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Diversity in Team Composition and Performance and Creativity Jill A. Marsteller, PhD MPP Assistant Professor, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public.

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Presentation on theme: "Diversity in Team Composition and Performance and Creativity Jill A. Marsteller, PhD MPP Assistant Professor, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public."— Presentation transcript:

1 Diversity in Team Composition and Performance and Creativity Jill A. Marsteller, PhD MPP Assistant Professor, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2007 Health Workforce Interest Group Meeting, Orlando, FL Saturday, June 2, 2007

2 Background zInterdisciplinary teams are used often in healthcare zTeam members vary in occupation, training, experience, and demographic background zToo many cooks in the kitchen vs. Two heads are better than one

3 Definitions zDiversitytwo types: yVisible: age, gender, (race/ ethnicity) yInvisible: occupation, tenure, education zChronic care QI team--three or more nurses, PCPs, specialists, administrators, etc. who work to improve management of asthma, diabetes, depression, or congestive heart failure

4 Performance Vs. Creativity zPerformancereaching a set target zCreativityproduction of new ideas, testing and modifying procedures

5 How diversity works zDiversity-->Social Categorization, Identification, Impersonal Attraction-->Bias, Negative Conflict, Low Cohesion-->Negative Outcomes zDiversity-->Airing Multiple Perspectives--> Positive Conflict-->Improved Decision- making-->Positive Outcomes zLiterature--Jury is out on diversity

6 Research Questions zDoes occupational diversity have different associations with performance as compared to creativity? zAre there mediators of the effects of occupational diversity?

7 Fig. 1--Proposed Conceptual Model for the Relation of Nonracial Diversity to Performance Diversity Team Performance -Visible diversity -Invisible diversity -Interaction variables Unifying Phenomena -Goal attainment -Patient outcomes -Met expectations (unmeasured process) (Mediator) (-) (+) Based on Milliken, Bartel and Kurtzberg (2001), Tsui and Gutek (1999) and Jackson, May and Whitney (1995) Social categorization, identification, group attraction; conflict; coordination problems

8 Fig. 2--Proposed Conceptual Model for the Relation of Nonracial Diversity to Creativity and Productivity Diversity Social categorization, identification, group attraction; conflict; coordination problems Team Productivity and Creativity -Visible diversity -Invisible diversity -Interaction variables -Number of actions taken -Novelty of actions Phenomena Stressing the Individual (unmeasured process) (-) (+) (Mediator) Based on Milliken, Bartel and Kurtzberg (2001), Tsui and Gutek (1999) and Jackson, May and Whitney (1995)

9 Study Design and Population zSecondary data analysis zOLS and Logistic regression analysis z~40 teams from hospitals, physician groups, clinics, health plans, or health systems participating in 3 Improving Chronic Illness Care Collaboratives (evaluation-ICICE) zSurveyed members of multi-disciplinary teams ySize 1 to 14 members yAs many as 12 occupational categories

10 Data zLevel of analysis--the team ySome measures constructed for the team from individual-level data xmeans xCVs (Allison 1978) Heterogeneity index, H= 1- p i 2 (Blau 1977) ySome measures collected at team level

11 Variables

12 Analytic Methods zMediated regression analysis using repeated OLS (Baron and Kenny 1986) y Examines, in additive steps: x controls x main effects of variables of interest x moderating effects x mediators (to see if relationships change) y Conditions for pure mediation: x Independent variables affect the mediator x Independent variables affect the DV x Mediator affects the DV when included with independents, effect of independent variables is reduced yAn exploratory analysis

13 Results--Simple Statistics

14 Results--T1 Self-Assessed Team Performance

15 Results--Number of Changes in Care Practices

16 Results--Innovativeness

17 Results--T2 Self-Assessed Team Performance

18 What have we learned? zOccupational diversity had a positive effect on T1 self-assessed performance zBut no effect on T2 self-assessment zAnd no effect on the 2 creative outcomes zSo its good for starters and makes no difference after a while, when the positive start-up effect is accounted for

19 Limitations z Small N means that sophisticated analysis of all effects is impossible. Models are stretched to their limits. z Multicollinearity likely mutes some potentially significant effects of diversity measures.

20 Conclusions zDiversity can be one possible barrier to team quality improvement zBut sometimes is a boon zInsight into how to maximize benefits of teamwork yKeep teams together longer (change in diversitys effects over time) ySeek to manage negative effects of diversity with cohesion-building efforts yEncourage individual participation and grant autonomy


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