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OCLC Online Computer Library Center Pattern Recognition for Technical Services: Interpreting the OCLC Environmental Scan Eric Childress Consulting Project.

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Presentation on theme: "OCLC Online Computer Library Center Pattern Recognition for Technical Services: Interpreting the OCLC Environmental Scan Eric Childress Consulting Project."— Presentation transcript:

1 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Pattern Recognition for Technical Services: Interpreting the OCLC Environmental Scan Eric Childress Consulting Project Manager OCLC Research OLC Annual Conference Columbus, OH

2 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Future Shock A personal perception of "too much change in too short a period of time." - Alvin Toffler, Future Shock (1970) Source:

3 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Five-Year Information Format Trends (2003) Five-Year Information Format Trends (2003) 2003 Environmental Scan: Pattern Recognition 2003 Environmental Scan: Pattern Recognition 2004 Information Format Trends: Content, Not Containers 2004 Information Format Trends: Content, Not Containers

4 OCLC Online Computer Library Center This session The big picture The infoscape Content & Publishing Copyright & Licensing Collections & Acquisitions Metadata & Vocabularies Library Systems

5 OCLC Online Computer Library Center The Big Picture

6 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Look out, here comes tomorrow Smartphones, smartcars, smarthomes… Microchips embedded in most electronic devices Internet everywhere 24/7, GPS above Personal digital devices abound Economic tapestry ever more deeply global The sun never sets on the means of production Just-in-time supplanting just-in-case Global platforms, universal interoperability, world reach Society & humans are rewiring Generations Internet live the wireless life as digital natives Social networks are increasingly digital, not solely physical Participative Net – blogs, chat, Open Source, Wikipedia, etc.

7 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Three dominant patterns Self-service Off-web: ATMs, Self-checkout, at-seat inflight movies/games, Fast-pass passport control On-web: Amazoogle, personalization Want it free/cheap, want it now Disaggregation Microcontent (e.g., ringtones, songs) Shedding traditional containers (newspaper & journal issues) Shifting mediums (TiVo, podcasts) Collaboration Online gaming Blogs, Wikis, volunteer content (Wikipedia, Open Directory)WikipediaOpen Directory Open source software development

8 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Six trends to watch 1.Individual-driven content rising: Simple, easy, free/affordable ways to share yourself: Personal web pages (Tripod, many others) Digital images (e.g., flickr, others) – including from cameraphones Blogs (Bloglines, others) Lifecaching 2.Information is social & peer-to-peer Open models, new platforms speeding peer-review Younger generation shares content instinctively 3.Brand & voice through new channels Blogging by top execs & by staff Personal branding -- Webcred is key to ones fortunes Brand inside should equal Brand outside (Tom Peters)Tom Peters

9 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Six trends to watch (cont) Instant verification: RSS, blogs, search engines, online news, opinion sites, fact checking sites, etc. combine to produce fast news, and tend to quickly put the kibosh on groundless rumors and combat media spin Deep indexing: Google, Yahoo, etc. library digitization initiatives Amazons Search inside On demand: Google Alerts, MSN RSS, etc.Google Alerts Library space: netLibrary, Alexander Street, many othersnetLibraryAlexander Street Recommendation systems: Amazon, Apple iTunes, other retailers – people like you chose… Novel concepts: Pandora – suggests music based on intrinsic patterns of music you like (the music genome) for $36/yr/personPandora

10 OCLC Online Computer Library Center One mighty Web Web 1.0 A collection of websites on a shared network Web 2.0 (in progress) The network as platform Spans all connected devices Delivers software as a continually-updated service Supports an architecture of participation Consuming and remixing data from multiple sources Providing your data for consuming/remixing by others

11 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Infoscape Content & Publishing

12 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Its all digital (or will be) Content is now born digital Editorial & publishing workflows are on computing platforms Editorial labor is now often by for-hire editors The content package often includes cover art, sales tools. Systems can increasingly output various formats including electronic & physical Print on Demand (POD) is gaining wider embrace Amazon now owns BookSurge (POD company); others are in this space Strong interest in digitizing older material Google Print Library project / Yahoo & Open Content Alliance / Million Books project, Project Gutenberg, others.. Google Print Library project Open Content Alliance Million Books projectProject Gutenberg Many, many digital library projectsdigital library projects Other sources – Archives, museums, government agencies, NGO & university press publication backfiles, more…

13 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Booktrade A complex space gets more complex Mergers & failures have created: Megapublishers/Media Giants Megaretailers (e.g., Wal-Mart) Web has had an impact on publishing & retail: Give e to sell p model (e.g., National Academies Press)National Academies Press New players: Amazon, isbn.nu, many others taking retail marketshareisbn.nu Bricks and mortar stores building web presence E-books & e-audiobooks Slowly developing momentum (esp. STM e-books) and acceptance Novel approaches such as e-text into factual databases being tried Pricing models & copyright/DRM still pose barriers

14 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Serial/media publishing Publisher print-to-online transition accelerating Self-aggregation Article, news item, headline replacing journal, newspaper, magazine as unit of consumption Newspapers, magazines, radio, TV: More players – more TV channels, satellite radio, Internet radio, Web news sources, Google news, etc. Audience shifting to online or alternatives (e.g., Journalism alternatives such as news blogs, alternative news outlets) Ad revenue offline not transitioning as fast as readers to online ; losing audience & revenue to Craigslist, other sales/classified ad channelsCraigslist Business models relying less on subscription & more on advertising Some experimentation with Wikis (Newsweek), web services (BBC), user-created programming (KYOU)BBCKYOU

15 OCLC Online Computer Library Center The long-tail Article (Wired 2004) by Chris Anderson Article Using sales data from Amazon, etc. builds a case that in the Web age, niche & end-of-sales-cycle titles [i.e. backlist] (in yellow, the long tail) in digital format should be regarded as profitable front- list: Burden (storage) and sales (e-version or POD) costs are minimal Small volume sales over a large list = significant revenue N.B. BISG estimates 2004 used book market = $2.2 Billionestimates

16 OCLC Online Computer Library Center iPod therefore I am Source: DrewthalerDrewthaler Rip, Mix, Burn Cha-ching! Rip, Mix, Burn Cha-ching!

17 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Infoscape Copyright & Licensing

18 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Copyright World copyright regime growing more uniform and less public domain/fair use friendly: WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) WIPO More signatories to Berne ConventionBerne Convention Well-funded, powerful publishing & media interests are pressing for strong protection Some companies (e.g., EMI) aggressively putting DRM (digital rights management) & copy controls into digital products Public domain and kindred space getting better organized: Open Content/Access movement gaining momentum Creative Commons & similar content licensing efforts Creative Commons Government funding bodies pressing for open access for funded research For software, various open licensing regimes, Open Software movement

19 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Copyright & Licensing Libraries are players, but not entirely agreed on best solution – various voices advocate: Digital First Sale provision similar to physical First Sale scheme Fair use exceptions for libraries (including unlocking privileges for locked digital content) Accept nothing less than major overhaul of copyright, Digital Millennium Act, etc. to restore Founders idea of default public domain save a brief period of protection early in the life of the intellectual property Terms and conditions vary across owned and leased content in library collections: Owned content: Chiefly physical materials – Terms & Conditions usually known (First Sale doctrine)First Sale doctrine Leased content: From bundles, consortial deals, etc. for content leasing Chiefly digital, often not stored on library-controlled hardware or storage mediums Varied terms, subscription schemes, provisions for long-term access

20 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Infoscape Collection Management & Acquisitions

21 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Source: OCLCOCLC

22 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Published content space… Libraries originally established to collect and manage scarce content in physical containers Now in a period of content abundance (the Web) Libraries still prone to physical collection perspective overlay on e-resources Physical materials supply chain ever more automated Ordering, processing/cataloging, ready to shelve… Digital content continues to make inroads into libraries (spending up; users want it) E-books finally gaining some traction E-audiobooks getting attention and interest from users Strong trend to access published digital remotely rather than load locally Collection/selection process trends New and improved selection tools from ILS vendors, jobbers Cooperative collection arrangements, cooperative remote storage

23 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Source: ARL

24 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Other parts of collections grid… Special collections: Often unique to single library -- typically high interest in digitizing, but not necessarily bandwidth/funding ARLs hidden collections work (addressing cataloging backlog) ARLs hidden collections work Education/research products: Opportunity for libraries to help scholarship & teaching, but not simple or inexpensive task Mostly poorly developed interfaces between systems, processes, practices in Course Mgt. Systems & those in library services. Overlap with e-reserves? Library often invisible in CMS Open web: Varied content (akin to Grey literature) & unclear what role(s) libraries should/can play vs. search engines, Internet Archive, etc. Various slices-of-web projects: Some libraries harvest all or some content from their countrys domain Some libraries Topical/period projects such as Library of Congress Election 2002 Web ArchiveElection 2002 Web Archive

25 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Infoscape Metadata & Vocabularies

26 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Metadata Libraries have long tradition of quality: Interoperability across communities of practice Rich, authoritative descriptions (now sought by search engines, others) But things are changing in library cataloging … Severe cost consciousness & ROI (return on investment) review Cataloging is expensive, and old assumptions are being revisited – we dont create card catalogs much anymore, but our metadata still card catalog-oriented Are we missing opportunities? AACR2 & MARC mix content & presentation – difficult to fully leverage value Non-library staff willing to build metadata (esp. for right-side-of-grid items) – can libraries apply expertise to influence & leverage other record sources? FRBR (Functional Requirements of Bibliographic Records) FRBR Very powerful rethink of relationships in content & metadata Initial work in building better OPAC displays (OCLC, RLG, VTLS, LC, others…) RDA (Resource Description & Access) [formerly AACR3] RDA Addresses separating metadata content from metadata display (ISBD) Will significantly change prevailing cataloging practice

27 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Vocabularies Controlled vocabularies are In Corporate sector investing & leveraging for managing internal content, driving sales in webstores Libraries, museums, archives continue to invest in formal vocabularies to facilitate search & retrieval Controlled vocabularies are Out Clay Shirky & other digerati have declared them passé Clay Shirky Too big, too complicated, too old school, too slow to adopt new concepts, too closed Advocate: Tagging: Adding keyword access points to images, music files, etc. Folksonomies: collaborative categorization using freely chosen keywords Various agencies experimenting with exposing vocabularies in new, machine-readable ways (e.g., OCLCs terminology services project)OCLCs terminology services project Pricing/business models, copyright for Web 2.0 versions of vocabularies in flux – the established regime doesnt work especially well.

28 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Infoscape Library Systems

29 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Library system space Going through a natural cycle: Boom in 80s spurred by growing market (shift from card catalog to OPAC) Plateau in 90s with surge in digital content led to system creep (lots of digital resource modules) Various companies exited or merged Rise of group catalogs Now: rearchitecting to be platforms for library space in Web 2.0 More consolidations ahead? VIEWS (Vendor Initiative for Enabling Web Services) helping to define vendor-neutral interoperability VIEWS Expect more collaboration, cross-licensing Systems and services will be reworked to allow them to be loosely-coupled Important trends: Open Source library system software (Koha, Greenstone, etc.)KohaGreenstone Very small ILS packages/vendors (e.g., ReaderWare, others)ReaderWare ILS commercial firms: Emerging Open Source support model (e.g., VTLS support of FEDORA)VTLS support of FEDORA Releasing some versions, tools for free (e.g., Softlink, VALET)SoftlinkVALET

30 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Library system space Library in Web 2.0 already underway Various standards, services already appearing SRU/SRW & MXG search protocols SRU/SRW OCLC terminologies pane Talis Silkworm project Registries (e.g., OCLCs OpenURL registry project)OCLCs OpenURL registry Library data in search engines & aggregators Open WorldCat in Yahoo, Google, more; RLGs RedLightGreen in A9 Open WorldCat RedLightGreen OAIster, various e-print archives OAIster Open access Most OPACs RLGs RedLightGreen & OCLCs Open WorldCat

31 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Examples of the future now… Surfacing libraries many places Open WorldCat Search engines Other sites Loosely-coupled applications OCLC terminology pane

32 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Infoscape Library Systems Example: Open WorldCat

33 OCLC Online Computer Library Center 1 1

34 2 2

35 3 3

36 4 4

37 1 1 Example of integration of Open WorldCat into OPAC

38 OCLC Online Computer Library Center 2 2

39 1 1 Example of integration of Open WorldCat into publisher site

40 OCLC Online Computer Library Center 2 2

41 Infoscape Library Systems Example: OCLC Terminology Pane

42 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Terminology Pane search results A separate application

43 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Vocabulary record Easily insert a MARCified rendering of the term into a Connexion record

44 OCLC Online Computer Library Center Selected Links OCLC Scan & other reports Scan Blog Open WorldCat Program OCLC Research Works Making data work - Web 2.0 and catalogs / Lorcan Dempsey


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