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PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 Report on task agreements of WP09-PWI-07 within SEWG ITER Material Mix K. Krieger, A. Hakola, Ch. Linsmeier,

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Presentation on theme: "PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 Report on task agreements of WP09-PWI-07 within SEWG ITER Material Mix K. Krieger, A. Hakola, Ch. Linsmeier,"— Presentation transcript:

1 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 Report on task agreements of WP09-PWI-07 within SEWG ITER Material Mix K. Krieger, A. Hakola, Ch. Linsmeier, A. Litnovsky, Ch. Lungu, R. Mateus, M. Rubel, K. Schmid

2 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 WP09-PWI-07-01 Compound formation in binary mixing of Be, C and W Influence of substrate temperature and dependencies on incoming flux composition. Reaction kinetics for Be-W and Be-C mixtures (e.g Be/W interdiffusion, Be sublimation from Be/W alloys). WP09-PWI-07-02 Compound formation in ternary systems of Be, C, W and O Formation and properties of ternary system Be-C-W and influence of oxygen on the underlying processes. WP09-PWI-07-03 Material intermixing and fuel retention behaviour under dynamic conditions D retention properties of mixed materials as function of temperature, composition of mixed material and incident flux composition. WP09-PWI-07-04 Collect data on composition, fuel retention and chemical characterisation from mixed deposits in tokamaks Analysis of Be-C and W-C deposits collected in tokamaks for comparison to laboratory experiments: composition, fuel retention properties. WP09-PWI-07-05 Modelling of material mixing for extrapolation to ITER conditions Integrated plasma-wall Monte Carlo transport modelling, kinetic MC simulation of material mixing; MD modelling of mixed layer properties and processes. Overview Basic physics studies Data from fusion devices Modelling

3 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 WP09-PWI-07-01/IST/PSResponsible Scientist: R. Mateus Study of Be, W and C interdiffusion with microbeam and of carbide and Be/W alloy formation and W alloy sublimation. WP09-PWI-07-01/MEdC/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Lungu Study of substrate temperature influence during film deposition in formation of the stable alloys: Be 2 C for the Be-C system and Be 2 W, Be 12 W, Be 22 W for Be-W system. WP09-PWI-07-02/MEdC/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Lungu Study of ternary system formation Be-C-W using thermionic vacuum arc method; influence of oxygen on the process. WP09-PWI-07-02/IPP/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Linsmeier Analysis of ternary systems. WP09-PWI-07-03/IPP/PSResponsible Scientist: K. Schmid Analysis of Be-contaminated PISCES samples. WP09-PWI-07-04/TEKES/PSResponsible Scientist: A. Hakola Analysis of W-C mixed layers on AUG tiles, work on hot cells. WP09-PWI-07-04/FZJ/PSResponsible Scientist: A. Litnovsky Characterisation of mixed W/C layers formed in TEXTOR, analysis of fuel retention in W/C mixed layers. WP09-PWI-07-04/VR/PSResponsible Scientist: M. Rubel Studies of material mixing on surfaces exposed to plasma. Tasks with priority support

4 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 WP09-PWI-07-01/IST/PSResponsible Scientist: R. Mateus Study of Be, W and C interdiffusion with microbeam and of carbide and Be/W alloy formation and W alloy sublimation. WP09-PWI-07-01/MEdC/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Lungu Study of substrate temperature influence during film deposition in formation of the stable alloys: Be 2 C for the Be-C system and Be 2 W, Be 12 W, Be 22 W for Be-W system. WP09-PWI-07-02/MEdC/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Lungu Study of ternary system formation Be-C-W using thermionic vacuum arc method; influence of oxygen on the process. WP09-PWI-07-02/IPP/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Linsmeier Analysis of ternary systems. WP09-PWI-07-03/IPP/PSResponsible Scientist: K. Schmid Analysis of Be-contaminated PISCES samples. WP09-PWI-07-04/TEKES/PSResponsible Scientist: A. Hakola Analysis of W-C mixed layers on AUG tiles, work on hot cells. WP09-PWI-07-04/FZJ/PSResponsible Scientist: A. Litnovsky Characterisation of mixed W/C layers formed in TEXTOR, analysis of fuel retention in W/C mixed layers. WP09-PWI-07-04/VR/PSResponsible Scientist: M. Rubel Studies of material mixing on surfaces exposed to plasma. Tasks with priority support

5 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 Be/C interdiffusion, compound formation and sublimation C deposition on polished Be samples –C films evaporated with an electron beam using graphite as source –thickness of hundreds of μm Current work Annealing of Be/C samples in the 100 – 600°C range Be/C interdiffusion, compound formation and sublimation WP09-PWI-07-01/IST/PS task Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) WP09-PWI-07-01/IST/BS task Surface observation by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) (compound formation, surface sublimation...)

6 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 WP09-PWI-07-01/IST/PSResponsible Scientist: R. Mateus Study of Be, W and C interdiffusion with microbeam and of carbide and Be/W alloy formation and W alloy sublimation. WP09-PWI-07-01/MEdC/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Lungu Study of substrate temperature influence during film deposition in formation of the stable alloys: Be 2 C for the Be-C system and Be 2 W, Be 12 W, Be 22 W for Be-W system. WP09-PWI-07-02/MEdC/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Lungu Study of ternary system formation Be-C-W using thermionic vacuum arc method; influence of oxygen on the process. WP09-PWI-07-02/IPP/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Linsmeier Analysis of ternary systems. WP09-PWI-07-03/IPP/PSResponsible Scientist: K. Schmid Analysis of Be-contaminated PISCES samples. WP09-PWI-07-04/TEKES/PSResponsible Scientist: A. Hakola Analysis of W-C mixed layers on AUG tiles, work on hot cells. WP09-PWI-07-04/FZJ/PSResponsible Scientist: A. Litnovsky Characterisation of mixed W/C layers formed in TEXTOR, analysis of fuel retention in W/C mixed layers. WP09-PWI-07-04/VR/PSResponsible Scientist: M. Rubel Studies of material mixing on surfaces exposed to plasma. Tasks with priority support

7 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 Be alloy and compound formation Be films deposited on C and W were: poly-crystalline (proved by TEM–SAED) sufficiently pure (proved by sputter–XPS) oxidized surfaces (due to air exposure) low oxygen content (small increase at interface due to substrate contribution) No significant differences in depth profiles were observed with respect to substrate temperature during deposition (possibly due to the short deposition time). Film preparation Be films of 500 nm thickness were deposited on C and W using TVA (thermionic vacuum arc discharge) method with substrates kept at different temperatures.

8 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 Thermal treatment of Be films deposited on graphite at 350° C Be films of 500 nm deposited on graphite were annealed in high vacuum conditions on different time scales at 350°C. A mixture of Be 2 C, BeO and C develops at the film-substrate interface. On increasing the annealing time, the thickness of this mixed material layer also increases. Thermal treatment of Be films deposited on tungsten is still ongoing. Higher temperatures are necessary for Be-W alloy formation (above 500°C) Be alloy and compound formation

9 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 E-Beam irradiation/annealing of W film (100nm) + Be film (200nm) on graphite substrates Before annealingAfter annealing at 900 o C Interdiffusion of Be and C No mixing with surface W layer Be alloy and compound formation Depth profiles derived from RBS analysis

10 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 Deuterium retention D implantation was performed with IPP Garching High Current Ion Source. D energy 600 eV D 3 + (i.e. 200 eV / D) with normal incidence and target at room temperature. Fluence was 5×10 22 D/m 2. No significant differences in retained deuterium amount were observed with respect to substrate material (C or W) and substrate temperature during deposition TDS spectra of D 2 molecules for Be films implanted with 200 eV D + ions at room temperature: Be alloy and compound formation

11 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 WP09-PWI-07-01/IST/PSResponsible Scientist: R. Mateus Study of Be, W and C interdiffusion with microbeam and of carbide and Be/W alloy formation and W alloy sublimation. WP09-PWI-07-01/MEdC/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Lungu Study of substrate temperature influence during film deposition in formation of the stable alloys: Be 2 C for the Be-C system and Be 2 W, Be 12 W, Be 22 W for Be-W system. WP09-PWI-07-02/MEdC/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Lungu Study of ternary system formation Be-C-W using thermionic vacuum arc method; influence of oxygen on the process. WP09-PWI-07-02/IPP/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Linsmeier Analysis of ternary systems. WP09-PWI-07-03/IPP/PSResponsible Scientist: K. Schmid Analysis of Be-contaminated PISCES samples. WP09-PWI-07-04/TEKES/PSResponsible Scientist: A. Hakola Analysis of W-C mixed layers on AUG tiles, work on hot cells. WP09-PWI-07-04/FZJ/PSResponsible Scientist: A. Litnovsky Characterisation of mixed W/C layers formed in TEXTOR, analysis of fuel retention in W/C mixed layers. WP09-PWI-07-04/VR/PSResponsible Scientist: M. Rubel Studies of material mixing on surfaces exposed to plasma. Tasks with priority support

12 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 Be anode assembly Elemental mapping (EDS analysis) and concentration compositions of Be-C-W films deposited on silicon substrates Ternary system formation Be-C-W C-W anode assembly

13 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 O-concentration dependency on deposition rate RBS Depth Profile Film composition and oxygen contamination during film preparation Sample deposited at 350 ° C Elemental depth profile XPS analysis Beryllium structure versus depth Be 2 C formation attributed to ion bombardment. Oxygen found only at interface and at surface Depth profiles show varying mixing fractions of Be, W and C. Oxygen inclusion can be controlled trough deposition rate Further morphology analysis and D implantation and retention studies ongoing Ternary system formation Be-C-W

14 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 WP09-PWI-07-01/IST/PSResponsible Scientist: R. Mateus Study of Be, W and C interdiffusion with microbeam and of carbide and Be/W alloy formation and W alloy sublimation. WP09-PWI-07-01/MEdC/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Lungu Study of substrate temperature influence during film deposition in formation of the stable alloys: Be 2 C for the Be-C system and Be 2 W, Be 12 W, Be 22 W for Be-W system. WP09-PWI-07-02/MEdC/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Lungu Study of ternary system formation Be-C-W using thermionic vacuum arc method; influence of oxygen on the process. WP09-PWI-07-02/IPP/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Linsmeier Analysis of ternary systems. WP09-PWI-07-03/IPP/PSResponsible Scientist: K. Schmid Analysis of Be-contaminated PISCES samples. WP09-PWI-07-04/TEKES/PSResponsible Scientist: A. Hakola Analysis of W-C mixed layers on AUG tiles, work on hot cells. WP09-PWI-07-04/FZJ/PSResponsible Scientist: A. Litnovsky Characterisation of mixed W/C layers formed in TEXTOR, analysis of fuel retention in W/C mixed layers. WP09-PWI-07-04/VR/PSResponsible Scientist: M. Rubel Studies of material mixing on surfaces exposed to plasma. Tasks with priority support

15 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 Information depth depends on kinetic energy of photoelectrons Kinetic energy of photoelectrons depends on energy of the photons By changing the excitation energy the information depth can be changed Ternary system: C/BeO/W XPS with synchrotron radiation

16 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 C 1s: After annealing at 875 K Experiment PVD of C on BeO on W Annealing steps up to 1370 K Recording of spectra with 6 different energies after each experimental step Results Observation: Tungsten subcarbide formation near the C-BeO-interface (red circle) Explanation: Diffusion of BeO into the tungsten substrate Tungsten and carbon get in touch in the surface near region Increasing surface sensitivity Ternary system: C/BeO/W

17 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 WP09-PWI-07-01/IST/PSResponsible Scientist: R. Mateus Study of Be, W and C interdiffusion with microbeam and of carbide and Be/W alloy formation and W alloy sublimation. WP09-PWI-07-01/MEdC/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Lungu Study of substrate temperature influence during film deposition in formation of the stable alloys: Be 2 C for the Be-C system and Be 2 W, Be 12 W, Be 22 W for Be-W system. WP09-PWI-07-02/MEdC/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Lungu Study of ternary system formation Be-C-W using thermionic vacuum arc method; influence of oxygen on the process. WP09-PWI-07-02/IPP/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Linsmeier Analysis of ternary systems. WP09-PWI-07-03/IPP/PSResponsible Scientist: K. Schmid Analysis of Be-contaminated PISCES samples. WP09-PWI-07-04/TEKES/PSResponsible Scientist: A. Hakola Analysis of W-C mixed layers on AUG tiles, work on hot cells. WP09-PWI-07-04/FZJ/PSResponsible Scientist: A. Litnovsky Characterisation of mixed W/C layers formed in TEXTOR, analysis of fuel retention in W/C mixed layers. WP09-PWI-07-04/VR/PSResponsible Scientist: M. Rubel Studies of material mixing on surfaces exposed to plasma. Tasks with priority support

18 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 Be and D area densities in the near surface region determined using NRA Sample plasma exposure history: PISCES-B Targets (Pure D plasma) NameFluence WITER1**** WITER21.2×10 26 D ions/m -2 WITER35.0×10 25 D ions/m -2 WITER42.0×10 25 D ions/m -2 PISCES-B Witness plates (D+He mixed plasmas) NameTemperature of Target W WIT. PL. IPP 1373 K W WIT. PL. IPP 2459 K W WIT. PL. IPP 3410 K CU WIT. PL. 1393 K Be net deposition conditions Be net erosion conditions Be/D co-deposition studies in PISCES

19 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 Question: Amount of D left after 1273K TDS Question: D/Be ratio in co-deposits D amount scales with Be content In all cases significant D left D/Be ratio 0.1 +/- 0.05 No significant variation within the 100K target temperature range Be/D co-deposition studies in PISCES W WIT. PL. IPP1W WIT. PL. IPP2W WIT. PL. IPP3CU WIT. PL.1 1E17 1E18 1E19 373 K459 K410 K393 K 1E16 1E17 1E18 Target temperature Sample ID D / cm -2

20 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 WP09-PWI-07-01/IST/PSResponsible Scientist: R. Mateus Study of Be, W and C interdiffusion with microbeam and of carbide and Be/W alloy formation and W alloy sublimation. WP09-PWI-07-01/MEdC/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Lungu Study of substrate temperature influence during film deposition in formation of the stable alloys: Be 2 C for the Be-C system and Be 2 W, Be 12 W, Be 22 W for Be-W system. WP09-PWI-07-02/MEdC/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Lungu Study of ternary system formation Be-C-W using thermionic vacuum arc method; influence of oxygen on the process. WP09-PWI-07-02/IPP/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Linsmeier Analysis of ternary systems. WP09-PWI-07-03/IPP/PSResponsible Scientist: K. Schmid Analysis of Be-contaminated PISCES samples. WP09-PWI-07-04/TEKES/PSResponsible Scientist: A. Hakola Analysis of W-C mixed layers on AUG tiles, work on hot cells. WP09-PWI-07-04/FZJ/PSResponsible Scientist: A. Litnovsky Characterisation of mixed W/C layers formed in TEXTOR, analysis of fuel retention in W/C mixed layers. WP09-PWI-07-04/VR/PSResponsible Scientist: M. Rubel Studies of material mixing on surfaces exposed to plasma. Tasks with priority support

21 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 SIMS used for surface analysis of retrieved ASDEX Upgrade samples: samples with a diameter of 17mm were cut from tiles 5-keV O 2 + primary ion beam used for sputtering positive secondary ions detected beam rastered across a 300×430-μm 2 area contributions from walls of SIMS craters eliminated using a 10-% electronic gate and a 1-mm optical gate sputtering rates: 0.37 nm/s for W coating, 1.5 nm/s for C (graphite) bulk 6A 4 6B 5 4B 9C 9B-19B-2 9A 10 1 2 3A 3B s = 83s = 196 12 9 35 20 1a 2a2a 9 36 19 Redeposited mixed material in AUG Tile 6B

22 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 analyzed tiles had 0.2 and 0.5 mm thick W coatings on them. redeposition results in a thin surface layer (thickness < 0.5 μm). carbon ( 12 C) and boron are the dominant elements deposited on W, deuterium is mostly retained in the deposited layer. 6A 4 6B 5 4B 9C 9B-19B-2 9A 10 1 2 3A 3B Inner-divertor tile 6BOuter-divertor tile 3A Redeposited mixed material in AUG depth profiles of baffle tiles from 2008 campaign

23 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 WP09-PWI-07-01/IST/PSResponsible Scientist: R. Mateus Study of Be, W and C interdiffusion with microbeam and of carbide and Be/W alloy formation and W alloy sublimation. WP09-PWI-07-01/MEdC/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Lungu Study of substrate temperature influence during film deposition in formation of the stable alloys: Be 2 C for the Be-C system and Be 2 W, Be 12 W, Be 22 W for Be-W system. WP09-PWI-07-02/MEdC/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Lungu Study of ternary system formation Be-C-W using thermionic vacuum arc method; influence of oxygen on the process. WP09-PWI-07-02/IPP/PSResponsible Scientist: Ch. Linsmeier Analysis of ternary systems. WP09-PWI-07-03/IPP/PSResponsible Scientist: K. Schmid Analysis of Be-contaminated PISCES samples. WP09-PWI-07-04/TEKES/PSResponsible Scientist: A. Hakola Analysis of W-C mixed layers on AUG tiles, work on hot cells. WP09-PWI-07-04/FZJ/PSResponsible Scientist: A. Litnovsky Characterisation of mixed W/C layers formed in TEXTOR, analysis of fuel retention in W/C mixed layers. WP09-PWI-07-04/VR/PSResponsible Scientist: M. Rubel Studies of material mixing on surfaces exposed to plasma. Tasks with priority support

24 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 W balance in TEXTOR Motivation: Test of W layer deposition during plasma operation. Fluorine long-term retention in plasma-facing components Toroidal Limiter Location of test limiter Toroidal Limiter poloidal 7 cm toroidal 11 cm Test Limiter after exposure Surface analysis by SEM, EDX, EPMA SIMS, NRA, RBS Injection of WF 6 during 7 NBI heated shots 3×10 19 WF 6 mol/shot = 2×10 20 total Shots without injection in between shots with WF 6 injection Hydrogen flux at injection (D+, r = 47.5) 4×18 /cm²s

25 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 W balance in TEXTOR Similar deposition profiles on tiles from different locations. 16 % of injected tungsten found by ion beam analysis. No fluorine found on ALT-II (important result). No evidence of compound formation on the plates. Injected 2×10 20 100 % Local deposition: Injection plate 0.02×10 20 1 % Local deposition: Back plate (integrated) 0.134×10 20 7 % ALT-II (integrated) 0.16×10 20 8 % Toroidal limiter tile Deposition zone Erosion zone W distribution along the tiles C, Cr, Ni, Fe, Mo, Si but no W detected with EDS and EPMA Surface after WF 6 puffing experiment

26 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 Summary Properties of mixed materials of ITER PFMs (Be, C, W) and formation of compounds studied under controlled conditions to establish data base on fundamental processes. Depending on temperature carbides and metallic alloys may form. Data on interdiffusion of respective species still incomplete. Strong influence of deposited (foreign/mixed) material layers on D retention D codeposition with Be quantified Further effort required to integrate fundamental results with plasma device data Integrated plasma-wall modelling

27 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 Baseline Support Summary Table TA: WP09-PWI-07 *)Completed, Partially done, Not done Task id. Associations involved Manpower (PPY) Status*) Short description with milestones/deliverables WP09-PWI-07-05/CEA/BSCEA1.25 Quantum modeling of Be/W alloy formation and reactivity WP09-PWI-07-03/FOM/BSFOM0.40 Material intermixing at ITER relevant fluxes in Pilot-PSI: Study of dynamic processes with C and Al (to mimic Be) on W targets. MD Modelling of W-C-D mixed layers with HCPARCAS WP09-PWI-07-04/FZJ/BSFZJ0.40 Characterisation of mixed W/C layers formed in TEXTOR, analysis of fuel retention in W/C mixed layers WP09-PWI-07-05/FZJ/BSFZJ0.50 ERO code simulation of mixed layer formation, application to PISCES- B Be- seeding experiments WP09-PWI-07-02/IPP/BSIPP1.00 Analysis of ternary systems WP09-PWI-07-03/IPP/BSIPP0.20 Analysis of mixed material samples from PISCES WP09-PWI-07-04/IPP/BSIPP0.20 Data collection of chemical compositions of mixed deposits WP09-PWI-07-05/IPP/BSIPP0.40 MD calculations and potential development in collaboration with TEKES WP09-PWI-07-04/IPPLM/BSIPPLM1.25 Laser ablation spectroscopy of samples from TEXTOR and AUG samples

28 PWI TF Meeting, Warsaw, K. Krieger, 04/11/2009 Baseline Support Summary Table TA: WP09-PWI-07 *)Completed, Partially done, Not done Task id.Associations involved Manpower (PPY) Status*)Short description with milestones/deliverables WP09-PWI-07-01/IST/BSIST0.10 Study of Be, W and C interdiffusion, carbide and alloy formation WP09-PWI-07-01/MEdC/BSMEdC0.50 Study of substrate temperature influence during film deposition in formation of stable compounds. Study of reaction kinetics for Be-C and Be-W using thermal desorption (TDS). WP09-PWI-07-02/MEdC/BSMEdC0.50 Study of the ternary system Be-C-W and the influence of oxygen on the system using thermionic vacuum arc method. WP09-PWI-07-04/TEKES/BSTEKES0.05 Analysis of W-C mixed layers on AUG tiles WP09-PWI-07-05/TEKES/BSTEKES1.20 MD simuation of mixed material properties and corresponding PSI processes. Coupling MD material simulation with ERO. WP09-PWI-07-04/VR/BSVR0.20 Studies of material mixing on surfaces exposed to plasma.


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