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FRBR Workshop, OCLC, 2005 Toward an International Sharing and Use of Subject Authority Data Marcia Lei Zeng Athena Salaba Kent State University.

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Presentation on theme: "FRBR Workshop, OCLC, 2005 Toward an International Sharing and Use of Subject Authority Data Marcia Lei Zeng Athena Salaba Kent State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, 2005 Toward an International Sharing and Use of Subject Authority Data Marcia Lei Zeng Athena Salaba Kent State University

2 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, 2005 Outline 1. Background information 2. Current State 3. Authority Data 4. Sharing Authority Data

3 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, Background 1.1 Subject access Seeking information on a topic is still the predominant user task Subject access includes: Subject searching Keyword searching Subject browsing It is still very problematic for the majority of searchers

4 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, Functions of a catalog regarding subject access (1) Cutter (1897) To find a book if the subject is known To show what a library has on a given subject (collocate) To assist in the choice as to its character (identify)

5 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, Functions of a catalog regarding subject access (2) FRBR (1998) To find entities of Group 1 that have entities from Group 1, 2, 3 as their subject To identify To select To obtain

6 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, What is a subject? Group 1 Work Expression Manifestation Item Group 2 Persons Families Corporate bodies Group 3 Concepts Objects Place Event FRBR – Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records

7 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, 2005 Revisiting Group 3? Time Process Event is a combination of place and time Concrete vs. abstract concept Ranganathan Personality Matter Energy Space Time

8 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, Current State Subject Authority Data 2.1 Structure (heterogeneous) 2.2 Existing Knowledge Organization Systems/Structures/Schemas (KOS) 2.3 Rules and guidelines 2.4 Communication/Encoding

9 2.1 Structures Term Lists: Synonym Rings Authority Files Glossaries/Dictionaries Gazetteers Natural languageControlled language Weakly-structured Strongly-structured Classification & Categorization: Subject Headings Classification schemes Classification schemes Taxonomies Categorization schemes Relationship Groups : Thesauri Ontologies Semantic networks Thesauri Pick lists

10 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, 2005 Structures: Coordination Pre-coordination ………..Post-coordination e.g. subject headingse.g. thesauri - LCSH- AAT, INSPEC MeSH FAST UMLS

11 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, Existing KOS (1) Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ERIC Thesaurus (ERIC) Inspec Thesaurus Inspec Classification Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) Library of Congress Classification (LCC) Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) HEREIN Thesaurus Alexandria Digital Library (ADL) Gazetteer and Thesaurus Schlagwortnormdatei (SWD) Regenburger Verbund Klassifikation (RVK) RAMEAU: repertoire d'authorite de matieres encyclopedique unifie Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) National Agriculture Library Subject Headings … …

12 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, Existing KOS (2) Verbal based AAT LCSH RAMEU INSPEC Thesaurus MeSH Code based UDC RVK DDC LCC Integrated INSPEC MeSH Hierarchy Combined VC Global environment LanguageLanguage Structure

13 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, Rules of KOS Construction Different rules and guidelines AACR2, Z39.19, RAK (Regeln für die alphabetische Katalogisierung), ISO5964, ISO2788, IFLA Principles Underlying Subject Heading Languages (SHLs) … No rules Indirect/Inherent use of rules (by example)

14 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, Communication/Encoding for authority data MARC MARC21 (1xx, 2xx, etc.) UNIMARC (1xx, 2xx, etc. different definition) etc. Guidelines for Authority Records and References (GARR) (>, >, <<) NISO Z39.19 (BT, NT, RT, etc.) XML-based: OWL Web Ontology Language, RDF Schema, Voc-ML, etc.

15 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, Authority Data 3.1 Use of authority data Direct use of authority data Index Identify/Verify Search & Browse the authority data Indirect use of authority data Searching bibliographic file Browsing bibliographic file Users Information professionals Searcher/end-user

16 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, Common Authority Data Authorized/established term Variations Related terms Notes Linked/Parallel terms Numbering, International numbering? Other: language, rules, links to external resources, roles, etc.

17 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, 2005 Do we need one authorized term? Keep USER in mind! Preference, language, script Trends: all are preferred Synonym rings (included in NISO Z39.19 now)

18 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, Common Semantic Relationships in Authority Data Semantic relationships Broad categories Equivalence (Use, Used For, UF, See) Hierarchical (BT, NT, see also) Associative (RT, see also) More specific relationships, such as: Is part of Is instance of Agent/process Process/product Need for other types of relationships? ADL, such as: Overlap; administrativePartOf; SubFeatureOf UMLS, such as: Like; Parent; Child; Sibling WordNet, such as: Familiarity; derivationally related

19 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, 2005 Unanswered Question What authority data currently exist in an authority record? or What authority data should be included in an authority record?

20 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, Sharing Authority Data in a Global Environment 4.1. Challenges Structures Languages and scripts Rules Encoding Combined VC Global environment LanguageLanguage Structure

21 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, Projects Specifically for Subject Authority Data Sharing Construction (not to be discussed here) Implementation Projects based on different types of structures Projects involving multiple languages

22

23 KOS Vocabularies Authority files Bibliographic files

24 KOS Vocabularies Authority files Bibliographic files KOS Vocabularies Authority files Bibliographic files

25 Sharing at Vocabulary Level KOS Vocab ularies KOS adaptation, extension, extraction, translation, etc. KOS Vocabularies KOS Vocabularies

26 Sharing at Vocabulary Level 1.Direct mapping National database "Merimee" about the French Heritage The Thesaurus of Architecture (Le thésaurus de l'architecture) was created and mapped to the Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) and the English Heritage Thesaurus (NMR) KOS Vocabularies KOS Vocabularies

27 Sharing at Vocabulary Level 2.Using a switching system KOS Vocabularies KOS Vocabularies KOS Vocabularies Renardus project a cross-browsing feature based on the DDC and improved subject searching across distributed and heterogeneous European subject gateways.

28 Sharing at Vocabulary Level KOS Vocabularies KOS Vocabularies KOS Vocabularies 3.Creating a superstructure UMLS® Metathesaurus ® Over 1,000,000 concepts and 4.3 million concept names from more than 100 controlled vocabularies, some in multiple languages

29 Sharing at Vocabulary Level KOS Vocabularies KOS Vocabularies KOS Vocabularies 4.Creating a superstructure (an index) UCB Unfamiliar Metadata Vocabularies Accepts query vocabularies and responds with a ranked list of the systems entry vocabularies– which is an index to five controlled vocabularies.

30 Sharing at Vocabulary Level KOS Vocabularies KOS Vocabularies KOS Vocabularies CAMed Cross-thesaurus searching Terms are linked in a temporary union list generated by the software in response to a query. 5.Creating a superstructure (a virtual index)

31 Sharing at Vocabulary Level KOS Vocabularies KOS Vocabularies KOS Vocabularies 6. Linking through a thesaurus server protocol UCSB Alexandria Digital Library The Thesaurus Protocol is based on the ANSI/NISO (1993, R2003) Z39.19 thesaurus model and supports downloading, querying, and navigating thesauri.

32 KOS Vocabularies Bibliographic files KOS Vocabularies Bibliographic files Sharing at Subject Authority File Level Authority files Direct Mapping

33 Direct Mapping -- MACS (Multilingual Access to Subjects)

34 LCSH AND MeSH MAPPING PROJECT SAMPLE AUTHORITY RECORDS, Northwestern University Library

35 KOS Vocabularies Authority files Bibliographic files Co-occurrence mapping -- works at the application level, i.e., in metadata records, where the group of subject terms can actually result in loosely-mapped terms. Metadata Terms from thesaurus 1 Terms from thesaurus 2 S1S2 Metadata Terms from thesaurus 1 Terms from thesaurus 2 Metadata Terms from thesaurus 1 Terms from thesaurus 2 Metadata Terms from thesaurus 1 Terms from thesaurus 2 Metadata Terms from thesaurus 1 Terms from thesaurus 2

36 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, 2005 So far, Functional Requirements for Authority Records (FRAR) Covers: Names for persons, families, corporate bodies (Group 2) Titles (Group 1) Projects for Authority Data Sharing focus mainly on Names: ONE Shared Authority Control (ONESAC, ppt)ppt Virtual International Authority File (VIAF)VIAF Linking and Exploring Authority Files (LEAF)LEAF Hong Kong Chinese Authority (Name) (HKCAN)HKCAN

37 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, 2005 FRSAR: Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data Scope: focus on FRBRs Group 3 entities FRSAR Working Group contact: Marcia Zeng Maja Zumer Athena Salaba

38 FRBR Workshop, OCLC, 2005

39 FRSAR terms of reference build a conceptual model of Group 3 entities within the FRBR framework (Entities in Group 1 and Group 2 can be used as the subjects of works; but further inclusion of them will depend on the outcomes of the work of the FRANAR Working Group); provide a clearly defined, structured frame of reference for relating the data that are recorded in subject authority records to the needs of the users of those records; and assist in an assessment of the potential for international sharing and use of subject authority data both within the library sector and beyond.


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