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UDC/DDC UDC/DDC harmonization project Religion Ia McIlwaine Chair, UDC Consortium.

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Presentation on theme: "UDC/DDC UDC/DDC harmonization project Religion Ia McIlwaine Chair, UDC Consortium."— Presentation transcript:

1 UDC/DDC UDC/DDC harmonization project Religion Ia McIlwaine Chair, UDC Consortium

2 UDC/DDC Why Religion? In 2000 UDC published totally new scheme Attempts universal approach No Christian predominance Historical reflection of development DDC pronounced Christian bias, accompanied by a range of options to overcome this Is looking for simplification and modernization

3 UDC/DDC Nature of UDC Main Table plus Range of auxiliaries Common forms, Time, Place, Language, Race, Persons Also Common Properties, Activities, Materials

4 UDC/DDC Examples of recurring concepts Colours Under-developed Porcelain Feathers Renewal Security

5 UDC/DDC Facet Indicators in UDC + / : all used to combine separate numbers = Language (0…) Common forms (1/9) Place (=…) Ethnic groupings & nationality … Time -0 Commonly recurring concepts – -02 Properties, -03 Materials, -04 Activities &c, -05 Persons

6 UDC/DDC Facet indicators Also special auxiliaries for recurring concepts within a specific subject field – e.g. -1/-9 Literary forms in class 82 - Literature.0 e.g..03 Styles in Class 7 –Fine Arts e.g. Alloys in Metallurgy, – Copper-zinc-tin alloys (combining 3 separate numbers)

7 UDC/DDC Other features of UDC The ability to join two (or more) numbers together to create a compound notation Use of alphabetical notation Many compound concepts do not appear in the schedules, except as Examples of combination

8 UDC/DDC Examples of combination :004.63Management of electronic records 504.4: Hurricane damage 601.2:576.31Morphological behaviour

9 UDC/DDC Special auxiliaries Tables, applicable only within a stated set of numbers (usually a discipline, or subdiscipline) not universally applicable (so reusing the same notation) Examples : styles in art literary forms

10 UDC/DDC 2 Religion. Theology 21 Prehistoric and primitive religions 22 Religions originating in the Far East 23 Religions originating in Indian sub-continent 24 Buddhism 25 Religions of antiquity. Minor cults and religions 26 Judaism 27 Christianity. Christian churches and denominations 28 Islam 29 Modern spiritual movements

11 UDC/DDC Special auxiliaries in Class Theory and philosophy of religion. Nature of religion. Phenomenon of religion 2-2 Evidences of religion 2-3Persons in religion 2-4 Religious activities. Religious practice 2-5 Worship broadly. Cult. Rites and ceremonies 2-6 Processes in religion 2-7 Religious organization and administration 2-8 Religions characterised by various properties 2-9 History of the faith, religion, denomination or church

12 UDC/DDC Examples of application Teaching in the Torah on divorce 26Judaism -454Divorce -242Torah. The Law. The Pentateuch Scriptural authority of Christian liturgy 27Christianity -528Liturgy Authority of Scripture

13 UDC/DDC Differential facets These are necessary for concepts peculiar to one faith only, normally by expanding a base number from the Auxiliary table, e.g. to provide a different sequence for books of the Bible in Judaism from that in Christianity

14 UDC/DDC DDCs solution Option A: Class the religion in 230–280, its sources in 220, comprehensive works on the religion in 230;230– in that case class the Bible and Christianity in

15 UDC/DDC DDCs solution Option B: Class in 210, and add to base number 21 the numbers following the base number for the religion in 292–299, e.g., Hinduism 210, Mahabharata ; in that case class philosophy and theory of religion in 200, its subdivisions 211–218 in 201–208, specific aspects of comparative religion in 200.1–200.9, standard subdivisions of religion in – – – – – –200.09

16 UDC/DDC DDCs solution Option C: Class in 291, and add to base number 291 the numbers following the base number for that religion in 292–299, e.g., Hinduism 291, Mahabharata – Option D: Class in 298, which is permanently unassigned298

17 UDC/DDC DDCs solution Option E: Place first by use of a letter or other symbol, e.g., Hinduism 2H0 (preceding 220), or 29H (preceding 291 or 292); add to the base number thus derived, e.g., to 2H or to 29H, the numbers following the base number for the religion in 292–299, e.g., Shivaism 2H5.13 or 29H –299

18 UDC/DDC DDCs solution Option A vacates the numbers devoted to Christianity for use by another religion. Options B and C provide preferred treatment (and shorter or equivalent numbers) for a specific religion. Both explicitly derive notation directly from the schedules for the preferred arrangement.

19 UDC/DDC DDCs solution Option D provides preferred treatment and shorter numbers for a specific religion by relocating it to 298, a permanently unassigned number. Option E provides preferred treatment (and shorter or equivalent numbers) for a specific religion. Option E also uses notation derived from the schedules, but introduces the use of mixed notation.

20 UDC/DDC DDCs solution Each of these options presents some problems and none gives the opportunity to provide an even-handed approach to the great religions of the world

21 UDC/DDC DDC survey 56 responses from 13 countries 9 used one of the options None used D or E So, wholesale replacement of these options by one alternative arrangement under consideration perhaps using UDC as a model

22 UDC/DDC Mapping at major religion level 23 Religions of the Indian 294Indic religions Subcontinent Hindu religion in the broad sense Hinduism 231Vedism Vedic religion 232Brahmanism294.5(in class here note) 233Hinduism narrowly294.5Hinduism 234Jainism294.4 Jainism 235 Sikhism294.6Sikhism 24Buddhism294.3Buddhism...

23 UDC/DDC Mapping at major religion level 26Judaism296Judaism 27Christianity230Christianity 28Islam297Islam (UDC – blue; DDC -green) Both schemes place general topics of religion first - these have not been touched yet

24 UDC/DDC Bible UDC provides different notations for Jewish and Christian Bible, so even same book, e.g. Psalms, Genesis, Exodus, will have different numbers DDC puts Bible ahead of both Christianity and Judaism – this to remain at present – other solutions may be explored later

25 UDC/DDC Rearrangement of DDC Taoism( ) Confucianism( ) Hinduism(294.5) Jainism(294.4) Buddhism(294.3) Wicca(299.94) Yoruba (African people) – religion( ) Voodoo( ) Ras Tafari( ) Bible(220) Judaism(296) Christianity(230) Islam(297) Scientology( )

26 UDC/DDC Note New religions or minor religions are collocated with their origin, where relevant, otherwise the root number is extended geographically, then chronologically, hence the placing of, e.g. Wicca, Ras Tafari

27 UDC/DDC Buddhism as a case study UDC base number 24 + DDC notation DDC Buddhist mythology = Result Moves to chronological position Retains DDC number building & internal/auxilary tables Meaningless notation in either system Retains limited development

28 UDC/DDC Buddhism Case Study 2: Detailed Mapping

29 UDC/DDC Findings Structural differences and inconsistencies in both systems Differences in enumeration/synthesis Differences in main religion auxiliary table Differences in common auxiliaries

30 UDC/DDC Islam UDC expansion developed using DDCs concepts (but not order) No problem in creating notations, but order differs dramatically Differences in common auxiliaries also create a problem

31 UDC/DDC Islam 28-43SOCIAL CUSTOMS AND PRACTICE 28-44SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR Taharah. Mental and physical purification Food and diet Halal. Permitted food Haram. Forbidden food Fasting Rules concerning specific foods and drinks :636.4 Pork :663.2/.5Rules concerning alcoholic drinks

32 UDC/DDC Fundamental problems that need to be addressed Food & diet Permitted Forbidden (The -0 numbers are from Common auxiliary of Common Properties) :636.4Pork (from class 63) :663.2/.5Alcoholic drinks (from 66) Note to specify a range of alcoholic drinks, expressed by using the slash for consecutive numbers

33 UDC/DDC Greater detail in UDC Objects in worship. Furnishings and decorations Furniture. Platforms Lecterns Fountains Dikka. Platform Minbar. Pulpit Kursi. Lectern Tasbih. Subhah. Beads

34 UDC/DDC Greater detail in UDC Major fasts and festivals Rajab (7th month of Islamic year) Laylat al-Miraj (Night of the Ascent of Muhammed into heaven) (Rajab 27th) Ramadan. Month of fasting (9th month of Islamic year) Laylat al Qadr. Night of Power (commemorating the sending down of the Koran to Muhammed) (Ramadan 27th) Shawwal (10th month of Islamic year) Id al-Adha. Feast of the Breaking of the fast (Shawwal 1st) Dhu-l-Hijja (12th month of Islamic year) Annual pilgrimage ceremonies in and near Mecca (Dhu-l-Hijja 8th-13th) Id al-Adha. Feast of the Sacrifice. Id al-Hajj. Feast of the Pilgrimage (Dhu-l-Hijja 10th)

35 UDC/DDC Same concepts in DDC No detail for physical contents of mosques and festivals are handled thus:

36 UDC/DDC Special days and seasons Including Jum'ah (Friday prayer); `Ashura' (Tenth of Muharram); Mawlid al-Nabi (Prophet's birthday); `Id al- Adha, `Id al-Fitr Class here rites and ceremonies associated with special days and seasons, Islamic religious calendar See also for sermons for special days and seasons Sawm Ramadan (Annual fast of Ramamadan) Including Laylat al-Qadr Class comprehensive works on fasting in

37 UDC/DDC Conclusions to date Basic overall arrangement can easily be implemented This will create greater interoperability Improve the structure of both schemes UDC framework works at basic level for DDC Level of detail more problematical, and needs to be resolved

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