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Presentation on theme: "ANCIENT GREECE."— Presentation transcript:



3 Greece: The Aegean Area
Southern part of Balkans Low-lying, rugged mountains Fertile plains for farming, not enough to support population Harbors along coastline, trading Mild climate, outdoor activities Mountains serve to: Protect from invaders Limit travel & communication

4 Literature Story tellers, or bards, kept traditions alive during “Dark Age” Homer wrote the Iliad and Odyssey Iliad details the Mycenaean siege at Troy and Trojan Horse Odyssey follows Odysseus’ journey home after the war Represent the values of Hellenic civilization and used to teach students the excellence of their culture and dignity

5 Greek Deities Believed the powerful deities caused events in physical world to occur Unlike other ancient people, they placed importance on worth of an individual and treated gods with dignity They humanized deities and gods behaved as humans Greeks tried to be like deities

6 Gods, Goddesses, Festivals
12 most important deities lived on Mount Olympus Each of the deities controlled a specific part of the natural world Olympic Games: held every 4 years at Olympia in Zeus’ honor Plays, dances also honored the gods


8 Polis A city-state Basic political unit of Hellenic society
city, villages, fields surround an acropolis (fortified hill) Citizens in polis had rights and responsibilities (vote, own property, etc) In return, they had to serve in gov’t or defend the polis in times of war Citizens were only land owning men Women, slaves, foreigners were not citizens and had no political, legal rights


10 Trade Growth of population after “Dark Age” forced people to look elsewhere for food Look towards trade to supply food A switch from barter to money system allowed trade to expand further


12 Military Society Life revolved around army, no need for city walls…army will defend All men aspired to become soldiers Newborn infants were examined Healthy: could live Sickly: left to die on a hillside

13 Military Society (cont’d)
Age 7: taken to military barracks to start training in reading, writing, weapons Age 20: became soldiers and sent to frontier Age 30: marry and reproduce, but still stay in army Age 60: retire from army

14 Military Society Life in barracks is harsh
Beaten by older children to make you tough and strong Whipped in front of others, parents but could not cry Given little food and encouraged to steal, if caught beaten Wore rags and no shoes all year In time, taught to lie, steal, cheat and to always get away with it Remember: you are superior b/c you are a Spartan!!!

15 Spartan Women Life’s ambition is to be a soldier’s mother
Brought up to be healthy, strong…given equal food Trained in wrestling, boxing, gymnastics Married at 19 so babies would be healthy More personal freedoms than Athenians, but not serve in gov’t

16 Spartan Government There were kings, but their duties were limited to leading the army and conducting religious services The Assembly (male citizens over 30) passed laws, made decisions A Council of the Elders (male citizens over 60) served as supreme court

17 Results of Sparta The strict control over people led to a lack of economic development Discouraged trade and shunned philosophy, science and the arts They were exceptional athletes and aptly defended Greece against invaders



20 - Unlike Sparta they developed a constitution that stated all free, Athenian-born men were citizens…regardless of what social class - Now they could participate in Assembly regardless of land This reduced friction in Athens

21 Children in Athens Boys given an education, as they were expected to hold office as a citizen one day Girls received no formal education, just household training from mother Private tutors or schools From 7-18 boys learned: Arithmetic Geometry Drawing, music, gymnastics Main texts were Iliad andOdyssey

22 Children in Athens (cont’d)
Wealthy girls would marry their father’s choice at 15 Peasant girls would choose a husband from the field Boys would train for future jobs after school They entered the military after graduation and then went onto careers such as businessmen or Olympic athletes

23 Women in Athens Wore clothes to depict their status in society
Most important job for all women is having children Wealthy women would manage house and slaves Peasant women would manage house and work in field Women not allowed to eat/sleep in same room as men, go to market or Olympics

24 Men in Athens Like their wives, wore clothes equal to their status
In charge of family and house Given great respect at home Would work as businessmen or farmers during the day Given the most responsibility in Greece, so the most important people in Greece


26 Culture of Greece During the “Golden Age”

27 Greek Architecture Its style and influence is around the world
3 types of columns Doric Ionic Corinthian

28  Doric column


30 Public Building in NY

31 Ohio State Capitol Building

32 The Palace at Knossos

33 Temple of Hera: Doric Style


35 Temple of Athena: Ionic Style

36 Architecture erected many beautiful public buildings such as temples, gymnasiums, and theaters decorated their buildings most famous ones are Acropolis Parthenon

37 Painting best preserved were those that were used to decorate vases
illustrated myths and everyday life

38 Sculpture greatest Greek art
not many still in existence, what we know comes chiefly through copies made during Roman times sculptors included: Myron and his “Discus Thrower” Phidias who created statue of Zeus at the Temple of Olympia


40 Drama Explored the human condition through theatrical dramas
First people to write and perform plays Used to honor the gods, especially Dionysus

41 Tragedies Earliest Greek plays
A tragedy is where the lead character struggles against fate only to be doomed to an unhappy ending Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides  writers of tragedies

42 Comedies A comedy is a play with a happy ending and humorous themes
Aristophanes, one of the most famous comedic writers

43 Nature of Greek Art reflected their culture and characteristics in 3 ways: 1. glorified humans as the most important creatures in the universe; omitted blemishes, represented Greek ideal of beauty 2. symbolized the pride of the people in their city states; honored the gods wanted to win their favor 3. expressed Greek ideals of harmony, balance, order and moderation; combined beauty and usefulness

44 The Olympics Athleticism stressed in culture
Games held in Olympia every four years in honor of Zeus All fighting and trading stopped during games Greek calendar began with the first games Events included: footrace, broad jump, discus throw, boxing, wrestling Winners crowned were crowned with olive leaves

45 Philosophy Greek philosophers attempted to find universal absolute truths, yet they took absolute pride in expanding their minds and arguments. Much of today’s philosophical beliefs grew out of Greek origins.

46 S  Socrates P  Plato A  Aristotle

47 Socrates The man that started it all---- Socrates didn’t come up with much, but questioned it all (especially sophists) know thyself- introspection- basis of psychology

48 Plato Socrates’ best students, Plato studied under Pythagoras after Socrates’ death believed that there is another world of truth, and that this world is only a representation or imitation of that perfect world

49 Plato (cont’d) There is no moral action in the world, moral action comes from yourself (introspection) also studied government- wrote book “The Republic”

50 Aristotle Student of Plato and also tutor to Alexander the Great
Aristotle felt, unlike his teacher, that truth was in the world around us Based his ideas on what we could see He questioned nature of world and human thought and knowledge- invented a method for arguing using rules (scientific method)

51 Hellenistic Philosophers
Focused on behavior, especially the question how to achieve peace of mind Cynic Zeno

52 Scientists Mathematicians: realized that it was apart from everyday use Thales and Pythagoras were some of the first mathematicians Medicine: Hippocrates “father of modern medicine” First doctor to view medicine as a science and not on religion Urged hygiene and drafted an ethical code for medical conduct

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