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Comparison of Keyword Searching Using FAST vs. Using LCSH Presentation for the ALCTS CCS Program: FAST: A New System of Subject Access for Cataloging and.

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Presentation on theme: "Comparison of Keyword Searching Using FAST vs. Using LCSH Presentation for the ALCTS CCS Program: FAST: A New System of Subject Access for Cataloging and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Comparison of Keyword Searching Using FAST vs. Using LCSH Presentation for the ALCTS CCS Program: FAST: A New System of Subject Access for Cataloging and Metadata New Orleans, Saturday, June 24, 2006 by Arlene G. Taylor

2 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 2 The Database OCLC (i.e., Ed O Neill and team) created a test database of bibliographic records Records were a subset of Worldcat records Each record had both a set of LCSH headings and a set of FAST headings The FAST headings were translated from the LCSH headings Two indexes were created by OCLC s research team – one to search FAST headings and one to search LCSH headings

3 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 3 The Project Participants were students at the University of Pittsburgh in a Subject Analysis class Two parts Search both LCSH and FAST indexes for Newspapers in home state Search four topics of interest in both LCSH and FAST indexes Students were asked to explain differences found in the two indexes

4 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 4 Newspaper searches Searches for newspapers and any state that has an authorized AACR2 abbreviation are almost always different in the two indexes A search retrieves both records for newspapers themselves and records for works about newspapers The state is abbreviated on some records, using abbreviations in AACR2, but the searcher almost always spells out the state name (some states, e.g., Ohio and Iowa, have no abbreviation)

5 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 5 Newspaper searches (cont.) A record about newspapers may have an LCSH subject heading: American newspapers $z Pennsylvania $z Bucks County In FAST this is translated to: American newspapers $2 fast Pennsylvania $z Bucks County $2 fast A keyword search for Newspapers Pennsylvania will retrieve the record in both LCSH and FAST indexes.

6 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 6 Newspaper searches (cont.) A record for a newspaper itself may have the LCSH heading: Clearfield (Clearfield County, Pa.) $v Newspapers. In FAST this is translated to: Pennsylvania $z Clearfield (Clearfield County) $2 fast Newspapers $2 fast A keyword search for Newspapers Pennsylvania will retrieve the record only in the FAST index.

7 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 7 Part II of the project While most students understood on some level the different results they got in Part I, few of them understood their different results in Part II. Therefore, the result of Part II was to generate 76 topics that I then searched again to determine results and the reasons for differences.

8 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 8 Basic statistics Number searches – 76 Number records found using FAST index – 2371 Number records found using LCSH index – 2340 Number records same using either index – 2200 Number records not found using LCSH index – 171 Number records not found using FAST index - 140

9 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 9 Reasons for variation in searching results Invalid LCSH (or not established) not translated to FAST $x and or $v in 600 and 610 fields not indexed in the LCSH index Word indexed in FAST index because it was in a 650 field with 2 nd indicator 7 and a $2 at the end, but the $2 contained a code for a vocabulary other than FAST Some names (personal or corporate) not translated to FAST Differences between LCSH and FAST

10 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 10 Invalid LCSH (or not established) not translated to FAST At the time of creation of the FAST file we were working with, the rule was to convert LCSH (6xx, 2 nd indicator 0) to FAST, but then only those headings that matched a FAST authority record were kept as FAST headings in the record. 117 records found using the LCSH index were not found using the FAST index due to this rule An example showing a result of searching for information literacy follows:

11 650 0 Business $x Research Business $x Research $x Computer network resources Information retrieval $x Study and teaching Electronic information resource literacy $x Study and teaching Business $x Research $2 fast Business $x Research $x Computer network resources $2 fast Information retrieval $x Study and teaching $2 fast Search for information literacy :

12 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 12 Invalid LCSH (or not established) not translated to FAST (cont.) Electronic information resource literacy is in the FAST authority file, but not Study and teaching. Currently the heading would have the subdivision removed and a match would be made to the heading without the subdivision. A keyword search for information literacy in the future would find this record through the FAST index as well as the LCSH index.

13 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 13 $x and or $v in 600 and 610 fields not indexed for the LCSH index At the time of creation of the FAST and LCSH indexes we were working with, only subfields a,b,c,d (and q in 600) in fields 600 and 610 (with 2 nd indicator 0) were indexed for the LCSH index. 72 records found using the FAST index were not found using the LCSH index due to this rule An example showing a result of searching for archives catalogs follows:

14 Baptist Missionary Society $x Archives $v Catalogs Baptists $x Missions $z West Indies Baptists $x Missions $z Africa Baptists $x Missions $z Asia Baptist Missionary Society. $2 fast Archives $2 fast Baptists $x Missions $2 fast Africa $2 fast Asia $2 fast West Indies $2 fast Catalogs $2 fast Search for archives catalogs :

15 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 15 $x and or $v in 600 and 610 fields not indexed for the LCSH file (cont.) Currently these subfields would be included in the LCSH index. A keyword search for archives catalogs in the future would find this record through the LCSH index as well as the FAST index.

16 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 16 Word indexed in FAST index because it was in a 650 field with 2 nd indicator 7 and a $2 at the end Not all 2 nd indicator 7, $2 designated terms are FAST terms – some are from gsafd, nasa, ram, lctgm, etc. 40 records found using the FAST index were not found using the LCSH index due to this oversight An example showing a result of searching for dog training follows:

17 650 0 Dog trainers $z Arkansas $z Blanchard Springs Animal training $z Arkansas $z Blanchard Springs $y $2 lctgm Dogs $z Arkansas $z Blanchard Springs $y $2 lctgm Photojournalism $z Arkansas $z Little Rock $y $2 lctgm Dog trainers $2 fast Arkansas $z Little Rock $2 fast Search for dog training :

18 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 18 Word indexed in FAST index because it was in a 650 field with 2 nd indicator 7 and a $2 at the end (cont.) Currently the indexing program would be refined so as not to include fields with 2 nd indicator 7 and $2 unless fast is in $2. A keyword search for dog training in the future would not find this record through either the LCSH index or the FAST index.

19 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 19 Some names (personal or corporate) not translated to FAST The program that translated LC 6xx headings to FAST compared names to the FAST authority file and validated only those that were matched in the file. 20 records found using the LCSH index were not found using the FAST index due to this rule An example showing a result of searching for technical services follows:

20 Kansas Real Estate Commission $x Auditing Kansas. $b State Board of Technical Professions $x Auditing Kansas. $b Board of Emergency Medical Services $x Auditing Kansas Real Estate Commission $2 fast Kansas. $b State Board of Technical Professions $2 fast Auditing $2 fast Search for technical services :

21 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 21 Some names (personal or corporate) not translated to FAST (cont.) The corporate name containing technical is in the FAST authority file, but not the name containing services. A keyword search for technical services in the future would find this record through the FAST index as well as the LCSH index.

22 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 22 Differences between LCSH and FAST Politics and government as a subdivision in LCSH is changed to Political science in FAST Appropriations and expenditures as a subdivision in LCSH is changed to Expenditures, Public in FAST Exhibitions as a subdivision in LCSH is changed to Exhibition catalogs in FAST Columbia River Watershed and Pacific Coast (U.S.) were translated to FAST with United States as a geographic heading Arabic is a language element in LCSH and is also coded in the 008 field. This is considered redundant in FAST Library as a subdivision in LCSH is changed to Libraries in FAST Study and teaching (Higher) as a subdivision in LCSH is changed to Higher education in FAST

23 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 23 Politics and government as a subdivision in LCSH is changed to Political science in FAST This change affects any keyword search using any one of the words: politics, government, political, or science 1 record found using the LCSH index was not found using the FAST index, and 27 records found using the FAST index were not found using the LCSH index due to this rule Examples showing a result of searching for government documents and a result of searching for religion and science follow:

24 Search for government documents : Egypt $x Politics and government $y 30 B.C A.D. $v Sources Legal documents $z Egypt $x History $v Sources B.C A.D. $2 fast Legal documents $2 fast Political science $2 fast Egypt $2 fast History $2 fast Sources $2 fast

25 Search for religion and science : Islam and politics $z Algeria Religion and politics $z Algeria Algeria $x Politics and government Islam and politics $2 fast Political science $2 fast Religion and politics $2 fast Algeria $2 fast

26 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 26 Appropriations and expenditures as a subdivision in LCSH is changed to Expenditures, Public in FAST This change affects any keyword search using the word appropriations or the word public 23 records found using the FAST index were not found using the LCSH index due to this rule An example is the search for public service :

27 Search for public service : United States. $b Dept. of the Air Force $x Appropriations and expenditures United States. $b Defense Finance and Accounting Service. $b Denver Center $x Auditing United States. $b Defense Finance and Accounting Service. $b Denver Center $2 fast United States. $b Dept. of the Air Force. $2 fast Auditing $2 fast Expenditures, Public $2 fast

28 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 28 Exhibitions as a subdivision in LCSH is changed to Catalogs $v Exhibition catalogs in FAST This change affects any keyword search using the words: exhibition, exhibitions, or catalogs 4 records found using the FAST index were not found using the LCSH index due to this rule An example is the search for archives catalogs :

29 United States. $b National Archives and Records Administration $x Photograph collections $v Exhibitions Photography $z United States $x History $y 20th century $v Exhibitions United States. $b National Archives and Records Administration $2 fast $2 fast Photograph collections $2 fast Photography $2 fast United States $2 fast Catalogs $v Exhibition catalogs $2 fast History $2 fast Search for archives catalogs :

30 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 30 Columbia River Watershed and Pacific Coast (U.S.) were translated to FAST with United States as a geographic heading This change affects any searches qualified by United States spelled out 2 records found using the FAST index were not found using the LCSH index due to this rule An example is the search for endangered species United States :

31 Search for endangered species United States : Endangered species $z Columbia River Watershed Logging $x Environmental aspects $z Columbia River Watershed Plum Creek Timber Company Plum Creek Timber Company $2 fast Endangered species $2 fast Logging $x Environmental aspects $2 fast United States $z Columbia River Watershed $2 fast

32 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 32 Arabic is a language element in LCSH and is also coded in the 008 field – redundant in FAST This change affects any searches using the word Arabic. 2 records found using the LCSH index were not found using the FAST index due to this rule An example is the search for arabic books :

33 Search for arabic books : s1960 ru ara d 500 In Russian and Arabic Russian language $v Conversation and phrase books $x Arabic Russian language $2 fast Conversation and phrase books $2 fast

34 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 34 Library as a subdivision in LCSH is changed to Libraries in FAST This change affects any searches using the word library or the word libraries 2 records found using the FAST index were not found using the LCSH index due to this rule An example is the search for medical libraries :

35 Search for medical libraries : Medicine $v Bibliography $v Catalogs Moody Medical Library $v Catalogs Blocker, T. G. $q (Truman Graves) $x Library $v Catalogs Blocker, T. G. $q (Truman Graves) $2 fast Moody Medical Library. $2 fast Libraries $2 fast Medicine $2 fast Bibliography $v Catalogs $2 fast Catalogs $2 fast

36 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 36 Study and teaching (Higher) as a subdivision in LCSH is changed to Higher education in FAST This change affects any searches using the words: study, teaching, education 1 record found using the FAST index was not found using the LCSH index due to this rule An example is the search for education policy :

37 Search for education policy : Arctic regions $x Research $x Government policy $z Canada Research $z Arctic regions Arctic regions $x Study and teaching (Higher) $z Canada Education, Higher $2 fast Research $2 fast Research $x Government policy $2 fast Arctic regions $2 fast Canada $2 fast

38 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 38 Conclusions A total of 62 records were affected by real differences between LCSH and FAST – about 3% The real differences affected 9 of the 76 searches – about 12% – (but only 62 of the records in those 9 searches were affected – 472 records in the 9 searches were the same in both indexes)

39 © 2006 Arlene G. Taylor 39 Thank you! Arlene G. Taylor


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