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Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project in the Umatilla River.

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Presentation on theme: "Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project in the Umatilla River."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project in the Umatilla River

2 Study Area

3 Life cycle of Pacific lamprey Life Cycle of Pacific Lamprey

4 GOAL To restore natural production of Pacific lamprey to self-sustaining and harvestable levels Identify and prioritize constraints to restoration Historical analysis Research habitat & life history requirements Develop & implement actions to remove constraints Improve migrating adults Transplant adult lampreys Identify source of brood stock that will maximize success while minimizing risks Study effects of outplantings Nest surveysEgg survival Larval densities and size distribution Outmigration of larval and metamorphosed lampreys Upmigration of adult lampreys Concentrations of PZ Provide flows to attract migrating adults Test importance of petromyzonal sulfate (PZ) or other pheromones as attractants Laboratory studies Monitoring concentrations in the field Improve dam passage Improve spawning & rearing habitat

5 Hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Chemical treatments in the Umatilla River Habitat alterations in the Umatilla River resulting from: –irrigation practices –loss of beaver –livestock overgrazing of native grasses –logging the upper watershed –conversion of native plants to introduced crops Potential causes of declining lamprey populations

6 Outplanting adult lampreys Primary goals: Re-establish larval abundance Collect baseline data regarding: 1)holding adult lampreys 2)release timing 3)release locations

7 Outplanting adult lampreys 1)Collected at the John Day Dam fish ladder in December-January 2)Maintained in the raceways at the Three Mile Falls Dam Facility in the Umatilla River 3)Outplanted into uppermost part of the mainstem Umatilla River and Meacham Creek in May

8 Release site locations and numbers River km 139.9 River km 118.4 River km 98.8 Meacham Creek 2000: 300 2000: 150 2000: 150. 2001: 82 2001: 81 2002: 150 2002: 141 2002: 100 Totals 2000: 600 2001: 244 2002: 491 Total: 1,576 individuals 2004: 70 2003: 230 2003: 90 2003: 110 2004: 63 2003: 484 2004: 133

9 Are outplantings successful? 1)Redd surveys 2)Egg survival 3)Larval densities and size distribution 4)Outmigration of larval and metamorphosed lampreys 5)Upmigration of adult lampreys

10 Nest and egg viability surveys Purpose: Determine the spatial distribution and number of nests Determine the reproductive success of adult lamprey outplants

11 Nest and egg viability surveys In 2000-2002 surveyors walked along the river to locate nests (May-July) In 2001 egg viability study conducted from 13 nests

12 Nest surveys

13 Nests located in the uppermost part of the Umatilla River and in the Meacham Creek Lampreys spawned during the first two weeks of June 2000: 51 viable nests 30 nests w/o eggs 2001: 49 viable nests 2002: 67 viable nests 118 test nests Nest Survey Results

14 Egg viability Egg viability varied between 58 and100% On average 86% of eggs were viable Pacific lamprey egg viability similar to sea lamprey

15 Larval abundance Larvae sampled by electro shocking 31 sites in the Umatilla River and 3 sites in the Meacham Creek Larval density at each site estimated and larval lengths measured

16 Larval densities before outplanting In 1998-2000, larvae were found in the lower reach of the river below river kilometer 37 Mean density of all sites was 1) in 1998 0.02 ind.m -2 2) in 1999 0.55 ind.m -2 3) in 2000 0.08 ind.m -2

17 Larval densities after outplanting The mean density of all index sites was 5.6 ind/m 2 The mean density below river km 100 (sites 1-19) was 0.1 ind /m 2 The mean density above river km 100 (sites 20-34) was 12.6 ind /m 2 2001

18 Larval densities after outplanting The mean density of all index sites was 8.0 ind/m 2 The mean density below river km 100 (sites 1-19) was 0.2 ind / m 2 The mean density above river km 100 (sites 20-34) was 18.0 ind / m 2 2002

19 Length distributions In 2001 length distribution was unimodal and the median length was 63 mm In 2002 length distribution was bimodal and the median length was 76 mm

20 Larval abundance after adult outplanting Larval densities increased above river kilometer 100 Larval growth rate is high Natural production in the middle and lowermost part of the river is low

21 Outmigration of lamprey Between 1997-2002 outmigrating larvae and metamorphosed lampreys caught by: Rotary screw trap (RST) from November- March in lower Umatilla River Bypass channel trap (BCT) April-October in lower Umatilla River Trapping efficiency of RST was studied by mark-recapture method in 2000 and 2001

22 Number of lamprey caught

23 Length distribution of outmigrants

24 Outmigration of lampreys Natural production of lamprey in the Umatilla River produces tens of thousands of metamorphosed individuals annually A large proportion of lamprey may metamorphose in the Columbia River The mean size of outmigrating lampreys were higher than earlier studies

25 Upmigration of adults Number of upmigrating adults counted by: 1) portable assessment traps in 1999, 2000 and 2002 at the Three Mile Dam (284 trap nights) 2) fyke nets in 2002 in the lowermost end of the Umatilla River ( 28 trap nights) Number of upmigrants entering Three Mile Dam fish ladder estimated by video recordings

26 Upmigration of adults In 1999-2002 one adult lamprey caught by assessment traps No lampreys caught by fyke net in 2002

27 Upmigration of adults Number of upmigrating adults in the summer and in the fall is negligible Why? 1)Number of adult lampreys in the Columbia River is low 2)No flow in the Umatilla River during the best migration season 3)Attracting pheromones in the Umatilla River are not reaching the Columbia River

28 Upmigration of adults During the peak of adult migration, flow in the Umatilla River is very low due to irrigation


30 Summary Outplanted adults spawned successfully and produced ammocoetes which havent yet dispersed below river km 100 Number of outmigrating lampreys is still low and number of upmigrating adults is negligible

31 Current Research MSU,USGS,CTUIR-Pacific and Western brook lamprey larvae contain petromyzonal sulfate in gallbladder and liver. Both species release this compound into water. Do not produce Allocholic acid nor petromyzonal (known bile acids in sea lamprey). USGS-Pacific lamprey adults can detect Petromyzonal sulfate in water. Detection of compound throughout freshwater migration. Pacific lamprey do not produce 3 Keto Petromyzonal sulfate-(known sex pheromone in sea lamprey).

32 Current Research CTUIR, MSU, CEFAS,- Novel stress steroids in Pacific Lamprey. Lamprey adrenal tissues incubated with 3H pregnenolone and progesterone metabolized into unknown possible stress steroids. Currently using Fab/mass spec to identify structures. In addition, using radioimmunoassay to screen lamprey plasma. Once compound structures identified we will develop specific RIA for new stress steroids. CTUIR,MSU,- Pacific lamprey population genetics. Micro satellite markers screened. 30 existing loci screened for polymorphism(from sea lamprey markers). 2 loci found to be polymorphic. From only one loci, there are population differences. However, this is preliminary! We are trying to explore this further.

33 Future studies Dispersion of ammocoetes and larval production in the middle and lower part of the river Growth of larvae (location, competition) Number of outmigrants (method developing) Upmigration of adults during the summer, fall, and spring time Flow regime

34 More future studies Spawning habitat requirements Effect of dams on adult migration using radio telemetry Attraction of adult lampreys to pheromones in Umatilla river water Larval production and metamorphosis in the Columbia River reservoirs Develop assays to detect stress in lampreys


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