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Functions: --taking in oxygen --removing carbon dioxide.

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Presentation on theme: "Functions: --taking in oxygen --removing carbon dioxide."— Presentation transcript:


2 Functions: --taking in oxygen --removing carbon dioxide

3 **the body only has a ___ minute supply of oxygen!!

4 Anatomy of the Resp. System Nose: has two nostrils (nares) through which air enters.

5 Anatomy of the Resp. System Nasal Septum: divides the nose into two hollow spaces.

6 Anatomy of the Resp. System Nasal Cavities: hollow passageways lined with mucous and cilia (tiny hairs).

7 Anatomy of the Resp. System Sinuses: cavities in the skull around the nasal area.

8 Pharynx (throat) Nasopharynx: upper portion behind the nasal cavities.

9 Pharynx (throat) Oropharynx: middle section located behind the mouth. Laryngopharynx: bottom section

10 Larynx (“voicebox”) Lies between the pharynx and trachea vocal cords

11 Larynx (“voicebox”) glottis: opening between vocal cords epiglottis: leaflike structure that closes the opening to the larynx during swallowing

12 Trachea: (windpipe) anterior to esophagus carries air between pharynx (throat) and lungs

13 Bronchi: two branches off the trachea (left and right). Each bronchus enters a lung and divide into branches.

14 Bronchioles: the smallest branches

15 Alveoli Tiny air sacs at the ends of the bronchioles. Resemble bunches of grapes

16 Alveoli Contain a rich network of blood capillaries This is where air exchange takes place



19 LUNGS Right Lung three sections (lobes): superior, middle, and inferior

20 LUNGS Left Lung two sections (lobes): superior and inferior left lung is smaller to make room for the heart

21 Ventilation (breathing) Two phases: inspiration (inhalation) expiration (exhalation)

22 Breathing is controlled by the medulla oblongata of the brain.

23 An increased amount of carbon dioxide in the blood causes the center to increase the respiratory rate.

24 Inspiration (inhalation) --diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract --thoracic cavity enlarges and creates vacuum

25 Inspiration (inhalation) --air rushes in to the alveoli --air exchange takes place; this is known as RESPIRATION

26 Expiration (exhalation) -- diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax

27 Expiration (exhalation) -- thoracic cavity becomes smaller, air rushes out (to equalize pressure)


29 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) --asthma --bronchitis (chronic) --emphysema

30 Hyperventilation Syndrome --anxiety or panic attack **see handout on above topics


32 Pleurisy -- inflammation of the pleura (lung membranes)

33 Pleurisy -- S/S: sharp, stabbing pain when breathing, crepitus (grating sound in the lungs), dyspnea, fever

34 Pleurisy -- Tx: rest, medications, possible thoracentesis (withdrawal of fluid through a needle)

35 Pneumonia --inflammation or infection of the lungs with fluid in the alveoli Causes: bacteria, virus, or aspiration.

36 Pneumonia, ctd. S/S: chills, fever, CP, productive cough, dyspnea, fatigue

37 Pneumonia, ctd. Tx: antibiotics, bedrest, fluids, respiratory therapy

38 HEMOPTYSIS ??????????????

39 Pulmonary Embolism Clot travels from somewhere in the body and blocks the pulmonary artery.

40 Pulmonary Embolism S/S: dyspnea, sharp pain, anxiety, hypotension, hemoptysis, tachycardia, JVD, LS: crackles or wheezing

41 Cystic Fibrosis Inherited disorder that causes abnormal secretion of thick mucous which plugs the bronchi.

42 Cystic Fibrosis Fatal illness, usually resulting in death in the teens or 20s.


44 Laryngitis -- Inflammation of the larynx and vocal cords --frequently occurs with respiratory infections

45 Laryngitis -- S/S: hoarseness, loss of voice, sore throat, dysphagia


47 Epistaxis (Nosebleed) Causes include: a direct blow, altitude change, hypertension, drugs, and diseases.

48 Epistaxis (Nosebleed) Tx: lean forward, pressure on bridge of nose, ice pack, gauze packing, treat cause !

49 Epistaxis (Nosebleed) What’s a great product to use to pack a bloody nose??


51 Rhinitis Inflammation in the nasal mucous membrane resulting in a runny nose (rhinorrhea), soreness, and congestion.

52 Rhinitis Causes: infections and allergens


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