone pairs Lone pairs repel more strongly than bonding pairs!!!

5 A. VSEPR Theory Lone pairs reduce the bond angle between atoms Bond Angle

6 Draw the Lewis Diagram Tally up e - pairs on central atom (bonds + lone pairs) double/triple bonds = ONE pair Shape is determined by the # of bonding pairs and lone pairs Know the 13 common shapes & their bond angles! B. Determining Molecular Shape

7 C. Common Molecular Shapes # 1 2 total 2 bond 0 lone LINEAR 180° BeH 2 Electronic Geometry = linear Hybridization = sp

8 3 total 3 bond 0 lone TRIGONAL PLANAR 120° BF 3 C. Common Molecular Shapes # 2 Electronic Geometry = trigonal planar Hybridization = sp 2

9 C. Common Molecular Shapes # 3 3 total 2 bond 1 lone BENT <120° NO 2 1- Electronic Geometry = trigonal planar Hybridization = sp 2

10 4 total 4 bond 0 lone TETRAHEDRAL 109.5° CH 4 C. Common Molecular Shapes # 4 Electronic Geometry = tetrahedral Hybridization = sp 3

11 4 total 3 bond 1 lone TRIGONAL PYRAMIDAL 107° NCl 3 C. Common Molecular Shapes # 5 Electronic Geometry = tetrahedral Hybridization = sp 3 <109.5°

12 4 total 2 bond 2 lone BENT 104.5° H2OH2O C. Common Molecular Shapes # 6 Electronic Geometry = tetrahedral Hybridization = sp 3 <109.5°

13 5 total 5 bond 0 lone TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL 120°/90° PI 5 C. Common Molecular Shapes # 7 Electronic Geometry = trigonal bipyramidal Hybridization = sp 3 d

14 5 total 4 bond 1 lone SEESAW <120°/<90° SF 4 C. Common Molecular Shapes # 8 Electronic Geometry = trigonal bipyramidal Hybridization = sp 3 d

15 5 total 3 bond 2 lone T-SHAPE <90° ClF 3 C. Common Molecular Shapes # 9 Electronic Geometry = trigonal bipyramidal Hybridization = sp 3 d

16 5 total 2 bond 3 lone LINEAR 180° I 3 1- C. Common Molecular Shapes # 10 Electronic Geometry = trigonal bipyramidal Hybridization = sp 3 d

17 6 total 6 bond 0 lone OCTAHEDRAL 90° SH 6 C. Common Molecular Shapes # 11 Electronic Geometry = octahedral Hybridization = sp 3 d 2

18 6 total 5 bond 1 lone SQUARE PYRAMIDAL <90° IF 5 C. Common Molecular Shapes # 12 Electronic Geometry = octahedral Hybridization = sp 3 d 2

19 6 total 4 bond 2 lone SQUARE PLANAR 90° KrF 4 C. Common Molecular Shapes # 13 Electronic Geometry = octahedral Hybridization = sp 3 d 2

20 SeO 3 3 total 3 bond 0 lone D. Examples O O Se O E.G. = TRIGONAL PLANAR M.G. = TRIGONAL PLANAR 120° Hybridization = sp 2

21 AsH 3 4 total 3 bond 1 lone E.G. = TETRAHEDRAL M.G. = TRIGONAL PYRAMIDAL 107° (<109.5°) H As H H D. Examples Hybridization = sp 3

22 E. Hybridization Provides information about molecular bonding and molecular shape Several atomic orbitals mix to form same total of equivalent hybrid orbitals

23 E. Hybridization Carbon is common example (orbital diagram) One of 2s electrons is promoted to 2p 4 identical orbitals form sp 3 hybridization

24 E. Hybridization Other types of hybridization BeH 2 forms AlCl 3 forms SiF 4 forms KrF 4 forms SF 4 forms Remember the superscript is the orbital, not e- configuration! exceptions sp sp 2 sp 3 d 2 sp 3 or sp 3 d 2 dsp 3 or sp 3 d

25 F. Hybridization Example Compare shapes and hybrid orbitals: PF 3 PF 5 E.G. TetrahedralTrigonal bipyramidal M.G. Trigonal pyramidalTrigonal bipyramidal HYBsp 3 dsp 3


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