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Kirsti A. Dyer MD, MS Thu, March 11, :00pm - 1:00pm (Pacific Time) For audio call Toll Free and use PIN/code Challenges of Teaching the Copy and Paste Generation
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Kirsti A. Dyer MD, MS Online Instructor Columbia College Challenges of Teaching the Copy and Paste Generation
Seminar Goals - Objectives Look at the Copy and Paste Generation. Review common examples of plagiarism. Discover unique issues with copy and pasting in face to face and online assignments. Find out how copy and pasting can contribute to academic dishonesty. Learn some of the consequences of copy and pasting in assignments, papers and exams. Explore strategies to help keep the copy and paste generation honest students.
Who is the Copy & Paste Generation? Image: Microsoft Clipart
Characteristics of the C&P Generation The Copy and Paste Generation has… Grown up with access to computer and digital technology. Rarely to never prepared their information from index cards, written their papers by hand or on a typewriter. Generally do not spend hours researching topics in books the library. Prefer to access the vast library of resources online with the click of a mouse.
Image: Fitchett D. Card Catalogue. May have never used a card catalog.
a.k.a Copy & Paste Generation Digital Natives (Prensky, 2001) Millennials (Oblinger, 2002) Net Generation (Oblinger & Oblinger, 2005) Copy and Paste Generation (Forgas, Negre, & Ramírez, 2005) Gen Me, iGen and Look at Me Generation (Twenge, 2006) Generation Y (Bartlett- Bragg, 2007) Generation NeXt (Peoples Press, 2007) The Loop Hole Generation (Summverville & Fischetti, 2007) The Share-It Culture (Kulmala, 2010) Generation M2 (Kaiser, 2010) Other names for this generation…
Digital Natives, Gen Y or Millennials A Digital Native has grown up with digital technology: Computers Internet Mobile Phones MP3's (iPods) DVD's "Video" Games Image: Music Man. Royalty Free Use. Manhttp://www.sxc.hu/photo/ Prensky, M. (2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. On the Horizon. MCB University Press. 9(5):1-6. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from
Digital Immigrant (Baby Boomers, etc) Digital Immigrants have not grown up with digital technology. Digital Immigrant instructors may speak an outdated language. We may struggle to teach students that speak a new digital language. Image: Microsoft Clipart. Prensky, M. (2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. On the Horizon. MCB University Press. 9(5):1-6. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from
Copy & Paste Students: Like being plugged into multiple media sources (iphone, ipod). Prefer random access to hyperlinked multimedia information. Believe learning should be fun. Like to interact or network with many others simultaneously (group work). Prefer their learning to be just in time. Source: Jukes I & Dosaj A. (2003). The differences between digital native learners and digital immigrant teachers. The InfoSavvy Group. Retrieved February 20, 2010 from cc.org/_upload//documents/professional_development/Digital%20Natives%20and%20Immigrant% 20Teachers.pdf Copy & Paste Generation Characteristics
What is Your Generation?
Poll: Identify Your Generation Baby Boomers (The generation born in the Post WWII boom) Generation Jones (The generation born 1954 – 1965, keeping up with the Joneses) Generation X (The generation born 1961 to the latest 1981) Generation Y (The generation born 1970s to the early 2000s)
What Generation are you a part of? Our generation should be determined by how we use media, not by our age. We should not judge people rigidly by the years they were born. If we want to define people by categories, it should be by behaviors because this is something each of us chooses. Margaret Weigel Project Manager Project Zero Harvard Graduate School Education Source: Trunk P. (2007). What generation are you part of, really? Take this test. Retrieved February 20, 2010 from of-really-take-this-test/
Determine Your Generation Quiz - 1 Do you have your own web page? (1 point) Have you made a web page for someone else? (2 points) Do you IM your friends? (1 point) Do you text your friends? (2 points) Do you watch videos on YouTube? (1 point) Do you remix video files from the Internet? (2 points) Source: Trunk P. (2007). What generation are you part of, really? Take this test. Retrieved February 20, 2010 from of-really-take-this-test/
Determine Your Generation Quiz - 2 Have you paid for and downloaded music from the Internet? (1 point) Do you know where to download free (illegal) music from the Internet? (2 points) Do you blog for professional reasons? (1 point) Do you blog as a way to keep an online diary? (2 points) Have you visited MySpace at least five times? (1 point) Source: Trunk P. (2007). What generation are you part of, really? Take this test. Retrieved February 20, 2010 from of-really-take-this-test/
Determine Your Generation Quiz - 3 Do you communicate with friends on Facebook? (2 points) Do you use to communicate with your parents? (1 point) Did you text to communicate with your parents? (2 points) Do you take photos with your phone? (1 point) Do you share your photos from your phone with your friends? (2 points) Source: Trunk P. (2007). What generation are you part of, really? Take this test. Retrieved February 20, 2010 from of-really-take-this-test/
Quiz Results point – Baby Boomer (The generation born in the Post WWII boom) points – Generation Jones (The generation born 1954 – 1965, keeping up with the Joneses) points – Generation X (The generation born 1961 to the latest 1981) > 12 – Generation Y (The generation born 1970s to the early 2000s) Source: Trunk P. (2007). What generation are you part of, really? Take this test. Retrieved February 20, 2010 from of-really-take-this-test/
Poll: Identify Your Generation - 2 Baby Boomers (The generation born in the Post WWII boom) Generation Jones (The generation born 1954 – 1965, keeping up with the Joneses) Generation X (The generation born 1961 to the latest 1981) Generation Y (The generation born 1970s to the early 2000s)
Student Comment – Gen Y The class is just not at all what I expected and quite frankly I feel like I'm trying/having to teach it to myself. I have taken a lot of online classes and loved them, but you do things differently than my previous and current online instructors and that makes it difficult (no ill feelings on you, of course!). The assignments [are] sort of difficult and don't really have much direction to them which makes them hard to understand. 23-year-old Student, Spring 2010
Student Comment – Gen Jones/Boomer I wanted to thank you for the energy that you put into this class. Certainly on my end, it was a tremendous amount of work, but I am convinced that it was equally as much work for you. I will admit that I learned more than almost any class I've taken. Student, Fall 2009 Mother of 4 Children, Two College Graduates
These are Our Students Images: Microsoft Clipart They want to be entertained. They want someone else to do the work and give them the answers.
What is Plagiarism?
Plagiarism Image created at
Defining Plagiarism Plagiarism.orgs definition: Plagiarism is an act of fraud. Plagiarism can involve: Stealing someone else's work and Lying about it afterward. Source: Plagiarism.org. (No Date). What is Plagiarism? Retrieved February 20, 2010 from is Plagiarism?
Common Examples of Plagiarism The following are all examples plagiarism: Turning in someone else's work as your own. Copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit. Failing to put a quotation in quotation marks. Giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation. Source: Plagiarism.org. (No Date). What is Plagiarism? Retrieved February 20, 2010 from is Plagiarism?
More Examples of Plagiarism These are also examples of plagiarism: Changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit. Copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not. Source: Plagiarism.org. (No Date). What is Plagiarism? Retrieved February 20, 2010 from is Plagiarism?
Cite Sources to Avoid Plagiarism Most cases of plagiarism can be avoided by making sure to cite the sources. Plagiarism.org Image: Microsoft Clipart. Source: Plagiarism.org. (No Date). What is Plagiarism? Retrieved February 20, 2010 from is Plagiarism?
Poll: Destiny of the C&P Generation What do you think? Are students destined to plagiarize because they are growing up as part of the copy and paste generation? Images: Microsoft Clipart
Is Most Plagiarism due to Ignorance? Most of the plagiarism committed by students is unwitting and is due to their ignorance about what constitutes plagiarism. If you do not know exactly what plagiarism is, you cannot avoid doing it. Dr. C. Barnbaum Department of Physics and Astronomy Source: Barnbaum C. (No Date). PLAGIARISM: A Student's Guide to Recognizing It and Avoiding It. Valdosta State University. Retrieved February 14, 2010 from
Problems with Assuming Basic Skills For faculty to assume that students are capable of writing assignments honestly and correctly, or better still, that they possess the basic essentials to write, is misleading and can lead to plagiarism. Amrita Madray Assistant Professor in the Reference Services Department at Long Island University Source: Madray, A. (2007). Developing students awareness of plagiarism: crisis and opportunities. Library Philosophy and Practice. Retrieved January 23, 2010 from
Poll: Do We need to Be Educating? Do instructors need to be doing a better job of educating students about what is legitimate writing and what is plagiarism?
Students Dont Learn to Cite Sources? Students learn how to use computer programs and the Internet at an early age. Many report that they were not corrected in high school when they copied text from a website into a paper without citing the source. Plagiarism and Assignments That Discourage It Tomorrows Professor SM Tomorrows Professor. (2010) Plagiarism and Assignments That Discourage It. Tomorrow's Professor Blog. Retrieved February 24, 2010 from
Students Need to Learn about Plagiarism Studentsand many of the rest of ususe copy and paste when writing. A student may not realize even realize that he or she is plagiarizing when they copy and paste. Image: Microsoft Clipart.
Poll: Educating Students on Plagiarism Do you currently provide instruction, syllabus information, or an assignment to educate your students about plagiarism?
More Cheating because it is easier Source: AP. (2008). Students cheat, steal, but say they're good, USA Today. Retrieved Feb 18, 2010 from The competition is greater, the pressures on kids have increased dramatically. They have opportunities their predecessors didn't have (to cheat). The temptation is greater. Mel Riddile National Association of Secondary School Principals
Poll: Plagiarizing Due to Pressures Do you think that more students are plagiarizing and/or cheating because of increased pressures?
But Copying isnt Plagiarism…is it? Downloading songs, music, images and other online information is common for students. Many students believe that if it is online it is free for the taking. Educators face the challenge of convincing students that their latest music or video mix or paper might actually be infringing on copyrights or even worse, could be plagiarism or academic dishonesty.
Information on the Internet is Free The perception [by younger students] that information found on the web is freely accessible and therefore can be legally and morally used without attribution contributes to the problem. Amrita Madray Assistant Professor in the Reference Services Department at Long Island University Source: Madray, A. (2007). Developing students awareness of plagiarism: crisis and opportunities. Library Philosophy and Practice. Retrieved January 23, 2010 from
Poll: Cheating Due to Increased Opportunities? Do you think that more students are plagiarizing and cheating because it is easier for to do so (than in the past)?
New Ways of Cheating Image: Phones R Good 4 Cheats. Creative Commons.http://www.flickr.com/photos/5tein/ Whats the answer to number 9?
Problems with Copy & Pasting in the Classroom
Copy and Pasting is Simple Image: Microsoft Clipart Copy: Ctrl + C Paste: Ctrl + V With just a few clicks you can copy and paste information.
Copy & Pasting Generation Share The Copy & Paste Generation share many things. These students socialize daily, if not hourly, on different social networks Twitter, MySpace, Facebookwhere they can tweet and/or IM their friends. The Share-It Culture Image: Microsoft Clipart
Copy & Pasting – Group Assignments They like to interact and network with each other. They have grown up collaborating on assignments and like group work. Group work lends itself to copy and pasting information. Image: Microsoft Clipart The Share-It Culture in the classroom
Copy & Pasting - Assignments Homework questions, papers and other course materials are finding their way to online social networks and websites. Instructors are concerned about copying, pasting and plagiarizing on course assignments, papers and exams. Image: Microsoft Clipart
Copy & Pasting – Papers, Video, MP3s Students can easily find resources online with just a few clicks of a mouse. They can cut and paste together song clips to create mash ups (combing two or more pre-existing pieces of music into a new song) or text resources into research papers. Images: Sophie. Folder Microsoft Clipart.http://www.sxc.hu/photo/883122
Copy & Pasting - Exams Students can cheat on exams using a cell phones by taking photos of questions and texting answers. Students can use computers or smart phones to surf the Internet for the right answers to test questions. Image: Deus Ex MaCHEATa! Creative Commons.
Copy and Pasting F2F vs. Online Students have been copying each others homework for as long as homework has been assigned. There is a big difference between copy and pasting homework in a face to face class, and copy and pasting in an online one. Images: Microsoft Clipart
Copying a Written Assignment Learning Sallys Assignment Turning in Assignment Joes Assignment Joe copies Sallys Assignment Images: Writing, Turning In Microsoft Clipart. Sophie. Full Folders. Royalty Free Use. and NIH. Brain. Accessed May 23, 2009 from
Online Plagiarism Case I understand these were not intended as group projects to ensure individual learning, but I can assure you we both were equal participants in the assignment. Had this been a class on campus, we still would have done the assignments together, they would just be slightly different because we would both be hand writing them. Student, Spring 2009
Copying an Online Assignment Assign1.doc In DropBox CopyUpload Learning SallysJoes Images: Folders Microsoft Clipart. Asif Akba. Open Box. Royalty Free Use. NIH. Brain. Accessed May 23, 2009 from
Copy & Pasting in the Online Classroom In the online classroom, it is very easy for students to copy and paste or upload the exact same document for an assignment or paper. Turning in the exact same assignment does not indicate that all of the students participated in the creation of the assignment.
Copy & Pasting Promoting Academic Dishonesty
Copy & Pasting Academic Dishonesty Copying and Pasting, whether on an assignment, in a paper or on an exam can lead to incidents of academic dishonesty or misconduct. Images: Microsoft Clipart
Examples of Academic Dishonesty Copying or sharing answers during exams. Plagiarism (deliberate). Altering and resubmitting graded work for credit. Stealing others work. Providing false information or excuses. Falsifying data. Source: Office of Student Judicial Affairs. (2006). Promoting Academic Integrity at UC Davis. Retrieved May 23, 2009 from
Examples of Academic Misconduct Talking or wandering eyes during exams. Having notes or other unauthorized materials visible during exam. Failing to quote or cite sources properly. Unauthorized collaboration. Other behavior that undermines learning and teaching (e.g., leaving exam without permission, working after time is called). Source: Office of Student Judicial Affairs. (2006). Promoting Academic Integrity at UC Davis. Retrieved May 23, 2009 from
Consequences of Copy & Pasting in Academic Courses
Consequences of Copy & Pasting The Consequences of Copy & Pasting in courses vary on the type of infraction, the instructor and the institution. Some consequences include: Receiving a failing grade on an assignment, paper or exam. Receiving a failing grade in the course. Academic probation. Expulsion from the institution.
Strategies to Promote Academic Integrity and Manage Plagiarism
Two Ways to Handle the Problem Promote Academic Integrity Teach students about academic integrity. Teach students the correct ways to cite their sources. Promote an environment of academic integrity on campus. Prevents the problem before it occurs.
Two Ways to Handle the Problem Manage Plagiarism Use plagiarism detection tools for reviewing papers. Monitor and proctor exams. Enforce Academic Dishonesty Policies. Combats the problem after if has occurred.
Promoting Academic Integrity - 1 Promote academic integrity in the school and on campus. Encourage students to Be honest at all times. It's about how you act when you think no one is watching. Focus on the positive values of integrity. Source: Office of Student Judicial Affairs. (2006). Promoting Academic Integrity at UC Davis. Retrieved May 23, 2009 from
Promoting Academic Integrity - 2 Develop a peer group to promote academic integrity. Get students to realize that cheating is not Cool. Have students sign an honor statement that their work is their own, that it is honest and that they have taken no unfair advantage. Source: Office of Student Judicial Affairs. (2006). Promoting Academic Integrity at UC Davis. Retrieved May 23, 2009 from
It Takes a Village to Reduce Cheating Many professors mistakenly assume that they can reduce cheating on their own, but it takes the entire campus. If instructors do not report cheating, that same student may be cheating in other courses and no one would ever know! Mary Bart Faculty Focus Source: Bart M. (2009). Tips to Reduce Cheating in the College Classroom. Faculty Focus: Effective Classroom Management. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from
Strategies for Preventing Plagiarism Teach about Plagiarism Tutorials about Plagiarism Modify Assignments Modify Papers Utilize Originality Checking Methods Modify, Monitor and Proctor Exams
Teaching about Plagiarism A 2010 study showed that giving students a web-based tutorial on plagiarism is more effective in deterring the behavior than threatening students with detection and punishment. Dee & Jacob found that incidents of plagiarism could be reduced by as much as 65 percent when students participated in a "15-minute Web-based tutorial that [taught them] what constitutes plagiarism and how to avoid it." Dee T & Jacob B. (2010). Rational Ignorance in Education: A Field Experiment in Student Plagiarism. National Bureau of Economic Research. NBER Working Paper No January Retrieved February 20, 2010 from
Useful Tutorials about Plagiarism Have students complete a Plagiarism Tutorial: Plagiarism Tutorial - Rutgers University Libraries Plagiarism Tutorial – Center for 21st Century Teaching Excellence You Quote it, You Note it! Vaughn Memorial Library Plagiarism Tutorial – University of Mississippi Virtual Academic Integrity Lab – University of Maryland
Modifying Assignments & Discussions Assignments Develop unique, innovative assignments. Use a series of small, sequential tasks. Modify course assignments frequently. Discussion boards Require students to post to the discussion board; become familiar with their writing styles. Summarize and report on course readings. Ask students to discuss points made by other students in the discussion board.
Modifying Papers Papers Require papers to be submitted for review in stagesoutline, rough draft, final draft. Use a different formatting style. Require students answer specific questions, synthesize unique information or in a unique style as part of paper. Require annotated Bibliographies.
Be Creative with Assignments & Papers Remember… The more inventive you are, the less likely that students will fulfill the assignment in a fraudulent manner. Tomorrows Professor. (2010) Plagiarism and Assignments That Discourage It. Tomorrow's Professor Blog. Retrieved February 24, 2010 from Plagiarism and Assignments That Discourage It Tomorrows Professor SM
Originality Checking Methods Methods to check for originality/plagiarism: Turnitin WriteCheck SafeAssign CrossCheck
Limitations of Originality Checking Tools Tools may identify common terms, e.g., global warming, or overlapping references as plagiarism. Tools may not detect papers that have been translated from another language (or have gone through Google translator). Tools cannot replace sound faculty judgment. Tools may also be used as a teaching tool (students submit their own pages first).
Modifying Exams - 1 Use exam question pools and deliver randomized questions. Shuffle choices with multiple choice questions. Use passwords to access exams. Set a time limit on exams. Release one question at a time. Do not allow students to revisit questions. Change quizzes and tests frequently.
Modifying Exams - 2 Give questions that require longer responses, synthesis of information and case studies. Disable, disallow copying, pasting and printing of exams with special HTML code. Require exams are proctored – online or in person. Require identity verification.
Remember Online Exam = Open Book Unless proctored, instructors must assume all online exams are open book. Image: Cheat Rig. Used with Permission. Rig
Additional Strategies Make your expectations for the class and for each individual assignment clear. Link assignments to learning objectives. Students who understand the point of the assignment are more likely to do their own work. Educate students about the relation of academic integrity to professional ethics and their future chosen career. Report all incidents of plagiarism or cheating, rather than ignoring it or handling it on your own. Source: Bart M. (2009). Tips to Reduce Cheating in the College Classroom. Faculty Focus: Effective Classroom Management. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from
Review Information Covered Looked at the Copy and Paste Generation. Reviewed common examples of plagiarism. Discovered unique issues with copy and pasting in face to face and online assignments. Fount out how copy and pasting can contribute to academic dishonesty. Learned some of the consequences of copy and pasting in assignments, papers and exams. Explored strategies to help keep the copy and paste generation honest students.
Other Suggestions? What strategies have worked in your online classes?
Any comments or questions? Questions? Image: Microsoft Clipart
Contact Information Kirsti A. Dyer MD, MS Online Instructor (Nutrition) Columbia College
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