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Ch Liquids & Solids III. Changes of State (p )
A. Phase Changes Evaporation Evaporation molecules at the surface gain enough energy to overcome IMF Volatility Volatility measure of evaporation rate depends on temp & IMF
A. Phase Changes Equilibrium Equilibrium trapped molecules reach a balance between evaporation & condensation
A. Phase Changes Vapor Pressure Vapor Pressure pressure of vapor above a liquid at equilibrium IMFv.p.tempv.p. depends on temp & IMF directly related to volatility p.478 temp v.p.
A. Phase Changes Boiling Point temp at which v.p. of liquid equals external pressure IMFb.p.P atm b.p. depends on P atm & IMF Normal B.P. - b.p. at 1 atm
Which has a higher m.p.? polar or nonpolar? covalent or ionic? A. Phase Changes Melting Point equal to freezing point polar ionic IMFm.p.
A. Phase Changes Sublimation solid gas v.p. of solid equals external pressure EX: dry ice, mothballs, solid air fresheners
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