Presentation on theme: "24.0 Analyze the interaction between environmental and natural resource sciences Forest Management."— Presentation transcript:
24.0 Analyze the interaction between environmental and natural resource sciences Forest Management
Products from commercial trees Nuts and fruits Oils, decorations, extracts Resins, gums, turpentine Mulch, tannin, drugs, oils, dyes Sugar, syrup Veneer, charcoal, pitch, pine oil Poles, posts Paper, paper products, wall boards Lumber, bolts, timber, wastes, ties
Forest Regions of the United States Northern Coniferous Forest Softwoods, between Canada and the U.S. borders are soft and hardwoods. Region has swamps, rivers, lakes and marshes. The climate is cold, this is the largest forest in North America. Trees that dominate are evergreens and pulpwood trees. Species of importance include white spruce, Sitka spruce, black spruce, jack pine, black pine, tamarack and western hemlock Northern Hardwoods Forest Region reaches from Southeastern Canada to New England to the northern Appalachian Mountains. It is populated by beech, maple, hemlock and birch trees
Central Broad-leaved forest Located east of the Mississippi river, a farming region mostly owned by private entities. Wood of high quality is produced here, hardwoods such as maple, beech, hickory, oak, poplar, gum, walnut, cherry, ash, cottonwood and sycamore. Southern Forest In the southeast portion of the United States (covers Delaware to Florida and Oklahoma to Texas) It is the forest with the most potential for reaching future lumber needs. Conifers are the most important trees in this forest, including Virginia, long leaf, loblolly, shortleaf and slash pines. Hardwoods included are Oak, Poplar, maple and walnut
Bottomland Hardwoods Forest Found along the Mississippi River, contains mostly hardwood trees, the soil is highly fertile which hardwoods such as oak, tupelo and cypress thrive in. Pacific Coast Forest California, Oregon and Washington also the most productive forest in the United States. Douglas Fir, Ponderosa Pine, hemlock, western red cedar, Sitka Spruce, sugar pine, and noble fir are some of the conifers found in this region. Important hardwoods are Oak, cottonwood, maple and alder
Rocky Mountain Forest Much less productive than the other forests in North America. Western Pines are the trees of commercial value including western white pine, lodge pole pine and ponderosa pine. Aspen is the only hardwood grown in this area of commercial importance. Tropical Forest Located in Southern Texas and Florida. Major trees in this forest are Mahogany, mangrove and Bay which are all unimportant commercially, but ecologically important. Hawaiian Forest The wet forest region grows ohia, boa, tree fern, kuka, tropical ash, mamani and eucalyptus. These woods are used in the production of furniture and novelties.
Relationship between forests and other natural resources Forests play important roles in the water cycle As water circulates from oceans to rivers to lakes, the forest filters the rain as it falls and serve as storage areas. A forest regulates water flow, making it possible for fish and other animal and plant life to survive Forests filter rain and help reduce the erosion of soils Trees and shrubs are responsible for removing much of the pollutant materials from the air and water run off. They also help reduce the harmful effects of excess fertilizer that enters underground water systems. Forests and living organisms have many relationships Algae, fungi, mosses, and other plants make their homes in the forest. Forests also provide shelter, food, protection and nesting sites for many species of birds and fish. Shade provided by the forest maintains proper water temperatures for the growth and reproduction of aquatic life. Forests and wildlife relationships greatly vary Depending on species, the wildlife in each forest region varies due to climate and harvesting times
Important types and species of trees in the United States Softwoods: Douglas fir Balsam Fir Eastern and Western Hemlock Eastern Red and White Cedar, Western Red Cedar White Pine Southern Pine Ponderosa Pine Sitka Spruce
Important types and species of trees in the United States Hardwoods: Birch Maple Poplar Sweetgum Oak Aspen Ash Beech Cherry Sycamore Hickory Black Walnut Black Willow
Tree Growth and Physiology Trees use carbon dioxide and water to do what? Manufacture simple sugars in their leaves which use additional carbon dioxide, oxygen, hydrogen to convert simple sugars into complex sugars and starches. Nitrogen and minerals found in the soil are used to manufacture proteins which are the building blocks for growth and reproduction. How does a new tree grow? Seeds, stumps, roots, tree parts Roots and Shoots Extend through cell division and elongation. Tree roots, stems and trunks grow in diameter by adding cell layers near their outer surfaces. This growth is called the cambium and can be seen as the rings in a cross-section of tree. Water and Minerals Water and minerals are taken up through the xylem which is located just inside of the cambium. Outside of the cambium is the phloem or inner bark which carries food manufactured in the leaves to the rest of the tree. Each year the tree grows new xylem, phloem and cambium as well as heartwood. Heartwood is the inactive core that gives the tree strength and rigidity.
Properties of wood Hardness Weight Shrinkage Warp Ease of working Paint and nail holding Decay resistance Bending strength Stiffness Toughness Surface characteristics
Woodlot management What is a woodlot? What must be considered when managing one? How are they restocked? Is it time and labor intensive? How are harvests planned? How are they protected? How is lumber seasoned?
Activities Tree Part Collection Collect 10 different trees. Include leaves, seeds, and branches. Label and note where they were found. (handout) Go the following website: http://www.fs.fed.us/r3/asnf/ navigate around the page and do the following:http://www.fs.fed.us/r3/asnf/ Find the contact us link – send an email explaining what you have learned and that you would like to come learn in the forest. Find the volunteering link – what can you do to volunteer? Check out the site, is it easy to navigate? What is interesting to you? What would you like to do? Apache-Sitgreaves Field Trip Travel to Glenwood and identify the trees as well as visit with a forest ranger.
Resources http://forestry.about.com/ Agriscience Text Book Unit 10 Forestry Management