2 Models of LightLight waves do not follow the same rules as other forms of waves. Many different models have been used to describe its behavior.Wave Model of Light:Light is an electromagnetic wave made up of an oscillating electric and magnetic field.Light waves have transverse motion.Frequencies increase and wavelengths decrease as we move from red to purple.
3 Models of Light Particle Model of Light Light moves like an invisibly small stream of particles.The particles travel in straight lines until they strike a surface.Intensity (number) of particle strikes increase from red to purple.Particles are not considered matter, but they behave like a stream of matter particles.
4 Models of Light Photon Model Hybrid of wave and particle models. Light is composed of particles called photons, and each photons contains a certain amount of energy.Color of photon depends upon the amount of energy it contains (correlates to the frequencies of the wave model)
5 Electromagnetic Spectrum Even though there are different models of the light waves, their energies seem to be proportional no matter what the model.Electromagnetic waves are typically arranged on a spectrum according to the wave model.Lowest to highest frequency:Radio < Microwave < IR < Visible < UV < X Rays < Gamma RaysLowest to highest wavelength:Gamma Rays < X Rays < UV < Visible < IR < Microwave < Radio
6 Uses of Electromagnetic Waves Radio Waves:Uses:CommunicationRADAR
7 Uses of Electromagnetic Waves MicrowavesUses:CookingCommunication via Satellites
9 Uses of Electromagnetic Waves VisibleUses:VisionElectronic projection and imaging
10 Uses of Electromagnetic Waves Ultraviolet (UV)Uses:Disinfects toolsMedical detection deviceForensics detection deviceDangers:Can mutate DNA
11 Uses of Electromagnetic Waves X-RaysUses:Medical Imaging (hard tissue)Dangers:Can mutate DNA
12 Uses of Electromagnetic Waves Gamma RaysUses:Cancer treatmentDangers:Causes radiation sickness.Will mutate DNA
13 Speed of LightThe speed of light (c) is 3x108 m/s (186,000 mi/s) in a vacuum.
14 Speed of Light C B A A B C Light slows as it passes through a medium. Light travels quickest in clear or transparent mediums (A).Light slows considerably in cloudy or translucent mediums (B). Some energy is absorbed or reflected.Light will not travel through solid color or opaque mediums (C). Most energy is absorbed or reflected.CBAABC
15 OpticsOptics is the field of science that deals with the propagation and behavior of light.
16 Reflection and Mirrors Reflection is the bouncing of a wave off of a boundary.The law of reflection describes how waves reflect:“The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.”Angle of Incidence – the angle between the incoming ray and the normal.Angle of Reflection – the angle between the outgoing ray and the normal.Normal – an imaginary line 90o (perpendicular) to a surface.
17 Reflection and Mirrors Entire images can be reflected off of surfaces that are smooth, allowing the angles of reflections to be consistent.
18 Reflection and Mirrors Mirrors are tools used to create images through reflection.There are 3 types of mirrors:Plane (Flat)ConcaveConvexManReflection
19 Reflection and Mirrors Two types of images can be created with mirrors:Virtual images form at a point where light rays cannot exist (ex. behind mirror).All mirrors can produce virtual images.Real images are formed by many light rays coming together in a specific location (projection)Only concave mirrors can make real images.
20 Refraction and LensesRefraction is the bending of waves as they pass from one medium to another.Shaped glass tools called lenses are used to bend waves a specific amount through refraction.
21 Refraction and Lenses There are two types of lenses: Convex Lens Converge light (beams converge behind it in a central focal point)Produce real or virtual images.Uses: magnifying glasses, our eyesConcave LensDiverge light (beams spread outward)This type of lenses can only create a virtual image.
22 EyesightHow do we see?Light waves reflected from an object travel toward the eye.The cornea bends and focuses light towards the lens.The lens refracts light and focuses it on the retina.Specialized cells called rods detect light intensity while cones detect color.Signals from the retina travel to the brain from the optic nerve.
23 Color Different colors come from white (sun) light. Each of these colors has its own frequency, wavelength, and energy.Our eyes can detect the following wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum: λ= 400 nm (violet light) – 700 nm (red light). (ROYGBIV)
25 ColorA prism is a transparent block with a triangular cross-section that can separate white light into all of its colors.This phenomenon is called dispersion and is caused by the differences in the refractive angles of different colors of light.
26 ColorRainbows are formed by natural dispersion through water droplets in the atmosphere.
27 ColorThere are three primary colors of light: red, blue, and green.
28 ColorObjects that create their own light can produce different colors using the additive method.These items appear black unless they are producing light.
29 ColorObjects that cannot produce their own light must reflect light in order for them to have a color.Pigments absorb specific wavelengths of light. The reflected wavelengths combine to give an object color.
30 Color This is called subtractive color. Objects that are white contain no pigment and reflect all 3 primary colors of light.Objects that are black have pigments that absorb all 3 primary colors of light and do not reflect any wavelengths.