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11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 1 Gregory M. Shreve Software Localization and Internationalization: How and Why.

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Presentation on theme: "11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 1 Gregory M. Shreve Software Localization and Internationalization: How and Why."— Presentation transcript:

1 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 1 Gregory M. Shreve Software Localization and Internationalization: How and Why

2 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 2 Internet World Stats estimates the current number of WWW users at 785 million. Of these, 29% reside in North America, 27.7% reside in Europe, and 31% reside in Asia with penetration rates of 69.8%, 29.9% and 6.7% respectively. With 58.7% of current users residing in regions with an average penetration rate of only 18.3%, it is clear that these foreign markets offer substantial rewards for those prepared to enter them. Internet, E-Commerce & Foreign Markets The growth of the Internet and e-commerce over the next decade will be driven by the expansion of foreign markets.

3 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 3 In 2003 e-commerce sales to foreign customers exceeded domestic sales. This year the European Internet economy is expected to break the 4 trillion dollar mark, growing at a compound annual rate of 87%. Western Europe is expected to lead all regions with 692 billion dollars in global online exports in North America will move 23% of its exports online, with the U.S. pumping 210 billion dollars into cross border e-commerce. The Asia-Pacific region will reach 219 billion dollars in 2004, sparked by 57 billion dollars in Japanese online exports. Consumer as Foreigner

4 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 4 Global, Globalize, Globalization Companies that intend to sell online will have to globalize their web presence and their products to reach the majority of the online marketplace. They will have to make their web sites, software interfaces, and product documentation available in the languages and cultural styles of an increasingly diverse and international market by applying a process called localization – the translation of content and adaptation of interface and form to reflect the expectations of one or many given locales. For global-strategy American companies, over 40% of total revenue comes from international sales. These companies market high- technology products such as software, medical instrumentation, CAD / CAM devices, and so on.

5 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 5 Global, Globalize, Globalization Most of these products have a high document overhead, with instructions on the assembly, use, maintenance, and repair of the products delivered via off- and on-line electronic documentation. Most are marketed and supported online. Further, many products may have embedded software components and user interfaces use on-line databases. These products and documents must be delivered to locales, target markets with different cultural and linguistics contexts. CBT computer-based-training UI user interfaces Marketing packages, web Documentation manuals, help files Support customer, technical, web

6 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 6 Language Industry While global marketing existed before the 1990s, the translation / software localization industry (or language industry for short) today has evolved primarily as a result of the rapid global expansion of the computer software market and the increasing use of the Internet as a global marketing and customer service tool – all part of globalization. The corporate problem is, of course, that many companies do not understand HOW to prepare their many products, documents, web pages and database interfaces for distribution in other linguistic and cultural locales – hence the need for the services of the language industry.

7 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 7 New Media, New Markets Experts estimate the current worth of the U.S. language industry at just under $2 billion annually, with the global market worth approximately $6 billion. Indications are that growth will continue to be strong into the next decade because of new electronic media and markets. Consider the case of massively multi- player online games (MMOGs): the language industry enables the publishers of these games to leverage their initial development investment by translating and adapting the games for international locales. Industry projections are that MMOGs will post a 52% cumulative annual growth rate between 2002 and 2006.

8 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 8 Initial Definitions This presentation examines the issues and processes involved in software internationalization and localization. There are three related major processes to consider. We have already discussed globalization. globalization, a strategic decision to reach an international audience or to include different linguistic and cultural materials in a product, software application, web site or digital collection; internationalization, a design process intended to enable efficient and cost-effective subsequent linguistic and cultural adaptation; localization, the preparation of locale-specific versions of an applications interface and content. G11N L10NI18N

9 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 9 Localization is the preparation of locale-specific versions of a software application, electronic document, internet resource, or digital collection. It consists of the translation of textual material into the language and textual conventions of the target locale and the adaptation of non-textual materials and delivery / display mechanisms to take into account the cultural requirements of that locale. Internationalization is an upstream engineering process that should precede localization. Its aim is to make subsequent localization/translation easier, more efficient, and less costly. Internationalization & Localization internationalizationlocalization globalization translation

10 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 10 Scope of Processes internationalization localization globalization translation organizational policies & strategies business, IT, & document processes documents, interfaces, tools Each of these processes has a different scope and occurs at a different point in the business and document cycles of an organization. Earlier Later

11 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 11 Evolution of Software Localization Software localization developed as part of the globalization of the personal computer software market. Software applications and supporting electronic documents were the first localized products. The growth of the Internet and the World Wide Web created a demand for localized web pages and sites. Digital multimedia and digital repositories (including digital libraries) are emerging foci of localization. PC software WWW repositories multimedia

12 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 12 Document: Display and Content document documents display content color, graphics, icons, symbols, display organization interface: menus, dialogs, messages, prompts, alerts, document organization, writing system Localization focuses on both display (appearance, presentation) and content. Thus, localization includes a cultural adaptation as well as a linguistic translation component. date, time, calendar, currency, number, address content: help files, auxiliary documents, HTML / XML document content metadata, vocabularies non-linguistic linguistic

13 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 13 Localizing Software Applications Software applications were the first localized electronic documents Early localization included finding all strings embedded in code: #include main() { int n; char y[5]; printf("This program converts decimal numbers to hexadecimal\n\n"); while(1) { printf("\nEnter decimal number: "); scanf("%d",&n); printf("\nNumber entered is decimal and hexa",n,n); printf("\nDo you want to continue? "); scanf("%s",y); if(strcmp(y,"yes")) { printf("\n exiting..\n"); exit(); } strings are directly in code source.c

14 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 14 Extract Localizable Resources PortfolioMenu MENU BEGIN POPUP "&File" BEGIN MENUITEM "&Add Student",1 MENUITEM SEPARATOR MENUITEM "&Delete Student", 2 MENUITEM SEPARATOR MENUITEM "&Update Student", 3 MENUITEM "E&xit", 4 END POPUP "&Tools" BEGIN MENUITEM "Add &Portrait", 5 END POPUP "&Help" BEGIN MENUITEM "About Portfolio", 6 MENUITEM SEPARATOR MENUITEM "Contents", 7 END Strings are not the only localizable material: dialog boxes controls labels menus icons graphics tooltips RESOURCES

15 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 15 Localizing Web Pages character sets localizing tag content recognizing which tags have localizable content not breaking tags looking for text generated by attributes (title, alt) looking for text generated by scripts (server-side, client-side) evaluating CSS and stylesheet changes making changes to graphics dealing with graphics with integral text Localization of HTML Web sites are also now being localized. The link below points to a commented HTML file that gives a simple introduction to localizing an HTML web page. At the localizers level some of the issues (not an exhaustive list) are:

16 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 16 A Solution: Re-Engineer the Software As one could imagine, localizing directly in code led to problems. First, translator / localizers were quite capable of breaking code. There were also problems associated with the necessity for multiple re-builds of the basic software for each language version. Language expansion (differences in textual volume) created sizing problems in dialogs and controls. Localization was labor-intensive, difficult and expensive. A solution was to re- engineer the software with the intent of separating language resources from the underlying delivery mechanism.

17 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 17 Internationalization: Separate Resources Internationalization is a re- engineering and re-design process intended to make localization and translation easier, faster and more cost- effective. A first step in the inter- nationalization of software applications is the separation or extraction of linguistic and cultural resources from the application, leaving a neutral software kernel. Extraction requires specialized localization tools. application software kernel resources

18 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 18 Extract Localizable Materials #include extern unsigned char *intl_m_msg(), *intl_f_msg(); main() { int n; char y[5]; printf(intl_m_msg("","mypg ",1)); while(1) { printf(intl_m_msg("","mypg ",2)); scanf("%d",&n); printf(intl_m_msg("","mypg",3), n,n); printf(intl_m_msg("","mypg",4)) ; scanf("%s",y); if(strcmp(y, (intl_m_msg("","mypg",6))) { printf(intl_m_msg("","mypg",5)) ; exit(); } This program converts decimal numbers to hexadecimal\n\n" \n Enter decimal number: \n Number entered is decimal and hexa \n Do you want to continue? \n exiting..\n yes" EXTRACT source.cmypg.en

19 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 19 Extract Localizable Materials #include extern unsigned char *intl_m_msg(), *intl_f_msg(); main() { int n; char y[5]; printf(intl_m_msg("","mypg ",1)); while(1) { printf(intl_m_msg("","mypg ",2)); scanf("%d",&n); printf(intl_m_msg("","mypg",3), n,n); printf(intl_m_msg("","mypg",4)) ; scanf("%s",y); if(strcmp(y, (intl_m_msg("","mypg",6))) { printf(intl_m_msg("","mypg",5)) ; exit(); } Ce programme convertit les nombres décimaux en hexadécimal\n\n \nEntrer le nombre décimal: \nLe nombre entré est décimal et hexadécimal \nVoulez vous continuer? \nSortie..\n oui TRANSLATE source.cmypg.fr

20 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 20 Joan Smith 266 South Prospect Street Kent Ohio Content and Display in Web Pages Web pages share the problem of separation of content and coding with application software. You can see from our web page example how true this is. Internationalization solutions in web pages also involve the extraction of linguistic and cultural material from the software vehicle. Cutting edge solutions create dynamic HTML from XML-based language content. Joan Smith 266 South Prospect Street Kent Ohio USA HTML XML

21 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 21 Two Multilingual Web Architectures multilingual XML content content is dynamically inserted in generated local page templates Principle of separating linguistic from software elements as used in software localization Multiple static versions of pages stored in a folder hierarchy by language and navigated by selection mechanism language selection static web page is selected and displayed OLDNEW XSL transforms

22 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 22 I18N Content Management translation Dynamic Pages localization XML Representation (content only, strip format) Content Repository (archive, database) Style Sheet Repository Display Medium acquire information organize, classify deploy format This system assumes an Internationalized dynamic web page architecture

23 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 23 Internationalization: Control Truly effective internationalization also involves early intervention in and re-design of upstream business and document processes like authoring to exert greater control and to reduce variability. creation: authoring storage acquisition distribution rendering retrieval document documents

24 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 24 Internationalization & Authoring I18N controlled languages terminology control software documents help text technical writers L10N localization vendor machine translation dependency For instance, intervention in and re-design of document creation processes (authoring) can yield significant downstream benefits for localization. Controlled language and terminology control are two strategies.

25 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 25 Internationalization & Localization I18N software internationalization tools software documents help text resources technical writers L10N localizable software distribution localization vendor internationalization engineers controlled languages terminology control Internationalization engineers work with or for clients to create internationalized products.

26 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 26 Localization Management & Tools L10N localizable software distribution project management tools localization tools workflow management document / version control translators / localizers QA/testing / validation tools A localization project requires its own processes and tools. localization project

27 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 27 Localization Management & Tools localization project localizable software distribution localization tool (enterprise) translators / localizers project manager localization engineer localization toolkit (distribution) localization tool (translator) translation memory terminology manager Translation memories and terminology managers are important tools for maintaining standardized translations and glossaries. TMs provide the focus of QA, ensure replicability / repeatability, and allow re-use of linguistic and cultural materials.

28 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 28 Localization Management & Tools translators / localizers localization toolkit (distribution) localization tool (translator) translation memory terminology manager Specialized localization for alignment and term extraction are used to automate the construction of TMs. term extraction tool text alignment tool

29 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 29 Reusability Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 translation memory new version uses 70% same text initial translation with TM tool 30% change latest version uses 80% same text as previous 20% change Reusability is an especially important objective of internationalization and reduces the cost of localization.

30 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 30 Goals of Internationalization The goals of internationalization are: reusability scalability authority / quality accessibility accuracy / acceptability translations I18N solution equivalence cross-language target culture(s) control target document These goals are met by separating content from display, defining and extracting culturally variable material from fixed or neutral material, intervening in the document cycle to exert control over document processes, and using translation memories and terminology management to ensure critical characteristics such as authority and reusability

31 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 31 Enhanced Corpora Future directions in internationalization will involve exploiting document corpora more effectively and extracting useful linguistic and textual objects for control and re-use. Control of the document cycle begins with understanding the documents we already own and enhancing them.

32 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 32 Corpus New Localization Objects Many linguistic objects useful in computer-assisted authoring and translation, web page localization, machine translation and cross- language information retrieval (including browsing) can be extracted from a well- understood and deliberately structured document corpus.

33 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 33 Corpus Replication Using statistical techniques it is possible to replicate the contents of a monolingual corpus and add multilingual equivalents for terms, phrases, document segments and other objects to it.

34 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 34 What The Industry is Doing Now The language industry currently relies on using translation memories and terminology managers. There are significant drawbacks to this method that prevent new gains in cost reduction and profitability – the goal of inter- nationalization.

35 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 35 A New Model New approaches to internationalization and automatic localization leverage the linguistic value of existing corpora and allow the creation of enhanced corpora whose contents are understood and controlled. Statistical corpus linguistics and XML combine to allow the next step in localization technology.

36 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 36 Peer-to-Peer Localization Resources A peer-to-peer networking platform with a security and digital rights management layer can be used to link clients in an XML resource network. A vendor can assess per transaction charges for access to corpus object stores.

37 11/7/2004 Kent State University Shreve 37 Socio-Cultural Style Sheets The peer-to-peer networking platform can also be used to provide new capabilities for next generation localization. Client-Side Socio- Cultural Style-sheets (CSSCS) can provide for automated solutions to on-the-fly provision of web content in the languages and formats desired by and expected by web users all over the world.


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