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IIIIII Molecular Geometry (p. 232 – 236) Ch. 8 – Molecular Structure

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Teacher Notes – Why VSEPR?

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A. VSEPR Theory Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory Electron pairs orient themselves in order to minimize repulsive forces

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A. VSEPR Theory Types of e - Pairs Bonding pairs – form bonds Lone pairs – nonbonding e - Total e - pairs– bonding + lone pairs Lone pairs repel more strongly than bonding pairs!!!

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A. VSEPR Theory Lone pairs reduce the bond angle between atoms Bond Angle

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Draw the Lewis Diagram Tally up e - pairs on central atom (bonds + lone pairs) double/triple bonds = ONE pair Shape is determined by the # of bonding pairs and lone pairs Know the 13 common shapes & their bond angles! B. Determining Molecular Shape

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C. Common Molecular Shapes # 1 2 total 2 bond 0 lone LINEAR 180° BeH 2 Electronic Geometry = linear Hybridization = sp

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3 total 3 bond 0 lone TRIGONAL PLANAR 120° BF 3 C. Common Molecular Shapes # 2 Electronic Geometry = trigonal planar Hybridization = sp 2

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C. Common Molecular Shapes # 3 3 total 2 bond 1 lone BENT <120° NO 2 1- Electronic Geometry = trigonal planar Hybridization = sp 2

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4 total 4 bond 0 lone TETRAHEDRAL 109.5° CH 4 C. Common Molecular Shapes # 4 Electronic Geometry = tetrahedral Hybridization = sp 3

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4 total 3 bond 1 lone TRIGONAL PYRAMIDAL 107° NCl 3 C. Common Molecular Shapes # 5 Electronic Geometry = tetrahedral Hybridization = sp 3 <109.5°

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4 total 2 bond 2 lone BENT 104.5° H2OH2O C. Common Molecular Shapes # 6 Electronic Geometry = tetrahedral Hybridization = sp 3 <109.5°

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5 total 5 bond 0 lone TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL 120°/90° PI 5 C. Common Molecular Shapes # 7 Electronic Geometry = trigonal bipyramidal Hybridization = sp 3 d

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5 total 4 bond 1 lone SEESAW <120°/<90° SF 4 C. Common Molecular Shapes # 8 Electronic Geometry = trigonal bipyramidal Hybridization = sp 3 d

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5 total 3 bond 2 lone T-SHAPE <90° ClF 3 C. Common Molecular Shapes # 9 Electronic Geometry = trigonal bipyramidal Hybridization = sp 3 d

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5 total 2 bond 3 lone LINEAR 180° I 3 1- C. Common Molecular Shapes # 10 Electronic Geometry = trigonal bipyramidal Hybridization = sp 3 d

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6 total 6 bond 0 lone OCTAHEDRAL 90° SH 6 C. Common Molecular Shapes # 11 Electronic Geometry = octahedral Hybridization = sp 3 d 2

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6 total 5 bond 1 lone SQUARE PYRAMIDAL <90° IF 5 C. Common Molecular Shapes # 12 Electronic Geometry = octahedral Hybridization = sp 3 d 2

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6 total 4 bond 2 lone SQUARE PLANAR 90° KrF 4 C. Common Molecular Shapes # 13 Electronic Geometry = octahedral Hybridization = sp 3 d 2

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SeO 3 3 total 3 bond 0 lone D. Examples O O Se O E.G. = TRIGONAL PLANAR M.G. = TRIGONAL PLANAR 120° Hybridization = sp 2

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AsH 3 4 total 3 bond 1 lone E.G. = TETRAHEDRAL M.G. = TRIGONAL PYRAMIDAL 107° (<109.5°) H As H H D. Examples Hybridization = sp 3

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E. Hybridization Provides information about molecular bonding and molecular shape Several atomic orbitals mix to form same total of equivalent hybrid orbitals

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E. Hybridization Carbon is common example (orbital diagram) One of 2s electrons is promoted to 2p 4 identical orbitals form sp 3 hybridization

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E. Hybridization Other types of hybridization BeH 2 forms AlCl 3 forms SiF 4 forms KrF 4 forms SF 4 forms Remember the superscript is the orbital, not e- configuration! exceptions sp sp 2 sp 3 d 2 sp 3 or sp 3 d 2 dsp 3 or sp 3 d

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F. Hybridization Example Compare shapes and hybrid orbitals: PF 3 PF 5 E.G. TetrahedralTrigonal bipyramidal M.G. Trigonal pyramidalTrigonal bipyramidal HYBsp 3 dsp 3

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