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AP Statistics Chapter 5

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Class Survey 1. Are you male or female? 2. How many brothers or sisters do you have? 3. How tall are you in inches to the nearest inch? 4. Estimate the number of pairs of shoes you have. 5. How much money in COINS are you carrying right now? 6. On a typical school night, how much time do you spend doing HW? 7. On a typical school night, how much time do you spend watching TV?

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Can we know it all? We have a “POPULATION”? Want information about it! We cannot “get at it” all! Why not? So … We gotta “Sample”! To represent the entire Population

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Careful how you choose! Choosing a sample is not that simple. Randomness is A MUST! You want accurate representation You want to make decisions … often very important … based on the information Life & Death Business – millions of $$$ - jobs Scientific Research

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Chow do I collect data? OBSERVATIONAL STUDY EXPERIMENT

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Example of an Observational Study Sample Survey Reaches only a subset of a larger population of interest Relatively easy to do Quick Does not disturb the population much at all in gathering the information – YOU, the observer, are not imposing a “treatment” on the subjects Can gain information in several variables … or just one quick yes/no question

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TREATMENT! Experimental Design Control the variation of confounding variables USE OF RANDOMNESS DO SOMETHING TO ONE GROUP and not the other That thing you “DO”: “TREATMENT”

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Observational Study vs. Experiment An observational study : observes individuals and measures variables of interest but does not attempt to influence the responses. An experiment : (on the other hand) deliberately imposes some treatment on individuals in order to observe their responses.

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CAUSE & EFFECT The best way to determine this is a: WELL DESIGNED EXPERIMENT

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WELFARE Why can we not conclude a cause and effect here? Observational studies show job-training & job- search programs correlate to leaving the welfare system CONFOUNDING: Education, Values, Motivation To establish that the programs WORK (CAUSE) - need and EXPERIMENT!

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In many situations … it may be impossible to observe individuals directly it may be impossible to perform an experiment it may be logistically difficult / inconvenient to sample it may be unethical/costly to impose a treatment Simulations provide an alterative method for producing data in such circumstances. SIMULATION

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STATISTICAL INFERENCE Statistical techniques for producing data open the door to formal branch of statistics Statistical Inference Making judgments about a unknown population Conclusions are only true “with a known degree of confidence”

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Population and Sample POPULATION The entire group of individuals that we want information about SAMPLE Part of the population that we actually examine in order to gather information

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Sampling vs. Census Sampling involves studying a part in order to gain information about the whole Census an attempt to contact every individual in the entire population.

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Sampling vs. Census Accuracy How could a sample be actually MORE ACCURATE? The census will take too long, and things change IN THAT TIME The census is impractical to really rely on People get bore, tired and produce inaccurate results It is too hard ot organize and maintain the volume of data

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Sample Designs SAMPLE DESIGN How a sample is chosen - the method used to choose the sample from the population. If conclusions based on a sample are to be valid - a sound design for selecting the sample is required

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Voluntary Response Sample BAD DESIGN consists of people who choose themselves by responding to a general appeal these samples are nearly always very biased because people with strong opinions, especially negative opinions, are most likely to respond.

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Convenience Sampling BAD DESIGN another sampling design - which chooses individuals that are the easiest to reach Both sample designs choose a sample that is almost guaranteed not to represent the entire population These sampling methods display bias

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BIAS systematic error - in favoring some parts of the population over others The design of a study is biased if it systematically favors certain outcomes

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SRS - Simple Random Sample A statistician’s remedy to BIAS Allow impersonal chance to choose the sample A sample chosen by chance allows neither favoritism by the sampler nor self-selection by respondents Choosing a sample by chance attacks bias by giving all individuals an equal chance to be chosen …

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Simple Random Samples Cont’d A simple random sample (SRS) of size n consists of n individuals from the population chosen in such a way that every set of n individuals has an equal chance to be the sample actually selected A SRS not only gives each individual an equal chance to be chosen but also gives every possible sample an equal chance to be chosen.

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Random Digits A table of random digits is a long string of digits chosen from {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} with these two properties: Each entry in the table is equally likely to be any of the 10 digits 0 through 9. The entries are independent of each other Table of Random DigitsTable of Random Digits

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Choosing an SRS Choose an SRS in two steps: Label. Assign a numerical label to every individual in the population. Table. Use table B to select labels at random. 69051 64817 87174 09517 84534 06489 87201 97245

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Choosing a Client Listed in Book: 30 clients numbered from 01 through 30 Example: 01 = A-1 Plumbing; 16 = JL Records; 30 = Von’s Video Store We want to select 5 clients RANDOMLY from the list Line 130: 69051 64817 87174 09517 84534 06489 87201 97245 Chunk in sets of 2: 69 05 16 48 17 87 17 40 95 17 Ignore those above 30 and repeats: 69 05 16 48 17 87 17 40 95 17 … Bailey Trucking … JL Records; Johnson Commodities, etc.

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Other Sampling Designs A probability sample – not really one we will use Some probability sampling designs (such as SRS) give each member of the population an equal chance to be selected. This may not be true in more elaborate sampling designs. In every case, however, the use of chance to select a sample is the essential principle of statistical sampling.

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Other Sampling Designs – Stratified Random Sample First - divide the population into groups of similar individuals, called strata. Choose a separate SRS in each stratum and combine these SRSs to form the full sample. The strata is based on facts known before the sample is taken. Can produce more exact information than an SRS of the same size by taking advantage of the fact that individuals in the same stratum are similar to one another. If all individuals in each stratum are identical, just one individual from each stratum is enough to completely describe the population.

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Other Sampling Designs Cont. Another common means of restricting random selection is to choose the sample in stages. Multistage samples select successively smaller groups with the population in stages, resulting in a sample consisting of clusters of individuals. Ex: White … Males … Age 30 – 45 … Income between 50 & 100 K … who do not smoke.

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Cautions About Sample Surveys Undercoverage occurs when some groups in the population are left out of the process of choosing the sample Non-response occurs when an individual chosen for the sample can’t be contacted or does not cooperate

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More Cautions About Sample Surveys Response Bias: The behavior of the respondent or of the interviewer can cause response bias in sample results. The respondent might lie in a face to face situation (shame). The interviewer my prod or imply a response The wording of questions is the most important influence on the answers given to a sample survey. Confusing or leading questions can introduce strong bias, or even minor changes in wording can change a survey’s outcome

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Inference About the Population If we select two samples at random from the same population, we will draw different individuals. So the sample results will almost certain differ somewhat Properly designed samples avoid systematic bias but their results are rarely exactly “correct” and they vary from sample to sample The results from random sampling don’t change haphazardly from sample to sample The results obey the laws of probability that govern chance behavior. We can say how large an error we are likely to make in drawing conclusions about the population from a sample

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Inference About the Population Cont’d One point we should consider: larger random samples give more accurate results that smaller samples – as it leads to smoothing out the variability of the extremes Using a probability sampling design and taking care to deal with practical difficulties reduce bias in a sample. The size of the sample then determines how close to the population truth the sample result is likely to fall.

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