Presentation on theme: "Kelt Steelhead Studies: Evaluating Reconditioning and Reproductive Success in the Columbia River Basin Douglas R. Hatch, Ryan Branstetter, John Whiteaker,"— Presentation transcript:
Kelt Steelhead Studies: Evaluating Reconditioning and Reproductive Success in the Columbia River Basin Douglas R. Hatch, Ryan Branstetter, John Whiteaker, Shawn Narum, Jeff Stephenson Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission Dave Fast, Joe Blodgett, Bill Bosch, Todd Newsome Yakama Nation Fisheries Devin Best, Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon Chris Fisher, Rhonda Dasher Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation Tracy Hauser Bonneville Power Administration
Initiated in 2000, just started our 3 rd year following the rolling provincial review. This projects proposal included geographic replication, but between the recommendation stage in the rolling provincial review process and final budget agreement between NPCC and Bonneville, the project budget was reduced by $155,000. This resulted in the geographic replication being dropped. Proposed in the Project Solicitation with Yakima River and Snake River components. Kelt Reconditioning Research in the Columbia Basin Evaluate Relative Reproductive Success of Natural- Origin, Hatchery-Origin, and Reconditioned Kelt Steelhead Response to the Bonneville Request for Studies (RFS). Project started in February 2004, we will begin our 3 rd year on April 1, Proposed in the Project Solicitation with similar scope.
1.Evaluate effects of directly transporting steelhead kelts around the hydro system on enhancement of iteroparity. 2.Evaluate effects of short-term kelt reconditioning and subsequent transportation of kelts around the hydro system on enhancement of iteroparity. Short-term reconditioning will be performed using fish from collection facilities within the Yakima, Umatilla, Grande Ronde, and Imnaha river basins. 3.Evaluate effects of long-term kelt reconditioning and subsequent release for natural spawning on enhancement of iteroparity. 4.Evaluate effects of long-term kelt reconditioning and captive spawning on: a) gamete and progeny viability; and b) enhancement of iteroparity. Objectives: Kelt Steelhead Reconditioning Study
Prosser Hatchery Operation
Management Scenarios In-river release – Capture kelt PIT tag & release. No-term- Capture kelt, tag, transport below Bonneville Dam and release. Short-term -- Capture kelt, tag, feed for 6 weeks, transport below Bonneville Dam and release. Long-term – Capture kelt, tag, feed for ~7months; determine maturation level, and release in river.
RM 85 RM 0RM 85RM 25RM 60 In-riverEstuaryOcean -No-term and Short- term migration evaluations. -Detection patterns in 2005 based on hydro-acoustic tags. -pooled results from all treatment groups. -n=120 Median travel time from Bonneville to ocean entry No-term115hr126hr Short- term 140hr78hr
Final detection location for no-term (NT) and short-term (ST) treatments in 2004 and Receivers were located only in the estuary and ocean in 2004.
Survival to release of reconditioned kelt steelhead from the Yakima River
1.Identify specific streams where reproductive success of natural-origin, hatchery- origin, and reconditioned kelt steelhead can be tested. 2.Evaluate reproductive success of natural-origin, hatchery-origin, and reconditioned kelt steelhead and adult resident O.mykiss at a variety of streams in the Upper Columbia, Mid-Columbia, and Snake River ESUs using pedigree analysis. 3.Apply kelt steelhead reconditioning techniques at selected streams to post- spawners for release back into study streams. Objectives: Reproductive Success Study
Rationale We have established that kelt reconditioning is possible and have demonstrated successful spawning migrations and redd construction (BPA Project ). However, the reproductive success of reconditioned kelts needs to be explored to assess the net benefit of this program. In addition, comparisons to natural origin first time spawners can be used to evaluate reconditioned kelt contributions relative to a first time spawner baseline, and comparisons with hatchery origin steelhead is important to evaluate if kelt reconditioning is a viable alternative to more traditional hatchery supplementation. Technological advances in DNA-typing make direct measurement of reproductive success using pedigree analysis practical. Employing these new techniques, our study will directly measure the reproductive success of natural- origin, hatchery-origin, and reconditioned kelt steelhead in natural stream settings. This will yield quantitative data replicated geographically and temporally that will add resolution to the issue.
Chose 3 or more replicate streams. Within each stream genotype all possible O. mykiss spawners (including anadromous and resident fish). Collect representative sample of juvenile O. mykiss and using parentage analysis match them with parents. Hypothesis: The composition of spawners (hatchery-origin, natural-origin, reconditioned kelt) is the same as the composition of parents of a representative sample of juveniles. General Scheme
Conceptual Model Maiden adult steelhead Kelt steelhead Resident O. mykiss spawners Juvenile steelhead Kelt steelhead Fed and reconditioned ~8mo Released back in stream if mature Interrogated for PIT; DNA if new fish DNA Collected PIT tagged Released DNA Collected PIT tagged Released H o DNA Collected Counted & released
A relatively low (but not too low) abundance of adult steelhead in the stream (~200). The stream must have hydrological conditions that are favorable to using a weir during the steelhead migration. The stream must also have a suitable location for a rotary screw trap or some other juvenile trap. Prefer a stream with low abundance of resident O. mykiss. Stream location should be relatively close to a hatchery facility for reconditioning. Study Stream Selection Criteria
Shitike Creek – Deschutes River tributary. Omak Creek – Okanogan River tributary. Bonaparte Creek – Okanogan River tributary. Ahtanum Creek – Yakima River. Section Corner Creek – Tributary to Satus Creek/Yakima River. Field laboratory Streams selected
Section Corner Creek
Low water in 2005 Low fish abundance Inexperience in reconditioning Incomplete sampling Brook Trout sampling Challenges
Kelt Reproductive Success Genetic Results
Sample Numbers 759 samples genotyped with 17 microsatellites –32 known Brook Trout –1 parr identified as a brook trout –17 unknown source samples –7 duplicate samples –43 poor quality samples 659 samples included in statistical analysis
Genetic Tests Diversity Statistics –Expected and Observed Heterozygosity –Number of Alleles and Allelic Richness Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium Genotypic Linkage Disequilibrium Pairwise F ST Values / Genic differentiation rates Pairwise genetic distances / Neighbor joining tree Parentage Analysis
Diversity statistics n = sample size H E = expected heterozygosity H O = observed heterozygosity A = Average number of alleles per locus AR = Allelic richness PopulationnH E H O AAR Omak Adult Steelhead Omak Residents Above MF Omak Residents Below MF Shitike Adult Steelhead Shitike Resident RBT Shitike Juveniles Satus Creek Adult Steelhead Yakima River Kelts (Prosser) Section Corner Creek Juv
Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium 161 Total Tests 16 significant 12 In Section Corner Creek juveniles 2 in Omak Creek residents below Mission Falls 1 in Omak Creek adult steelhead 1 in Yakima River kelt steelhead
Linkage Disequilibrium 1168 pairwise tests 250 were significant 128 in Section Corner Creek juveniles 83 in Omak Creek residents below Mission Falls 39 in Omak Creek steelhead
Pairwise F ST Values / Genic differentiation rates Omak Shitike Satus YakimaSection AdultRes 1Res 2AdultResJuvAduKeltJuv Omak Adu --- Omak Res Omak Res Shitike Adu Shitike Res Shitike Juv Satus Adu Yakima Kelt Section Juv * NOT significant at adjusted critical level =.05 / 36 tests =
Neighbor joining dendrogram Cavalli-Sforza Edwards genetic distance Shitike Creek Adult Steelhead Shitike Creek Resident RBT Shitike Creek Juveniles Yakima River Kelt Steelhead Section Corner Creek Juveniles Satus Creek Adult Steelhead Omak Creek Adult Steelhead Omak Creek Resident RBT Above Mission Falls Omak Creek Resident RBT Below Mission Falls 99
Parentage Analysis: Section Corner Creek 5 males from Satus Creek 6 females from Satus Creek 5 female kelts from Yakima River Assigned all 159 juveniles back to a single parental cross.
Parentage Assignment Matrix: Section Corner Creek Male 1Male 2Male 3Male 4Male 5Sum Female (1) Female (2) Female (6) Female (4) Female (3) Female (3) Kelt 1 Kelt 2 Kelt 3 Kelt 4 Kelt 5 Sum51 (3)61 (5)6 (1)11 (3)30 (4) Overripe Partially Blind
Parentage Analysis: Shitike Creek Adult Steelhead from Shitike Creek Resident Rainbow Trout from Shitike Creek Limited results in assigning juveniles back to potential parents
Parentage Analysis: Shitike Creek Shitike Creek juveniles grouped closest to Shitike Creek resident rainbow trout on the neighbor joining tree. Shitike Creek Juveniles and Shitike Creek resident rainbow trout had an insignificant F ST Value. Many residents unsampled. The fall migration of juveniles sampled in 2005 were comprised of progeny from unsampled resident rainbow trout.
Summary Average survival in long-term reconditioning experiments = 46%. Two movement patterns have been detected in the estuary. Kelts appear to not reside in the estuary. Reproductive success experiment sites have been chosen and tests are in progress. Kelts placed into Section Corner Creek did not contribute to the progeny collected. Overripe Blind Parentage assignment worked well (159 of 159 Section Corner Creek juveniles).