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Pacific Lamprey Lampetra tridentata Status and Distribution in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho Christopher W. Claire Timothy G. Cochnauer.

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Presentation on theme: "Pacific Lamprey Lampetra tridentata Status and Distribution in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho Christopher W. Claire Timothy G. Cochnauer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pacific Lamprey Lampetra tridentata Status and Distribution in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho Christopher W. Claire Timothy G. Cochnauer

2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Bonneville Power Administration Deborah Docherty Idaho Department of Fish and Game Jody Brostrom Anne Peterson, Rebecca Repp, Kyle Steele, Terry Douglas Bureau of Land Management Craig Johnson Columbia River Research Laboratory Jennifer Bayer University of Idaho Dr. George LaBar Dr. Dale Everson

3 STATUS OF LAMPREY IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER AND SNAKE RIVER Three species of lamprey present historically in the Columbia River basin, river lamprey, Lampetra ayresi, brook lamprey, Lampetra richardsoni, and Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata. Pacific lamprey Columbia River and Snake River declines since 1960s Hydropower development, habitat alterations, and land management practices (irrigation, etc.) are thought to be driving decline Little is known about life history, habitat utilization, and distribution of the three species.

4 INTRODUCTION Objectives 1. Determine life history of Pacific lamprey and ammocoetes and macrothalmia in the Clearwater River drainage. 2. Determine habitat utilization and preference of Pacific lamprey ammocoetes in Red River. 3. Determine distribution of Pacific lamprey ammocoetes and macrothalmia in the Clearwater River drainage. 4. Develop and implement strategies to protect Pacific lamprey ammocoete and macrothalmia habitat in the Clearwater River drainage.

5 Pacific Lamprey Adult

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7 PACIFIC LAMPREY LIFE HISTORY Anadromous, spawn in salmon and steelhead streams in April, May, and June. Eggs hatch in ~ 20 days, ammocoetes are eyeless, live in finer substrates (Scott and Crossman 1973) Transform at age 4-7 (Beamish and Levings 1991) Juveniles migrate in late fall and spring 1-2? years in ocean feeding on herring, hake, salmon, and steelhead; marks found on mammals Return to rivers to spawn

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11 Clearwater River N. F. Clearwater S. F. Clearwater Dworshak Dam PROJECT AREA WA OR MT ID

12 PROJECT AREA HISTORY White settlement of Clearwater River drainage 1860- 1920, habitat alterations predominantly 1920-2002 Lewiston Dam on main Clearwater 1927-1972 Harpster Dam on South Fork Clearwater River rkm 32.0 Grangeville Electric Light and Power Company 1910, removed 1963

13 HARPSTER DAM

14 METHODS Life History, Distribution, and Habitat Utilization assessment - Trapping and electrofishing Habitat Utilization in Red River: - Red River segmented into 1 km sections, randomly selected 100 m reach within km - Classify stream habitat, (riffle, pool, etc.) based on Platts et al. ( 1983) and Overton et al. ( 1997).

15 RESULTS Captured 1301 (2000-02) total ammocoetes and macrothalmia electroshocking and trapping in Clearwater River drainage -614 ammocoetes and macrothalmia electroshocking Red River -456 ammocoetes and macrothalmia electroshocking South Fork Clearwater River -207 ammocoetes and macrothalmia in Red River trap Pacific lamprey ammocoete density: -decreased with increasing flow velocity -decreased with increasing coarse substrate -increased with increasing riparian canopy cover shade

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23 Distribution S. F. Clearwater R. drainage

24 WA ID MT OR PACIFIC LAMPREY DISTRIBUTION 1970 PACIFIC LAMPREY DISTRIBUTION 1980 PACIFIC LAMPREY DISTRIBUTION 2003

25 SUMMARY 2000-03 sampling indicates possible low densities and lack of recruitment Lower Granite Dam counts in 1995-2003 continue to average <600, (Adults) Distribution restricted to mainstem Selway, Lochsa, Rivers, Middle Fork Clearwater, and S. F. Clearwater River

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27 Measure stream velocity, stream depth, substrate composition (Platts et al. 1983), stream temperature, and riparian canopy for unit and site of capture - Velocity: at substrate, and.6 - Maximum Depth: to 0.10 m - Substrate: size classes - Temperature: @ stream surface - Riparian Canopy: Densiometer (4 readings in a unit) Evaluated the Pacific lamprey ammocoete density (/100 m 2 ) and parameter relationship with ANOVA, Linear regression, and Multiple regression ( = 0.05)

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29 ANALYSIS

30 MANAGEMENT Development of Pacific Lamprey Habitat Requirement Criteria Pacific Lamprey Habitat and Recovery Management Goals - Persistence of Pacific lamprey in the South Fork Clearwater River drainage, requires maintenance or improvement of remaining lateral scour/straight scour pool habitat and stream riparian canopy cover

31 Figure courtesty U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Lower Granite Dam

32 Improvement of upstream migrant passage at Snake and Columbia River dams critical for persistence of species Improve downstream migrant conditions at Snake River and Columbia River dams - Increase spill (with average or > flows) - Determine methods to decrease impingement of lamprey on bypass system

33 Clearwater River Drainage Pacific lamprey distribution 1970

34 I. Harbor, J. Day, L. Monumental, L. Goose, L. Granite

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