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Physical Geography of Russia

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Presentation on theme: "Physical Geography of Russia"— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical Geography of Russia

2 The Land A. Ural Mountains B. Caucasus Mountains
C. Central Siberian Plateau D. Siberia E. Northern European Plain F. West Siberian Plain G. Volga River

3 Landforms Russia’s interconnected mountain ranges and plains shape human activities. Russia is the world’s largest country in total land and geographic extent.

4 Landforms (cont.) Mountains and plateaus: Ural Caucasus
Central Siberian Plateau

5 Landforms (cont.) Plains Areas:
Northern European Plain—about 75% of the Russian population lives on this plain. West Siberian Plain

6 Water Systems Russia’s large river systems are vital for irrigation, transportation routes, electric power, and industries, such as fishing. Russia has the longest continuous coastline of any country in the world. Russia also has the largest inland body of water and some of the longest rivers.

7 Water Systems (cont.) Coasts, Seas, Lakes: Arctic and Pacific oceans
Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caspian Sea The Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara Lake Baikal

8 Water Systems (cont.) Rivers: The Volga
The Siberian (the Ob’, Irtysh, Yenisey, and Lena) The Amur River

9 Natural Resources Russia has an abundance of natural resources, but many are located in remote, inaccessible areas of the country. Minerals and energy: Petroleum Coal

10 Natural Resources (cont.)
Natural gas Nickel Aluminum, gemstones, platinum-group metals Hydroelectric power

11 Natural Resources (cont.)
Soil and forest land: 10% of its land can support agriculture Black Earth Belt—fertile band of soil One-fifth of the world’s forest lands lie in Russia, but are being depleted. Deforestation in Russia


13 Natural Resources (cont.)
The fishing industry: Salmon, herring, cod, halibut Russian caviar from sturgeon—this supply has declined.

14 Climate and Vegetation
Russia’s location in the far northern latitudes affects its climate regions and natural vegetation.

15 Climate and Vegetation
A. Arctic Circle

16 High-Latitude Regions
Russia’s location in the high latitudes of the Eurasian landmass causes extreme differences in climate. Most of Russia is located in the high latitudes—harsh climate with long, cold winters and short, cool summers. Russia: Climate Regions


18 High-Latitude Regions (cont.)
Climate regions: Tundra (vast, treeless plains in cold northern climates, characterized by permafrost and small, low plants, such as mosses and shrubs) Permafrost (permanently frozen layer of soil beneath the surface of the ground) Subarctic —contains the taiga (Russian term for the vast subarctic forest, mostly evergreens, that covers much of Russia and Siberia)

19 Midlatitude Regions Russia’s midlatitude regions have more moderate climates and support most of the country’s agricultural production. Climate regions: Humid continental Russia: Natural Vegetation


21 Midlatitude Regions (cont.)
Russia’s cold climate played an important role in the defeat of Napoleon I in 1812 and of German forces during WWII. Dry climate region: Steppe (wide, grassy plains of Eurasia)

22 Vocab1 chernozem (cher•nuh•ZYAWM)
rich, black topsoil found in the Northern European Plain, especially in Russia and Ukraine

23 Vocab2 permafrost permanently frozen layer of soil beneath the surface of the ground

24 VS 1 A. Northern European Plain
• Majority of Russia’s population lives here • Northern part is poorly drained, creating swamps and marshes • Southern part has rich chernozem soil and supports most of Russia’s agricultural production

25 VS 2 B. Ural Mountains • Form a natural boundary between European Russia and Asian Russia • Are rich in iron ore and mineral fuels, such as oil and natural gas

26 VS 3 C. Volga River • Vital to Russia, draining much of the eastern part of Russia’s Northern European Plain • Provides important transportation links and is used to create hydroelectric power • Flows through areas of temperate grasslands and mixed forests

27 VS 4 D. West Siberian Plain
• One of the world’s largest areas of flatland — reaching from the Arctic Ocean to Central Asia • Lowland areas poorly drained, creating swamps and marshes • Location in the far northern latitudes results in a harsh climate with wide extremes of temperatures

28 VS 5 E. Siberian Rivers • Include the Ob’, Irtysh, Yenisey, and Lena
• Rank among the world’s largest river systems • Amur River forms border between Russia and China

29 VS 6 F. Lake Baikal • Deepest freshwater lake in the world
• Contains 20 percent of Earth’s supply of freshwater

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