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OCLC Online Computer Library Center The Library is a good source if you have several months. Making the Library More Accessible Presented by Lynn Silipigni.

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Presentation on theme: "OCLC Online Computer Library Center The Library is a good source if you have several months. Making the Library More Accessible Presented by Lynn Silipigni."— Presentation transcript:

1 OCLC Online Computer Library Center The Library is a good source if you have several months. Making the Library More Accessible Presented by Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D. Senior Research Scientist OCLC Research Oklahoma Chapter of ACRL Tulsa, Oklahoma November 5, 2007

2 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Why Not Libraries?...faculty use a variety of strategies for negotiating the digital morass. For most, the path of least resistance is the one usually taken – a Google search, a walk down the hall or an to a colleague, a visit to the website of a trusted archive, or often ones own eclectic collection of digital stuff. Harley, Diane, Jonathan Henke, Shannon Lawrence, Ian Miller, Irene Perciali, David Nasatir, Charis Kaskiris and Cara Bautista Use and users of digital resources: A focus on undergraduate education in the humanities and social sciences. inal_report.pdf. (2 May 2006, 8-2)

3 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Get into the flow Disclose into other environments Then: The user built workflow around the library Now: The library must build its services around user workflow Why Not Libraries?

4 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Competition for attention Then: Resources scarce, attention abundant Now: Attention scarce, resources abundant Why Not Libraries?

5 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Information-seekers Preferences Two IMLS-funded projects Individuals' preferences for finding and using information sources and services Why their first choices often do not include library sources and services Sense-Making the Information Confluence: The Whys and Hows of College and University User Satisficing of Information Needs Seeking Synchronicity: Evaluating Virtual Reference Services from User, Non-User, and Librarian Perspectives

6 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Sense-Making the Information Confluence: The Whys and Hows of College and University User Satisficing of Information Needs

7 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Focus Group Interviews 5 academic institutions 44 colleges and universities 100 mile radius from Columbus, Ohio Total of 8 focus group interviews 31 faculty 19 graduate students 28 undergraduate students

8 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Think of a time when you had a situation where you needed answers or solutions and you did a quick search and made do with it. You knew there were other sources but you decided not to use them. Please include sources such as friends, family, professors, colleagues, etc. Situation 1: Quick Search

9 OCLC Online Computer Library Center … the thing about Google is that I generally find the little somethings under the search results and relevance to anything to actually be fairly good… You know, if I use the library catalog, it will give me a list of a thousand things, but there is really no ranking that I can understand. I stay away from the library and the librarys online catalog. Undergraduate Student Comments: Quick Search

10 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Graduate Student Comments: Quick Search …you need to know which database with abstracting, indexing… Google, I don't have to know, I go to one spot. I have been going to library web sites and using their stuff…e.g., EBSCO… Library as portal to online sources … will also go to university library... and search (for) articles I need.

11 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Faculty: Quick Search Google is my first place to find something quickly. [Google] is user friendly… library catalog is not. Yeah, well, actually I was going to be different and not say Google. I do use Google, but… [I also] use two different library homepages… and I will go into the research databases… do a search there and then I will end [up]… limiting myself to the articles that are available online.

12 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Situation 2: Did not use the library Have there been times when you did not use a library and used other sources instead?

13 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Undergraduate Students: Did not use the library The library is a good source if you have several months. Hard to find things in library catalog. Tried [physical] library but had to revert to online library resources. Yeah, I don't step in the library anymore… better to read a 25- page article from JSTOR than 250-page book. Sometimes content can be sacrificed for format.

14 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Graduate Students: Did not use the library Also I just go ask my dad, and he'll tell me how to put in a fence, you know? So why sort through all this material when he'll just tell me Dont use university online system. Dont like it. …first thing I do, is, I go to Google… I don't go into the [library] system unless I have to because there's like 15 logins, you have to get into the research databases. Then it takes you out of that to OhioLink…

15 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Faculty: Did not use the library If I have a student mention a book and I'm not familiar with that book, Amazon.com gives me a brief synopsis, … reader reviews of the book, so it's a good, interesting first source to go to for that kind of information. …before I came to the library to use the MLA database, I did a Google search and it turns out that there is a professor at Berkeley who keeps a really, really nice and fully updated… page with bibliographic references.

16 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Magic Wand If you had a magic wand, what would your ideal information systems and services provide? How would you go about using the information systems and services? When? Where? How?

17 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Undergraduate Student Comments: Magic Wand Make library catalogs more like search engines or OhioLink. Make a universal library card that would work in all libraries. Space in the library to interact and collaborate - group study areas and areas to spread stuff out.

18 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Graduate Student Comments: Magic Wand More staff, roaming personnel Book delivery from library through campus mail Drive-up pickup or drop off delivery service since parking is a problem. Make the library like a coffee house.

19 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Faculty Comments: Magic Wand Lessen the intimidation factor Better signage and other pathfinders Bookstore environment

20 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Semi-structured Dialogue 15 participants 6 faculty 4 graduate students 5 undergraduate students Situations Academic Recall how you go about writing your most recent assignment or research. What sources did you consult How did you decide on using them Where did you locate them? Personal Show us one of your favorite websites, one you use frequently.

21 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Why user looks for information: Motivations Extrinsic Motivations - imposed by others -job-related -assigned Intrinsic Motivations - personal interest -day to day information needs -hobbies

22 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Emerging Themes: Internet More than one-half use Google More than one-third use other search engines Familiarization tool Convenient Current information The findings are not generalizable because of the small, non-random sample.

23 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Emerging Themes: Internet Internet as indispensable for familiarization Graduate student comments Without Google it takes away that initial familiarizing yourself with whats out there. We wouldnt know what the good keywords were when we go to a more academic database. …but if I want more in-depth information then I would go to the library and find books or whatever. Faculty comment … I find Google really, really useful as a fast familiarizing tool.

24 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Emerging Themes: Internet Internet as convenient Graduate student comment I obviously turn to electronics first, then library second… because its convenient. But if I want more in-depth info, then I go to the library. Internet as current Faculty comment Theyre a bunch of sites I go to everyday. Now none of them are academic. I dont go to any academic sites everyday.

25 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Emerging Themes: Library Used for research Desire ability to customize library portals Inclusion of recommender services Enhanced discovery services Databases, abstracts, and indexes 8% use electronic databases Do not perceive as library sources Unable to locate or access full-text copies of journals and books

26 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Library as customizable: Recommender Services Undergraduate student comments Oh people who liked these have also liked this. Maybe you should check this out. It would be more like Amazon than, say, the current library catalog. Ill try to find something where I can search inside of a book… I would have descriptions, maybe, you know like, amazon.com has. Well, I have our library [web page] here open and… theres a lot of information and theres nowhere to search. This is the opening to the catalog but theres no box to search. Emerging Themes: Library

27 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Emerging Themes: Library Graduate student comment Ok. I definitely dont like going to the library because I think its time consuming... They dont have someone there that can have the journals and books out ready for you. Faculty comment The library is much less self-contained. Its now connected to other libraries. So, interlibrary loan, shared electronic resources, Ohiolink, is much more important to us now.

28 OCLC Online Computer Library Center End Notes This presentation is one of the outcomes from the project Sense-Making the Information Confluence: The Whys and Hows of College and University User Satisficing of Information Needs." Funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services, Ohio State University, and OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., the project is being implemented by Brenda Dervin (Professor of Communication and Joan N. Huber Fellow of Social & Behavioral Science, Ohio State University) as Principal Investigator; and Lynn Silipigni Connaway (OCLC Consulting Research Scientist III) and Chandra Prahba (OCLC Senior Research Scientist), as Co- Investigators. More information can be obtained at:

29 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Seeking Synchronicity: Evaluating Virtual Reference Services from User, Non- User, & Librarian Perspectives

30 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Focus Group Interviews 8 Focus Group Interviews 2 with VRS librarians 4 with VRS non-users Screenagers Rural Suburban Urban College students Graduate 2 with VRS users College students Graduate Undergraduate Adults

31 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Participant Demographics: User Focus Group Interviews Ethnicity-Users 15 Caucasian (68%) 4 Asian (18%) 2 African- American (9%) 1 Hispanic/Latino (5%) Gender-Users 13 Male (59%) 9 Female (41%)

32 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Participant Demographics: Non-user Focus Group Interviews Ethnicity-Non-users 18 Caucasian (45%) 7 African- American (17.5%) 6 Hispanic/Latino (15%) 2 Asian (5%) 7 Missing (17.5%) Gender-Non-users 23 Female (57.5%) 17 Male (42.5%)

33 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Non-User (Screenagers): Stereotypes and Independence Because, I mean, once they do their famous point, its just like… you dont want to go near them again. I wouldnt really trust my librarian. I trust Google. Plus I think the IMing kind of gives it a cold feeling to it… when you can actually sit and talk to someone face-to-face you kind of can see if they care or not…

34 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Non-User (Screenagers): Security, Accuracy, and Speed I dont usually like to talk to like people I dont know on the Internet. Im not going to go get tutored on the Internet by somebody… who might be some psycho serial killer out there when I could get personal help from my home and people in my community. A librarians trying to do like 15 of those conversations at once theyre going to mix up replies… I dont really want to take the time actually to type out, like explaining what Im doing, what I need it for, what type of sources I need.

35 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Non-User (Screenagers): Factors to Influence Use of VRS I dont think [I would use VRS] because I like going to people I know. I would probably try it as a last desperate resort…Id Moderator: Consensus. So if [your librarian] recommended it, you would all try this service? Multiple Participants: Yes… Yup..

36 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Non-User Graduate Students: Preference for Face-to-Face Just generally, I would talk to somebody in person. I prefer to interact with a librarian that I know. I would just go, um, to the library website… I go to Google Scholar as well and Inquestia.com which I belong to.

37 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Non-User Graduate Students: Misperceptions …I dont know if I felt I might be annoying them. Or felt like I might be blown off. I guess my reluctance would because I said I do research at odd hours like at two oclock in the morning. What are the chances that Im going to be able to have a chat with a librarian?

38 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Non-User Graduate Students Privacy and Technology Concerns And there could be a chance that [the librarian might say] This guys teaching these classes and he doesnt know this?! I was worried that in some way, you know, if the Department would get a report about what questions [I was asking], you know what I mean… Would the connection be good enough to facilitate real- time chat?

39 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Non-User Graduate Students: Factors to Influence Use of VRS I would want to know that they wanted me to use it. Big sign in the library or around campus saying Have you tried instant messaging your librarian?

40 OCLC Online Computer Library Center VRS Users: Convenience and Independence Id rather go two feet to my computer than a couple of miles to the library. I always want to do everything myself – I dont want help.

41 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Its helpful to have another person looking for you so you get twice as much information – which is quicker. …they know how to do it and know where to look and you dont necessarily know. VRS Users: Collaboration

42 OCLC Online Computer Library Center VRS Users: Personalized Service I was on the site at 2 or 3 in the morning and it felt personalized. Instead of having to write everything down… you have the transcript of the conversation and all the links from the conversation in a permanent .

43 OCLC Online Computer Library Center VRS Users: Ability to Multi-Task Moderator: Okay, so theres some consensus on that that it allows you to multitask? Multiple Participants: Yes.

44 OCLC Online Computer Library Center VRS Users: Distrust To me it wasnt that much more than any other search engine. Im not sure how much attention the person… was paying attention to the actual question or the key words in the actual question. …they were just Googling stuff as far as I could see. I feel like I get better results when Im, like with the person.

45 OCLC Online Computer Library Center VRS Users: Technology Issues A tutorial would be nice, for non-computer savvy people. Make the chat window bigger. Have the chat in one window and have opened up all the links they send you in a separate window.

46 OCLC Online Computer Library Center VRS Librarians: Expand Client Base Weve been able to reach people we know wed never reach otherwise, theyd never come in the building, wouldnt pick up the phone. And weve actually had people tell us that, they say that reference librarians are scary. We saw a lot of kids who struggled, wouldnt feel comfortable asking for help. But with the on-line connection, seemed to be more comfortable asking for help.

47 OCLC Online Computer Library Center VRS Librarians: More Challenging Questions …the face-to-face reference supervisor is envious when I tell them about the questions that we do get and how much fun we have finding the information.

48 OCLC Online Computer Library Center VRS Librarians: Suggestions for Improvement Visibility is an asset but… somebody… showed that their virtual reference statistics had gone up markedly after they added a link… We have to be able to accompany a broader array of browsers and operating systems and things like that.

49 OCLC Online Computer Library Center End Notes This is one outcome from the project Seeking Synchronicity: Evaluating Virtual Reference Services from User, Non-User, & Librarian Perspectives, Marie L. Radford & Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Co-Principal Investigators. Project website: Funded by IMLS, Rutgers University and OCLC, Online Computer Library Center, Inc. Special thanks to Patrick Confer, Timothy Dickey, Jocelyn DeAngelis Williams, Susanna Sabolcsi-Boros Julie Strange, & Janet Torsney.

50 OCLC Online Computer Library Center A library experience like the experience available on the web Yes, libraries!

51 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Yes, libraries! Comprehensive: unified discovery: its all there (e.g. Google, Amazon) In the flow: disclosed into research and learning workflows (e.g. toolbars) Telescopic: a personal to global traverse (e.g. del.icio.us) Low transaction costs: A short path between discovery and fulfillment (e.g iTunes, Google, Amazon,..) Network: navigable knowledge patterns: a rich texture of suggestion Reflexive: adapt based on aggregate intention/attention (e.g. page rank, people who read this, personalize,..) Lorcan Dempsey, presentation at the University of Virginia Libraries, April 26, 2007

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91 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Implications for Library Services Patrons lack patience to wade through content silos and indexing and abstracting databases Libraries should be …providing patrons with what they want when and how they want it, and providing patrons with the means to uncover what they want when they arent sure what exactly that may be. Good search and discovery tools Better meta-discovery tools than currently offered by federated technology Pace, Andrew. (2006). I Hear the Train a Comin. Presentation at the Charleston Conference. Charleston, SC, November 1.

92 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Implications for Library Services Integrate library search and discovery tools into the campus environment Course management systems Share discovered resources in the classroom Bursars and registrars systems Access and order resources with an automatic debit to the users account Pace, Andrew. (2006). I Hear the Train a Comin. Presentation at the Charleston Conference. Charleston, SC, November 1.

93 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Questions and Comments Lynn Silipigni Connaway Presentation available at:


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