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I can get everything that I can get at a library and more online, and I don't have to go anywhere. Expectations of the Screenager Generation Presented.

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Presentation on theme: "I can get everything that I can get at a library and more online, and I don't have to go anywhere. Expectations of the Screenager Generation Presented."— Presentation transcript:

1 I can get everything that I can get at a library and more online, and I don't have to go anywhere. Expectations of the Screenager Generation Presented by Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D. Senior Research Scientist OCLC Research New York Public Library December 10, 2008

2 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Libraries Provide systems and services to meet the information needs of differing groups

3 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Largest Demographic Groups Baby boomers ( ) Cohort #1 (Born 1946 – 1954) Cohort #2 (Born 1955 – 1964) Millennials (1979 – 1994) Screenagers (Born )

4 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Who Are The Millennials? NetGens/EchoBoomers/ Gen Y Born – 80 Million Generational divide year olds By 2010 will outnumber Baby Boomers

5 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Screenagers Youngest members of Millennial Generation Term coined in 1996 by Rushkoff Used here for year olds Affinity for electronic communication Collaborative

6 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Millennials: Did Not Use the Library The library is a good source if you have several months. Hard to find things in library catalog. Tried [physical] library but had to revert to online library resources. Yeah, I don't step in the library anymore… better to read a 25-page article from JSTOR than 250-page book. Sometimes content can be sacrificed for format.

7 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Their Information Perspectives Information is information Media formats dont matter Visual learners Process immediately Different research skills Multi-task

8 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library - December 10, How They Meet Information Needs The Internet Google Wikipedia Amazon.com Personal libraries

9 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library - December 10, How They Meet Information Needs People Family members Friends Teachers/Professors

10 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library - December 10, What Attracts Them to Resources Convenience, convenience, convenience Available 24/7 Working from home At night or on weekends Immediate answers Lack of cost Efficient

11 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library - December 10, What Attracts Them to Resources Independence Prefer to do own search Use the Internet No librarian necessary Privacy

12 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library - December 10, Why They Do Not Use Libraries Do not know… Service availability Librarian can help 24/7 availability Satisfied with other information sources Intimidated by library and librarian Too difficult to use Takes too long Stereotypes

13 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library - December 10, Why They DO Use Libraries Databases EBSCO Lexis-Nexis JSTOR Online journals and abstracts BUT …

14 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library - December 10, Do not know these resources are provided by the library

15 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library - December 10, Ideal Information Systems & Services Make library catalogs more like search engines... Make a universal library card that would work in all libraries. Space in the library to interact and collaborate - group study areas and areas to spread stuff out. Make the library like a coffee house.

16 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Two Views Users Highly value librarians attitude & personal qualities Some value interpersonal aspects more than receipt of information Librarians More likely to value content, transfer of information Also value relationship qualities (but to a lesser degree)

17 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Interpersonal Communication Analysis: Results Relational Facilitators Interpersonal aspects of the chat conversation that have a positive impact on the librarian- client interaction and that enhance communication. Relational Barriers Interpersonal aspects of the chat conversation that have a negative impact on the librarian- client interaction and that impede communication.

18 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Facilitators – Differences Screenagers (n=146) vs. Others (n=235) Screenagers demonstrated these behaviors less often than Adults On average (per transcript): Thanks Self Disclosure Closing Ritual On average (per occurrence): Seeking reassurance Polite expressions

19 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Lower averages (per transcript) Thanks 51% (75) vs. 68% (159) Self Disclosure 42% (61) vs. 49% (116) Closing Ritual 32% (47) vs. 45% (106) Lower averages (per occurrence) Seeking reassurance 62% (91) vs. 59% (139) Polite expressions 34% (49) vs. 28% (66) Facilitators – Differences Screenagers (n=146) vs. Others (n=235)

20 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Screenagers demonstrated these behaviors less often than Adults On Average (per occurrence) Agree to suggestion Admit lack knowledge Lower case Screenagers demonstrated these behaviors more often than Adults On average (per occurrence) Interjections/Hedges Slang Facilitators – Differences Screenagers (n=146) vs. Others (n=235)

21 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Barriers – Differences Screenagers (n=146) vs. Others (n=235) Screenagers demonstrated these behaviors more often than Adults On average (per transcript) Abrupt Endings Disconfirming Impatience Rude or Insulting Inappropriate language Goofing around

22 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Critical Incident Technique (Flanagan, 1954) Qualitative technique Focuses on most memorable event/experience of participants Allows categories or themes to emerge NOT imposed

23 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Critical Incident Technique: Online Survey Questions To Elicit Positive & Negative CI for Non-users Think about one experience in which you felt you achieved (did not achieve) a positive result after seeking library reference services in any format. Describe the circumstances and nature of your question. Describe why you felt the encounter was successful/unsuccessful. Did the format (face-to-face, telephone, , or text messaging) help your experience to be successful/contribute to your lack of success? If yes, how?

24 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Millennial VRS Users: Positive Results (CI N=48) Number % Primarily Content 33 69% Both Relational & 13 27% Content Primarily Relational 2 4%

25 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Millennial VRS Users: Positive Results (CI N=48) Content Themes * Number % Providing information 36 75% Convenience/multi % tasking/time saving/ money saving Providing instruction 5 10% *The percentages do not total to 100% because each CI can be coded into more than one theme

26 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Millennial VRS Users: Positive Results (CI N=48) Relational Themes* Number % Attitude 10 21% Relationship quality 8 17% *The percentages do not total to 100% because each CI can be coded into more than one theme

27 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Millennial VRS Users: Negative Results (CI N=30) Number % Primarily Content 23 77% Primarily Relational 6 20% Both Relational & 1 3% Content

28 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Millennial VRS Users: Negative Results (CI N=30) Content Themes* Number % Information 21 70% Lack of knowledge 5 17% *The percentages do not total to 100% because each CI can be coded into more than one theme

29 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Millennial VRS Users: Negative Results (CI N=30) Relational Themes* Number % Relationship quality 6 20% Attitude 5 17% *The percentages do not total to 100% because each CI can be coded into more than one theme

30 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Millennial VRS Non-users: Positive Results (CI N=108) Number % Primarily Content54 50% Both Relational & 33 31% Content Primarily Relational21 19%

31 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Millennial VRS Non-users: Positive Results (CI N=108) Content Themes * Number % Providing information 54 50% Providing instruction 24 22% Convenience/multi % tasking/time saving/ money saving Demonstrating knowledge 12 11% *The percentages do not total to 100% because each CI can be coded into more than one theme

32 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Millennial VRS Non-users: Positive Results (CI N=108) Relational Themes* Number % Attitude 39 36% Impact of FtF assisting 20 18% relationship development Relationship quality 20 18% Impact of phone/ 3 3% assisting information seeking process Approachability 3 3% *The percentages do not total to 100% because each CI can be coded into more than one theme

33 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Millennial VRS Non-users: Negative Results (CI N=74) Number % Primarily Content 35 47% Primarily Relational 27 37% Both Relational & 12 16% Content

34 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Millennial VRS Non-users: Negative Results (CI N=74) Content Themes* Number % Information 47 64% Lack of knowledge 17 23% Instruction 5 7% Task unreasonable 3 4% *The percentages do not total to 100% because each CI can be coded into more than one theme

35 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Millennial VRS Non-users: Negative Results (CI N=74) Relational Themes* Number % Attitude36 49% Relationship quality20 27% Approachability 3 4% Impact of technology 2 3% *The percentages do not total to 100% because each CI can be coded into more than one theme

36 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, What We Learned The image of libraries is… BOOKS People do not think of the library as an important source of electronic information!

37 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, What We Learned Books arent convenient to retrieve from the library Libraries are QUIET For studying

38 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, What We Learned Traditional Library EnvironmentMillennial Preferences Logical, linear learningMulti-tasking Largely text basedVisual, audio, multi-media Learn from the expertFigure it out for myself Requires patienceWant it now MetasearchFull text ComplexitySimplicity

39 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, What We Learned Libraries are trusted sources of information Search engines are trusted about the same Screenagers Lack patience to wade through content silos and indexing and abstracting databases Like convenience and speed Do not view paid information as more accurate than free information

40 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, What We Learned Communication critically important! Difficult process Generational differences add to complexity! Need user education for more realistic expectations

41 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library - December 10, A library experience like the experience available on the web Yes, libraries!

42 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Implications for Library Services Libraries should be …providing patrons with what they want when and how they want it, and providing patrons with the means to uncover what they want when they arent sure what exactly that may be. Good search and discovery tools Recommender Services Reviews Social Networking IM Text Messaging Better meta-discovery tools than currently offered by federated technology (Pace, 2006)

43 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, What We Can Do Encourage & entice them to use libraries Creative marketing Promote full range of services and systems Build positive relationships Regardless of format Face-to-Face Phone Online

44 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, What We Can Do Understand them to better serve their information needs

45 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Additional Resources Boomer Nation: The Largest and Richest Generation Ever and how it Changed America, S. Gillon. New York: Free Press, College Student Perceptions of Libraries and Information Resources, OCLC, Dublin: OH, Generations: The History of Americas Future, , N. Strauss & W. Howe. New York: Morrow, Generations at Work, S. Luck, PPSluck%20Generations.ppt 0PPSluck%20Generations.ppt The Google Generation: The Information Behaviour of the Researcher of the Future, I. Rowlands, et al., Aslib Proceedings, 60(4),

46 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Growing Up Digital, D. Tapscott. HS senior explains why she doesnt use the school library, D.L. Whelan. School Library Journal (October 30, 2007) I hear the train a comin, A. Pace. Presentation at the Charleston Conference. Charleston, SC, Nov. 1, Millennial Behaviors and Demographics, R. Sweeney, folders/sweeney/Millennials/Article-Millennial-Behaviors.doc folders/sweeney/Millennials/Article-Millennial-Behaviors.doc Millennial Net Values: Disconnects between Libraries and the Information Age Mindset, R. McDonald & C. Thomas, Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation, W. Howe & N. Strauss. New York: Random House, Additional Resources

47 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Additional Resources Mountains, Valleys, and Pathways: Serials Users Needs and Steps to Meet Them. Part I: Identifying Serials Users Needs: Preliminary Analysis of Focus Group and Semi-structured Interviews at Colleges and Universities, L.S. Connaway, Serials Librarian, 52(1/2), , Net Generation Students and Libraries, J. Lippincott. In Educating the Net Generation, Educase, Perceptions of Libraries and Information Resources, OCLC Dublin: OH, Playing the Future: How Kids Culture Can Teach Us to Thrive in an Age of Chaos, D. Rushkoff. New York: HarperCollins, 1996.

48 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Sense-making the Information Confluence: The Hows and the Whys of College and University User Satisficing of Information Needs, Brenda Dervin, Ohio State University, Principal Investigator; Lynn Silipigni Connaway and Chandra Prabha, Co-Investigators. Institute for Museums and Library Services Research Grant, Screenagers and Live Chat Reference: Living Up to the Promise, M.L. Radford & L.S. Connaway. Scan, 26(6), February, scan.pdf scan.pdf Studying Students: The Undergraduate Research Project at the University of Rochester, N. Foster & S. Gibbons, Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries, Youth Health and Wellness: Core Issues and Views on Existing Resources, Ypulse, ISIS, Inc., & YouthNoise, inc.org/in-print/Youth_Health_and_Wellness_Report_2008.phpwww.isis- inc.org/in-print/Youth_Health_and_Wellness_Report_2008.php Additional Resources

49 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, End Notes This presentation is one of the outcomes from the project Seeking Synchronicity: Evaluating Virtual Reference Services from User, Non-User, & Librarian Perspectives, Marie L. Radford & Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Co-Principal Investigators. Funded by IMLS, Rutgers University and OCLC, Online Computer Library Center, Inc. Project website: This presentation is one of the outcomes from the project Sense-Making the Information Confluence: The Whys and Hows of College and University User Satisficing of Information Needs." Funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services, Ohio State University, and OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., the project is being implemented by Brenda Dervin (Professor of Communication and Joan N. Huber Fellow of Social & Behavioral Science, Ohio State University) as Principal Investigator; and Lynn Silipigni Connaway (OCLC Consulting Research Scientist III) and Chandra Prahba (OCLC Senior Research Scientist), as Co-Investigators. More information can be obtained at:

50 Questions & Comments Lynn Silipigni Connaway

51 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Sense-Making Focus Group Interviews 5 academic institutions 44 colleges and universities 100 mile radius from Columbus, Ohio Total of 8 focus group interviews 31 faculty 19 graduate students 28 undergraduate students

52 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, Semi-structured Dialogue 15 participants 6 faculty 4 graduate students 5 undergraduate students Situations Personal Show us one of your favorite websites, one you use frequently. Academic Recall how you go about writing your most recent assignment or research. What sources did you consult How did you decide on using them Where did you locate them?

53 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, VRS Focus Group Interviews 8 Focus Group Interviews 2 with VRS librarians 4 with VRS non-users Screenagers Rural Suburban Urban College students Graduate 2 with VRS users College students Graduate Undergraduate Adults

54 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, VRS User Demographics Online Surveys (n=137) Majority Respondents Female Caucasian years old Suburban public libraries

55 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, VRS User Demographics Telephone Interviews (n=76) Majority Respondents Female Caucasian years old Suburban public libraries

56 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, VRS Non-User Demographics Online Surveys (n=184) Majority Respondents Female Caucasian years old Suburban and urban public libraries

57 Expectations of the Screenager Generation New York Public Library – December 10, VRS Non-User Demographics Telephone Interviews (n=107) Majority Respondents Female Caucasian years old Suburban and urban public libraries


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