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China O.

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Presentation on theme: "China O."— Presentation transcript:

1 China O

2 Zhou Dynasty (1100 B.C.E.- 221 B.C.E.)
Wu, the former leader of Shang territory took over capital and established the Zhou

3 Map of Zhou

4 About the Zhou….. Zhou in its heyday- the “Imperial Period” Mandate of Heaven- authority to rule from heaven- began during the Zhou dynasty set up agricultural system- nobles own land and peasants worked land- term feudal has often been applied to the Zhou period (compared with medieval Europe)

5 Technological advances….
Iron came into general use Built roads, and expanded foreign trade Added crossbow (centuries earlier than Europeans) cavalry Iron plow, irrigation system and flood control

6 Chinese Society During Zhou Dynasty
3 main classes: landowners, peasants and merchants (90% peasants) Filial Piety – respect for parents/ancestors Hierarchy in family – males dominated Valued baby boys more than girls

7 The Downfall of the Zhou Dynasty
Toward the end of the dynasty, nobles began to fight among each other for power Farmers had to fight in armies which produced many crop failures and food shortages Soon the empire was weak and taken over by a more powerful king

8 The Hundred Schools of thought were said to have developed during the Zhou dynasty. Examples include: Confucianism Legalism Daoism These philosophies focused very little on supernatural or eternal life, instead focused on life in this world and how it should be lived

9 Confucianism End of the Zhou dynasty was a time of disorder and Confucius (a scholar) wanted to restore the order in China 522 B.C.E- Confucius begins to teach

10 Confucianism (cont’d)
Taught social harmony and good government would come to China if people lived according to principles of ethics, good conduct and moral judgment Reciprocity “Do not do unto others as you would not want others to do unto you”

11 Confucianism (cont’d)
Confucianism is an ethical system of right and wrong, NOT a religion It stresses good relationships, especially in the family

12 Five Relationships Ruler/Subject Parent/Child Husband/Wife Old/Young
Friend/Friend Each relationship has certain responsibilities to follow 479 B.C.E- teachings were collected into works called Analects

13 Confucius on Women Confucius maintained that it was a law of nature that women should be held under the domination of men since women were the source of disorder and disruption of the harmony of the community “As a girl, she must obey her father. As a wife, she must obey her husband. As a widow she must obey her son.”

14 How were they viewed in regards to Confucianism???
Scholars  most important in society, they make knowledge Peasants or farmers  have a natural role to fulfill in society, they make food Artisans  also have a practical job in society, they make products Merchants  the “lowest of the low”, viewed as parasites who get rich off others

15 Daoism advocates a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events  The Yin and Yang are used to represent this thought

16 Legalism advocating strict legal control over all activities, a system of rewards and punishments uniform for all classes

17 For the first time, China was completely united as one empire
Qin Dynasty 221 B.C.E. to 206 B.C.E. For the first time, China was completely united as one empire

18 Map of Qin

19 ShiHuangdi The First (Shi) Emperor (Huangdi)

20 The Rule of Qin Shihuangdi the good…
New ideas about communication helped unify China Reorganized the empire into military districts- keep local lords from taking over Developed a system of weights and measures and standardized coins Instituted a uniform writing system Educated men, not nobles ran the country

21 the bad….. Relied heavily on Legalist scholar advisers- became a very strict ruler Imposed taxes on land owners and took away land from local lords

22 the ugly…… Censored books and burned books that were not practical subjects Scholars could not even talk of the past




26 The Background of the Excavation
In 1974, workers digging a well discovered a pottery head of a human figure What they found was an ancient burial-site of the first Chinese Emperor Qin Shihuangdi. Qin wanted the afterlife to be the same as his life on earth. To substitute for the actual humans, Qin ordered a massive clay army to be produced for his protection.

27 Some 8,000 figures have been uncovered grouped in battle order, facing east, to protect the emperor, who lies in his mausoleum The army consisted of 7,000 warriors: archers, foot soldiers, cavalrymen, and charioteers of various rank, 500 chariot horses, 130 war chariots, and 110 cavalry horses




31 The Great Wall of China

32 Another Brick in the Wall…
Zhou rulers had built walls to prevent nomadic attacks from the North (p. 108) Shi Huangdi was determined to close the gaps to extend the wall the length of the empire

33 Back Breaking Work Peasants forced to work on the wall for no pay
If they did not work they died If they did work, they could still die from working conditions and harsh weather

34 The End of Qin After Shi Huangdi’s death, peasants revolted and formed a strong army to defeat the emperor thus ending the Qin Dynasty Liu Bang, a military officer from a peasant background, led the defeat of the Qin Dynasty and declared himself emperor of the new Han dynasty……….

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