Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.Developed by.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.Developed by."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

2 Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Influences Having an Impact on Organizations & Management Social Forces … values, needs, and standards of behavior Political Forces … influence of political and legal institutions on people & organizations Economic Forces … forces that affect the availability, production, & distribution of a society’s resources

3 Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Management Perspectives Over Time 1930 Humanistic Perspective Classical Systems Theory The Technology-Driven Workplace The Learning Organization 1970 Contingency Views Total Quality Management Management Science Perspective 1990

4 Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Classical Perspective Three Sub-Fields  Scientific  Bureaucratic Organizations  Administrative Principles

5 Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Characteristics of Scientific Management General Approach Developed standard method for performing each job. Selected workers with appropriate abilities for each job. Trained workers in standard method. Supported workers by planning work and eliminating interruptions. Provided wage incentives to workers for increased output. Contributions Demonstrated the importance of compensation for performance. Initiated the careful study of tasks and jobs. Demonstrated the importance of personnel and their training. Criticisms Did not appreciate social context of work and higher needs of workers. Did not acknowledge variance among individuals. Tended to regard workers as uninformed and ignored their ideas.

6 Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Bureaucracy Organizations Labor is divided with clear definitions of authority and responsibility. Positions are in hierarchy of authority. Personnel are selected and promoted based on qualifications. Management is separate from the ownership. Rules and procedures ensure reliable, & predictable behavior. Rules are impersonal and uniformly applied. SOURCE: Adapted from Max Weber, The Theory of Social and Economic Organizations, ed. and trans. A.M. Henderson and Talcott Parsons (New York: Free Press, 1947),

7 Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Administrative Principles Contributors to this approach, Henri Fayol, Mary Parker, and Chester I. Barnard Focused on organization rather than the individual Delineated the management functions of planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling

8 Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Henri Fayol’s 14 Points  Division of labor  Authority  Discipline  Unity of command  Unity of direction  Subordination of individual interest  Remuneration  Division of labor  Authority  Discipline  Unity of command  Unity of direction  Subordination of individual interest  Remuneration  Centralization  Scalar chain  Order  Equity  Stability and tenure of staff  Initiative  Esprit de corps  Centralization  Scalar chain  Order  Equity  Stability and tenure of staff  Initiative  Esprit de corps

9 Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Hawthorne Studies Ten year study Four experimental & three control groups Five different tests Test pointed to factors other than illumination for productivity 1st Relay Assembly Test Room experiment, was controversial, test lasted 6 years Interpretation, money not cause of increased output Factor that increased output, Human Relations

10 Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Physiological Safety Belonging Esteem Self-actualization Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy Based on needs satisfaction Organizational Examples Challenging Job Job Title Friends Retirement Plan Wages General Examples Self-fulfillment Status Friendship Stability Shelter

11 Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. People are lazy People lack ambition Dislike responsibility People are self-centered People don’t like change People are energetic People want to make contributions People do have ambition People will seek responsibility Douglas McGregor Theory X & Y Theory X Theory Y

12 Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Behavioral Sciences Approach Develops theories about human behavior based on scientific methods & study Sub-field of the Humanistic Perspective Applies social science in an organizational context In understanding employees draws from economics, psychology, sociology

13 Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Management Science Perspective Emerged after WW II Distinguished for its application of mathematics, statistics to problem solving  Operations Research emerged  Operations Management emerged  Information Technology

14 Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Three Contemporary Trends  Systems Theory  Contingency View  Total Quality Management (TQM) Managers need certain core skills and basic understanding of management and leadership if they plan to operate within a TQM System. This site has several core modules.

15 Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Systems View

16 Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Contingency View

17 Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Elements of a Learning Organization Learning Organization Open Information Empowered Employees Team-Based Structure

18 Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Types of E-Commerce Business-to-Consumer B2C Selling Products and Services Online Business-to-Business B2B Transactions Between Organizations Consumer-to-Consumer C2C Electronic Markets Created by Web-Based Intermediaries


Download ppt "Developed by Cool Pictures & MultiMedia PresentationsCopyright © 2003 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.Developed by."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google