Presentation on theme: "Special Libraries Association Annual Conference, Nashville 9 June 2004 Shades of Gray U.S. Government Information Shades of Gray Mixing Black & White Bonnie."— Presentation transcript:
Special Libraries Association Annual Conference, Nashville 9 June 2004 Shades of Gray U.S. Government Information Shades of Gray Mixing Black & White Bonnie Klein Technical Reports Team Lead Defense Technical Information Center Ft. Belvoir, VA 22060-6218 firstname.lastname@example.org/ 703.767.8037 Approved for Public Release U.S.Government Work (17 USC §105) Not copyrighted in the U.S. Information for the Defense Community
What is gray literature? Gray is in betweenGray is in between –White –White or published and indexed works such as books & journals and –Ephemeral or short-lived materials such as flyers, timetables & schedules
Gray/Grey Literature Definitions Publicly available, foreign or domestic, open source information that usually is available through specialized channels and may not enter normal channels or systems of publication, distribution, bibliographic control, or acquisition by book sellers or subscription agents. –US Interagency Gray Literature Working Group That which is produced on all levels of government, academics, business and industry in print and electronic formats, but which is not controlled by commercial publishers. –Fourth International Conference on Grey Literature (GL '99), Washington, DC, October 1999. See www.greynet.org
Gray literature characteristics Difficult to identify, acquire, process and access Large body of information in an international scope Limited quantities produced for a targeted audience Nonstandard formats Not formally published Not easy to catalog Quality –unrefereed –questions of integrity & authenticity
Value of gray literature User perspective –varies by user groups –varies with time and place More timely than conventional literature May be more concise, focused & detailed Can corroborate important assertions found in other sources Informal, more common information exchange
Producers of gray literature Research establishments –Laboratories –Institutes National governments Corporations Trade associations/Unions Non-profits Private publishers –Pressure groups –Political parties Academia
Types of gray literature Academic papers Committee reports Conference papers Corporate documents Discussion papers Dissertations Government reports House journals Market surveys Newsletters PowerPoint presentations Preprints Proceedings Research reports Standards Technical reports Theses Trade Literature Translations Trip reports Working papers
DTIC Technical Reports Collection Value Sources –Technical memos –Letter reports –Directives –Proceedings –Dissertations Importance –Records of non-success –Historic data, new applications –The arcane –The obscure
Primary vs. Secondary Distribution PRIMARY –Produce –Publish –Initial distribution to target audience SECONDARY –Store –Announce –Distribute –Reference Service
Broader distribution National Technical Information Service (NTIS) Cataloged OPAC Database access: Dialog, Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, Questel, and STN/Chem Abstracts Library of Congress (Science Library) Not cataloged; no database access Canada Institute of Scientific and Technical Information (CISTI) Cataloged OPAC Database access: OCLC World Cat British Library (BLDSC) Not cataloged Libraries and collections world-wide
Gray literature and copyright Copyright vests automatically to the author –at the time a work is created and fixed in a discernable format. –No notice or formalities are required. Public release does not equal public domain. Information sponsored by or provided by the U.S. Government may be copyrighted. –Works authored by U.S. Government employees as part of their official duties are not copyrighted in the U.S. However, these works may include copyrighted material used with permission. –Contractors and grantees are not considered government employees.
The gray needle in the haystack Searching is like finding a needle in a haystack, but not all searches are the same. "Finding a needle in a haystack" can mean… From Information Retrieval by Matthew Koll. ASIS Bulletin, Dec/Jan 2000 American Society for Information Science and Technology. http://www.asis.org/Bulletin/Jan-00/track_3.html
of gray Shades of gray a known needle in a known haystack; (white if indexed & archived) a known needle in an unknown haystack; (pale gray) an unknown needle in an unknown haystack; (dark gray) any needle in a haystack; (medium gray) the sharpest needle in a haystack; (more white than gray) most of the sharpest needles in a haystack; (same as above) all the needles in a haystack; (is this possible?) affirmation of no needles in the haystack; (same as above) thinks like needles in any haystack; let me know whenever a new needle shows up; where are the haystacks?; and (the black hole) needles, haystacks – whatever.
References Defense Technical Information Center http://www.dtic.mil CENDI http://www.dtic.mil/cendi GrayLit Network. Department of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information.. http://www.osti.gov/graylit/ science.gov http://www.science.gov DTIC® Guidelines for Determining Copy Rights http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/submitting/copyright.html CENDI Frequently Asked Questions About Copyright http://www.dtic.mil/cendi/publications/00-3copyright.html GreyNet http://www.greynet.org