4 About the Zhou…..Zhou in its heyday- the “Imperial Period”Mandate of Heaven- authority to rule from heaven- began during the Zhou dynastyset up agricultural system- nobles own land and peasants worked land- term feudal has often been applied to the Zhou period (compared with medieval Europe)
5 Technological advances…. Iron came into general useBuilt roads, and expanded foreign tradeAdded crossbow (centuries earlier than Europeans)cavalryIron plow, irrigation system and flood control
6 Chinese Society During Zhou Dynasty 3 main classes: landowners, peasants and merchants (90% peasants)Filial Piety – respect for parents/ancestorsHierarchy in family – males dominatedValued baby boys more than girls
7 The Downfall of the Zhou Dynasty Toward the end of the dynasty, nobles began to fight among each other for powerFarmers had to fight in armies which produced many crop failures and food shortagesSoon the empire was weak and taken over by a more powerful king
8 The Hundred Schools of thought were said to have developed during the Zhou dynasty. Examples include:ConfucianismLegalismDaoismThese philosophies focused very little on supernatural or eternal life, instead focused on life in this world and how it should be lived
9 ConfucianismEnd of the Zhou dynasty was a time of disorder and Confucius (a scholar) wanted to restore the order in China522 B.C.E- Confucius begins to teach
10 Confucianism (cont’d) Taught social harmony and good government would come to China if people lived according to principles of ethics, good conduct and moral judgmentReciprocity“Do not do unto others as you would not want others to do unto you”
11 Confucianism (cont’d) Confucianism is an ethical system of right and wrong, NOT a religionIt stresses good relationships, especially in the family
12 Five Relationships Ruler/Subject Parent/Child Husband/Wife Old/Young Friend/FriendEach relationship has certain responsibilities to follow479 B.C.E- teachings were collected into works called Analects
13 Confucius on WomenConfucius maintained that it was a law of nature that women should be held under the domination of men since women were the source of disorder and disruption of the harmony of the community“As a girl, she must obey her father.As a wife, she must obey her husband.As a widow she must obey her son.”
14 How were they viewed in regards to Confucianism??? Scholars most important in society, they make knowledgePeasants or farmers have a natural role to fulfill in society, they make foodArtisans also have a practical job in society, they make productsMerchants the “lowest of the low”, viewed as parasites who get rich off others
15 Daoismadvocates a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events The Yin and Yang are used to represent this thought
16 Legalismadvocating strict legal control over all activities, a system of rewards and punishments uniform for all classes
17 For the first time, China was completely united as one empire Qin Dynasty 221 B.C.E. to 206 B.C.E.For the first time, China was completely united as one empire
20 The Rule of Qin Shihuangdi the good… New ideas about communication helped unify ChinaReorganized the empire into military districts- keep local lords from taking overDeveloped a system of weights and measures and standardized coinsInstituted a uniform writing systemEducated men, not nobles ran the country
21 the bad…..Relied heavily on Legalist scholar advisers- became a very strict rulerImposed taxes on land owners and took away land from local lords
22 the ugly……Censored books and burned books that were not practical subjectsScholars could not even talk of the past
26 The Background of the Excavation In 1974, workers digging a well discovered a pottery head of a human figureWhat they found was an ancient burial-site of the first Chinese Emperor Qin Shihuangdi.Qin wanted the afterlife to be the same as his life on earth.To substitute for the actual humans, Qin ordered a massive clay army to be produced for his protection.
27 Some 8,000 figures have been uncovered grouped in battle order, facing east, to protect the emperor, who lies in his mausoleumThe army consisted of 7,000 warriors: archers, foot soldiers, cavalrymen, and charioteers of various rank, 500 chariot horses, 130 war chariots, and 110 cavalry horses
32 Another Brick in the Wall… Zhou rulers had built walls to prevent nomadic attacks from the North (p. 108)Shi Huangdi was determined to close the gaps to extend the wall the length of the empire
33 Back Breaking Work Peasants forced to work on the wall for no pay If they did not work they diedIf they did work, they could still die from working conditions and harsh weather
34 The End of QinAfter Shi Huangdi’s death, peasants revolted and formed a strong army to defeat the emperor thus ending the Qin DynastyLiu Bang, a military officer from a peasant background, led the defeat of the Qin Dynasty and declared himself emperor of the new Han dynasty……….
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