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Transportation Safety Databases - Accident Records and Exposure Data Special Library Association presentation June 9, 2003 Deborah Bruce, Ph.D. Safety.

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Presentation on theme: "Transportation Safety Databases - Accident Records and Exposure Data Special Library Association presentation June 9, 2003 Deborah Bruce, Ph.D. Safety."— Presentation transcript:

1 Transportation Safety Databases - Accident Records and Exposure Data Special Library Association presentation June 9, 2003 Deborah Bruce, Ph.D. Safety Studies and Statistical Analysis Division National Transportation Safety Board

2 Federal Transportation Databases Scope Accident, Incident, Activity, Commodity Degree of injury, Property damage, Quantity of released substance Type of occurrence Modal Differences Aviation, Highway, Pipeline, Railroad, Marine, Intermodal Analytic Purpose Need to normalize for comparisons

3 The Purpose of Accident and Injury Data Determine the severity of an event Provide a basis for prevention / mitigation strategies Aid in calculating cost of transportation accidents Basis for setting priorities and resource allocation

4 Haddon Matrix Phase of Event Precrash, Crash, Postcrash Risk Factors Human, Vehicle, Physical Environment Socioeconomic Environment

5 Safety Report Transportation Safety Databases NTSB/SR-02/02 All modes represented, 18 Accident and Incident databases that represented the most frequently used by NTSB (Listed in handout)

6 Database Review Representativeness Accuracy Timeliness Completeness Intermodal Compatibility Budget and Staff

7 User Interviews Air Transport Association, Regional Airline Association, Allied Pilots Association, Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, Flight Safety Foundation, Briling and Associates, AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, American Trucking Association, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety Gas Research Institute, American Petroleum Institute, Association of Oil Pipelines Association of American Railroads, American Short Line Railroad Association, Union Pacific, Burlington Northern, CSX NASBLA, National Safe Boating Council

8 Lifecycle of a Database Development – Needs Assessment and Design Operation – Data Collection, Data Entry, Data Auditing, Data Analysis, Output Evaluation – External Feedback, Internal Feedback

9 Aviation Accident Data a closer look at aviation accident events and how we measure exposure to risk

10 History of NTSB Aviation Accident Data Accident data starting in 1962 for airlines and 1964 for GA, commuters and air-taxi 1982-1984: Expanded data collection to include longer narrative, more detailed sequence of events, supplemental forms 2000: Transition to fully relational SQL Server database – Accident Data Management System (ADMS). Includes all accident data between 1982 – present

11 ADMS System Approximately 40,000 accidents and incidents from 1982 – present Each record can contains up to 650 data elements relating to personnel, aircraft and environment Data types include Alphanumeric code (e.g., engine type, sequence of events codes); Dates/Times (e.g., event date); Integers (e.g., altitude, runway length); Text (e.g., operator name, narrative); Multiple Response (e.g., crew certification)

12 What is an Aviation Accident? An Accident is an occurrence with the operation of an aircraft which: takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until all such persons have disembarked, AND any person suffers death or serious injury, OR the aircraft receives substantial damage (49 CFR 830) Substantial Damage adversely affects the structural strength, performance, or flight characteristics of the aircraft AND Would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component.

13 What is an Injury? Fatal Injury results in death within 30 days of an accident Serious Injury - requires hospitalization for more than 48 hours, commencing within 7 days - results in a fracture of any bone - causes severe hemorrhages, nerve, muscle, or tendon damage - involves any internal organ - involves 2 nd or 3 rd degree burns or burns affecting >5% of the body

14 What types of Aircraft Operations are Included? Part 121 Commercial Air Carriers (scheduled and nonscheduled) Part 135 Scheduled Operations Part 135 Nonscheduled Air Taxis Part 91 General Aviation Public Use Operations Part 103 Ultralights Part 129 Foreign Air Carriers Part 137 Agricultural Operations Part 133 Rotorcraft External Load

15 What is General Aviation? NOT Part 121 Scheduled Air Carriers Part 121 Non-scheduled Cargo Part 135 Scheduled Commuters Part 135 Non-scheduled Air Taxi NUSC Non-US Scheduled Commercial IS US Registered (N # aircraft) Part 137 Aerial Applications Part 91 General Operating Flt Rules PUBU Public Use Operations Other Work Use Stolen, suicides, sabotage, etc

16 Which Aircraft are not in the NTSB Accident Database? Military aircraft (unless the accident also involves civil aircraft) Foreign-registered aircraft Certain public use (government) aircraft (as defined in 49 CFR, Part 830.5) Ultralights (powered aircraft weighing less than 254 lbs.) Commercial space launches

17 How many Aviation Accidents are in the NTSB Database? 1962-1981 contains 87,048 records 1982-2002 contains 50,184 records Database available in Access

18 How many accidents per year? Part 121 accidents average than 41/yr Part 121 scheduled avg 36/yr Part 121 nonscheduled avg 5/yr Part 135 scheduled avg 11/yr Part 135 nonscheduled avg 76/yr General Aviation avg 1,898/yr Totals around 2000 accidents per year

19 How Can I Get Accident Data? Aviation accident statistics from the web Investigations and Safety Studies Annual Review publications Full database is available on our web site Accident queries via web site

20 Accident Statistics

21 NTSB Publications

22 NTSB Aviation Publications Annual Aviation Accident Reviews (Commercial Air Carrier and General Aviation) 1998 and 1999 Air Carrier and 1998 GA completed 1999 Air Carrier and 1999 GA are being prepared for publication, 2000 Air Carrier in progress Safety Studies Transportation Safety Databases, Public Aircraft Safety, Survivability, Aircraft Evacuations, ATC Equipment Outages, Safety in Alaska, Safety of Air Tour Industry, Commuter Airline Safety, Wake Vortex Safety Issues, Flightcrew-Involved Accidents 1978-1990 Accident Investigation Reports

23 Accident Reports Includes: History of Flight, Injury information, Damage to Aircraft, Pertinent personnel information, Aircraft Information, Meteorological information, Aids to navigation, Communication, Aerodrome information, Flight information, Wreckage or impact information, Medical or pathological information, Fire, Survival or forensic aspects, Tests and research, Organizational and management information, Effective investigative techniques

24 Annual Reviews

25 NTSB Website Query Tool Best for simple queries to find a set of accidents with a common basic feature, no aggregation Allows access to narrative descriptions and limited data for 1962-1981 accidents Results in report status, narrative, probable cause, contributing factors, and basic accident data Requires internet connection

26 Accident database query via web

27 NTSB Website Query Tool

28 Downloadable datasets from NTSB FTP site Best for more complex queries requiring fields not available using Website Query Tool Allows highly customized searches Allows data aggregation/analysis Requires internet connection and 1995 or later version of MSAccess

29 Avdata DIR contains a readme file, A diagram of the relational database (admspub.pdf), The coding manual (codman.pdf), A copy of the SQL database structure, A subdirectory of.mdb databases (years 1982-2003), Weekly updates for current data Within each access database (as a table), there is a Data dictionary and translation tables

30 Accident Investigation Process - How is the Accident Database developed? Accident data input from accident safety investigator via distributed data collection software Preliminary accident record appears within 5-10 days Factual data entered in about 6 months Final report with probable cause 12-18 months following the accident

31 Aviation Safety Investigators Data Entry Process

32 Types of Investigations Majors Field Limited Foreign What does the accident number tell us?

33 NTSB Number Decoder ATL02LA084 3-letter code: Office Identifier, ATL = Southeast regional office in Atlanta 2-digit fiscal year, 02 = 2002 1-letter type of investigation code, L = Limited 1-letter transportation mode code, A = Aviation 3-digit sequential numbering, 084 = 84 th accident in 2002 for that regional office

34 Products of Investigations Final Accident Report Docket records ADMS Database records

35 What, When, and Why of Accidents WHAT – Occurrences WHEN – Phase of Flight WHY – Sequence of Events

36 Whats the meaning of an Accident Rate Calculations and how do we quantify risk NTSB Accident Counts ____________________ FAA Activity Measures EVENTS ________ EXPOSURE =

37 Aviation Accident Rates by Sector (per 100,000 Flight Hours)

38 GA Accidents, Flight Hours

39 Estimated GA Flight Hours by Category (in Millions)

40 Aviation Flight Hours by Type (in Hundred-Thousands)

41 Revision of FAA Air Taxi Flight Hour Estimates

42 Total Aircraft Occupants and Injury Totals

43 GA Aircraft Shipped

44 Estimated Active GA Aircraft

45 Highest Certificate for Accident Involved GA Pilots

46 DATA STUDY Survivability of Accidents Involving Part 121 U.S. Air Carrier Operations, 1983-2000

47 Occupant Survival for All Part 121 Accidents (51,207) (2,280)

48 Survivable Accidents Forces transmitted to occupants through their seat and restraint systems cannot exceed the limits of human tolerance for abrupt accelerations Structure in the occupants immediate environment must remain substantially intact to the extent that a livable volume is provided throughout the crash

49 Occupant Survival for Survivable Part 121 Accidents (1,523) (28) (306) (131)

50 Report Definition of a Serious Accident At least one serious injury or fatality Substantial damage or complete destruction of an aircraft Fire (Pre-crash or Post-crash)

51 Occupant Survival for Serious Part 121 Accidents (1,524) (131) (716) (340) (28)

52 96 percent survive all accidents 56 percent survive serious accidents 77 percent survive serious-survivable accidents Conclusions

53 Data Sources Related to Accidents NTSB Data Recommendation NTSB Docket System of Records Other Sources of Related Safety Data

54 NTSB Safety Recommendations 16% 10% 19% 16% 37% 2% Since 1967 Total Recs Issued = 12,026 Total Aviation Recs 4,419 Currently 342 Open

55 NTSB Public Docket Archive of materials pertinent to an accident/incident History: Microfiche, Mainframe based, Docket Management System (DMS) Public Access –Public Reference Room at NTSB HQ –Online Request Form ( –Contractor: General Microfilm 301-929-8888

56 Items in the NTSB Public Docket Preliminary report Hearing documents IIC factual reports Group chair factual reports Studies by board staff Board reports Supporting Material

57 NTSB Public Docket Supporting Materials may include –Pilot/operator aircraft report –Witness statements or records of interviews –Maps/charts –Excerpts from manuals –Weather reports –Transcripts of radio communications –Statement of party representatives

58 NTSB Public Docket Supporting Materials may include –Reports from other federal agencies –Reports from state or local agencies –Submissions or correspondence from parties to the investigations –Flight Data Recorder (FDR) data –Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR) transcript –Release of wreckage form –Toxicology reports

59 NTSB Public Docket Supporting Materials may include –Transcripts from hearings/depositions –Petitions for reconsideration –Related safety recommendations and/or safety studies –Drawings (e.g., engineering sketches) –Photographs pertinent to the accident –Data files –Other materials (flight plans, fueling records, load manifests, etc.)

60 NTSB Public Docket Supporting Materials may include –Reports from other federal agencies –Reports from state or local agencies –Submissions or correspondence from parties to the investigations –Flight Data Recorder (FDR) data –Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR) transcript –Release of wreckage form –Toxicology reports

61 What is NOT on the NTSB Public Docket Autopsy reports or photos Proprietary, confidential or trade secret items Contracts or dollar amounts that are irrelevant to understanding the event Privacy-protected material: names, addresses, SSN, etc Preliminary documents/notes

62 Aviation Safety Data Sources Other than NTSB FAA NASDAC ( AirClaims CASE2 ICAO ADREP 2000 ( FAA CAMI BTS Activity Data (

63 National Aviation Safety Data Analysis Center NASDAC provides the public with access to several of the principal aviation safety data and information sources the Federal Government uses for various purposes. FAA Air Registry Aviation Safety Reporting System BTS Airline Traffic and Capacity FAA Accident / Incident Data System Near Midair Collision System NTSB Safety Recommendations w/ FAA Responses NTSB Aviation Accident Database World Aircraft Accident Summary

64 AirClaims – CASE2 Airclaims – 2 major insurance agencies do claims adjustment for 40% of airline accidents Client Aviation System Enquiry (CASE) software and subscription service Worldwide accident/loss information –Records back to 1948 –Full histories of approx 80K aircraft, including transfers, hours, cycles, weight, seating, etc.

65 ICAO Reporting for ADREP 2000 System Internl Accident Data is collected by ICAO ICAOs Accident Investigation and Prevention (AIG) Section maintains ADREP 2000 Member Countries Report based on Annex 13 Reporting Criteria = max wt over 2,250 kg Bimonthly ADREP Summary of Accident and Incident Reports

66 FAA Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) CAMI Library has Online Catalog Books Tech Reports Archived & Historical Documents Cataloged Websites CAMI provides NTSB with toxicological results and maintains a confidential tox database Aviation Statistical Handbook Near Midair Collisions, Operational Errors, Pilot Deviations, Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviations, Surface Incident Data, Flight Assists, Accident Data

67 Bureau of Transportation Statistics Airline Activity Data Scheduled Part 121 Operators report monthly Using Form 41, T100 and T-1000f forms Scheduled Part 135 Operators report Quarterly using Form 298-C

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