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In-Vessel Dust&Tritium Management* 1 *Based on the report of a European Group of Experts on In-Vessel Dust & Tritium Management P. Coad, G. Counsell, J.

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Presentation on theme: "In-Vessel Dust&Tritium Management* 1 *Based on the report of a European Group of Experts on In-Vessel Dust & Tritium Management P. Coad, G. Counsell, J."— Presentation transcript:

1 In-Vessel Dust&Tritium Management* 1 *Based on the report of a European Group of Experts on In-Vessel Dust & Tritium Management P. Coad, G. Counsell, J. Furlan, C. Grisolia, F. Le Guern, D. Maisonnier, A. Murari, V. Philipps, S. Rosanvallon, J. Roth, E. Tsitrone A.Malaquias and the Collaborators in the Associations WP09-DTM-TritI-R WP09-DTM-DustI-R

2 INTRODUCTION ON GOING R&D PROGRAMME INTRODUCTION ON GOING R&D PROGRAMME DUST AND TRITIUM MANAGEMENT 2

3 3 Combined request from F4E&EFDA managements: Combined request from F4E&EFDA managements: Establish the status of the R&D on: Establish the status of the R&D on: In-vessel dust and tritium inventory measurement techniquesIn-vessel dust and tritium inventory measurement techniques In-vessel detritiation and dust removal techniquesIn-vessel detritiation and dust removal techniques Propose objectives for an R&D programme Propose objectives for an R&D programme Introduction (1/2)

4 4 DUST AND TRITIUM MANAGEMENT Decision to gather European experts including PWI TFLs, JET TF_FT and JET TF_D TFLs Decision to gather European experts including PWI TFLs, JET TF_FT and JET TF_D TFLs MembersP. Coad G. Counsell J. Furlan C. Grisolia F. Le Guern D. Maisonnier A. Murari V. Philipps S. Rosanvallon J. Roth E. Tsitrone UKAEA-Deputy Task Force Leader Fusion Technology- JET F4E CEA-Task Force Leader Fusion Technology-JET EFDA European Commission ENEA-Task Force Leader Diagnostics-JET FZJ-JET ILW Project Scientist CEA-Project Leader on Dust IPP- Task Force Leader Plasma Wall Interaction CEA-Deputy Task Force Leader Plasma Wall Interaction Introduction (2/2)

5 WP09-DTM-DUSTI-R and WP09-DTM-TRITI-R aimed at identify and develop diagnostic and removing systems for D&T for ITER Demonstrate a clear need for the system (i.e. what gap does it address) Conduct proof-of-principle studies to show feasibility In case of positive outcome (installation on ITER being feasible), a programme for assessment of the techniques in view of its installation on ITER, will be defined.

6 Divertor erosion monitor – technology to be defined (Dualλ speckle or LIDAR are candidates) – currently allocated lower (divertor) port #14 – intended to measure erosion and deposition Local dust measurement system – technology to be defined (capacitance microbalance a candidate) – currently allocated lower (divertor) port #04 – 8 locations distributed under 2 divertor casettes Removable samples – mounted in well-shadowed regions, removable independent of cassette by in-vessel manipulator during shutdowns – collect dust and deposits (tritiated) Local surface tritium analyser – LIBS technology – deployed by in-vessel manipulator during shutdowns In addition, development of In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) D&T Diagnostics in ITER baseline

7 In baseline - Vacuum cleaning RH tool – for use during divertor cassette replacement Qualification of divertor bake-out system for 350 o C Under consideration – Liquid flushing of vacuum vessel Vacuum cleaning tools for in-vessel manipulator Removable D&T ITER systems

8 Measurement requirements in ITER Parameter Range or Coverage Resolution Accuracy FrequencySpatial Divertor erosion Erosion rate 1 – 10 x m/s 2 s2 s10 mm30% Net erosion0 – 3 mmPer pulse10 mm12 x m Dust monitoring Dust accumulation rate kg/m 2 /pulse Per pulse Several positions 50% abs 20% repr Dust concentration – 10 kg/m 2 Daily Several positions 50% abs 20% repr Tritium monitoring H, D, T accumulation rate 2x x10 21 at./m 2 /pulse Per pulse Several positions 50% abs 20% repr H, D, T concentration – 2x10 24 at./m 2 Daily Several positions 50% abs 20% repr

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11 Most reports received

12 J. Wolowski, M. Kubkowska, M. Rosinski, P. Gasior IPPLM Warsaw, Poland MAIN GOAL: DEM system: to perform a review of possible laser-based techniques which could be employed together with a detailed feasibility study for the possible integration on ITER WP1.1 Divertor Erosion Monitor – study on application of laser-based techniques for real-time diagnostics of ITER divertor erosion

13 Status at KoM WHAT SHOULD BE FOUND? time resolution (integrated) Spatial resolution What area we will be able to cover and will it be enough? What sensitivities will we be able to obtain for parameters and how will it correspond to the sensitivity on amounts of the eroded material How other variables as temperature, vibration, radiation will influence our measurements and what countermeasures can we introduce to reduce their Interference? WHICH PORTS CAN WE USE? WHAT ARE THE DISTANCES AND ANGLES? WHAT IN FACT CAN WE PUT INTO A PORT? WP1.1 Divertor Erosion Monitor – study on application of laser-based techniques for real-time diagnostics of ITER divertor erosion

14 existing systems Nd:YAG laser system, up to 0.6 J, 3 ns pulses at 1064 nm, repetition rate from single shots to 10 Hz, up to 6 W of average power WP1.1 Divertor Erosion Monitor – study on application of laser-based techniques for real-time diagnostics of ITER divertor erosion

15 Yb:fiber laser system, with ~100 ns pulses of 1 mJ, up to 100 kHz repetition rate, up to 100 W of average power WP1.1 Divertor Erosion Monitor – study on application of laser-based techniques for real-time diagnostics of ITER divertor erosion

16 Spectrograph Mechelle5000 ICCD camera (intensified CCD) WP1.1 Divertor Erosion Monitor – study on application of laser-based techniques for real-time diagnostics of ITER divertor erosion

17 Status at intermediate report D1 laser techniques useful for DEM spectroscopy speckle interferometry system to provide the laser beam into the divertor (probably needs adaptative optics) rotating mirror rotating head of a fiber laser Time resolutions of 2-10 kHz (integrated) may be achieavable with fiber laser The laser head drawings suggest that not the whole area of the divertor can be seen; available actuators and motors can provide rotating capability to the head to reach otherwise unavailable regions. The work for the next few months will include: detailed investigations of the spatial coverage of the laser beam, study and development of the light collecting system both for interferometry and spectroscopy WP1.1 Divertor Erosion Monitor – study on application of laser-based techniques for real-time diagnostics of ITER divertor erosion

18 ITER BaseLine: currently allocated lower (divertor) port #14 Technology to be defined (Dualλ speckle or LIDAR are candidates) F4E – will place Grants for advancing the Divertor erosion monitor conceptual designs. Call for Proposals in Q DEM aspects needs close collaboration with WP09-DTM-DUSTI-R IVVS for DEM - Target metrology of <0.5mm over 70% of first wall seems possible. Design team has achieved 0.15mm (e.q. 200Kg Be FW) in lab and R&D continues WP1.1 Divertor Erosion Monitor – study on application of laser-based techniques for real-time diagnostics of ITER divertor erosion Other works on-going

19 WP1.2 - To perform a feasibility study in order to check a potential port- plug application of the Speckle interferometry on ITER E. Gauthier Association Euratom - CEA Cadarache, IRFM H. Van der Meiden Association Euratom - FOM, NL

20 Status at KoM Accessibility in ITER divertor: - Optical design - ITER environment constraints Proposal: Speckle Diagnostic on Magnum PSI Interfaces requirements (models, volumes, port, vibrations def) WP1.2 - To perform a feasibility study in order to check a potential port- plug application of the Speckle interferometry on ITER

21 2 Phase images at 2 different wavelength 1 and 2 1 unwrapped Phase Phase modulo 2 π Pixels Phase 4 π 2 π 1) Spatial phase unwrapping 2) PHASE conversion IMAGE 3D Transformation for shape measurement Height [µm] Y [pixels] X [pixels] i Substraction Phase image at synthétique wavelength Phase image at synthétique wavelength with 0 2 WP1.2 - To perform a feasibility study in order to check a potential port- plug application of the Speckle interferometry on ITER Status at KoM

22 Erosion measurement on CFC Good agreement between microscopy and Speckle interferometry Ablation A Vertical profile µm Horizontal profile µm X=4120 µm Y=1890 µm Spatial distribution Status at KoM WP1.2 - To perform a feasibility study in order to check a potential port- plug application of the Speckle interferometry on ITER

23 Speckle interferometry system on ITER –LASER based depth probing techniques (Speckle interferometry at 2-wavelength). –Measure both erosion and deposition –Lasers located at ~40 m –Optical design very complex Status at KoM WP1.2 - To perform a feasibility study in order to check a potential port- plug application of the Speckle interferometry on ITER

24 Proposal for a real time erosion diagnostic on Magnum PSI Status at KoM WP1.2 - To perform a feasibility study in order to check a potential port- plug application of the Speckle interferometry on ITER

25 WP1.3 - To review the spectroscopy diagnostics foreseen on ITER to check their adequacy for erosion measurements J. Wolowski, M. Kubkowska, M. Rosinski, P. Gasior IPPLM Warsaw, Poland

26 Status at KoM Succesful monitoring of the process of thick co-deposite removal from TEXTOR samples Swan system – C 2 (d 3 Π g -a 3 Π u ) – may be used to estimate temperature Spectrum taken for a cleaned surface (after 40 shots) – no evidence of deuterium Conclusion: -Fuel species are present in relatively thick co-deposit layer, which is removed after laser pulses. - The spectrum consists of carbon lines and Swan bands which can give information on plasma parameters during the process of removal Spectrum taken for a codeposited surface (first series of 5 shots) – deuterium line can be clearly seen WP1.3 - To review the spectroscopy diagnostics foreseen on ITER to check their adequacy for erosion measurements

27 Status at intermediate report The work for the next few months will include: study of the systems forseen for ITER and adaptation of their parameters to obtain as much diagnostic information as possible. material mix focus on some specific areas in which lines of Deuterium, Carbon and Tungsten may be observed with a good signal to noise ratio and good repeatability. The research conducted at IPPLM suggested that such areas for deuterium and carbon comparison lies in the range of nm and for carbon and tungsten ~ nm. Use of two main approaches for spectroscopic measurements: Plasma as a source for excitation of PFM Laser for generating the plasma on the solid surface No concrete studies for ITER yet WP1.3 - To review the spectroscopy diagnostics foreseen on ITER to check their adequacy for erosion measurements

28 WP2.1 - To assess the possibility (including integration issues) of using a photo-cleaning method for removing the dusts deposited on the divertor surfaces (Lasers, Plasmas and Photonic Processes Laboratory (LP3) and CEA Cadarache) P. DELAPORTE (LP3) & C. HERNANDEZ (CEA)

29 Status at KoM Laser removal of ITER – like particles is studied since 2 years at LP3 laboratory in close collaboration with CEA Cadarache. Some experiments are still needed to complete the study, but most of the processes, andirradiation conditions, have been determined. (F4E - Under consideration – Liquid flushing of vacuum vessel - Vacuum cleaning tools for in-vessel manipulator) 1. Theoretical modeling of the laser heating of the ITER- like etalons. The activities necessary to perform this task are divided in 3 sub-tasks : 2. Experimental studies on surface cleaning by laser heating. 3. Integration on a Remote Handling system WP2.1 - To assess the possibility (including integration issues) of using a photo-cleaning method for removing the dusts deposited on the divertor surfaces

30 Status : 3D modelling was realised and compared with 1D modelling Status at intermedium report 1. Theoretical modeling of the laser heating of the ITER- like etalons. WP2.1 - To assess the possibility (including integration issues) of using a photo-cleaning method for removing the dusts deposited on the divertor surfaces

31 Status in common with Tasks WP3.2, WP4.4 & WP4.5: Pre-Design of two Remote handling systems to perform : - LIBS analysis for Tritium inventory - Heating for Tritium removal - Laser ablation and waste collection The first system will be able to be used without pressure break (between two plasma sessions) and the other one during maintenance phases. 2. Experimental studies on surface cleaning by laser heating 3. Integration on a Remote Handling system Status at intermedium report WP2.1 - To assess the possibility (including integration issues) of using a photo-cleaning method for removing the dusts deposited on the divertor surfaces Experimental scheme is under modification for studies on surface cleaning by laser heating.

32 Remote Handling system development - Design continuation - Constraints linked to the two designs (for the process, for the carrier) - Benefits / limitations for the two designs. High repetition rate laser system for surface heating or ablation Status at intermedium report WP2.1 - To assess the possibility (including integration issues) of using a photo-cleaning method for removing the dusts deposited on the divertor surfaces

33 WP3.1 - To perform a feasibility study on non-invasive methods: Port-plug based scanning laser system, preferably with parallel light collection optics (LIDS, LIAS, LIBS) V. Philipps, for the FZJ Laser diagnostic team ( A. Huber, B. Schweer, J. Coenen, H.G.Esser, M. Zlobinski, N. Gierse, G.Beyene)… H.J. van der Meiden FOM A. Semerok CEA …. (Laser induced desorption spectroscopy (LIDS), Laser induced ablation spectroscopy (LIAS), Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS))

34 Status at KoM Laser induced desorption spectroscopy (LIDS) LIDS has been tested and demonstrated in R&D on TEXTOR H inventory in TEXTOR C- deposits measured in situ Lower detection limit under TEXTOR conditions: 3-10 x10 16 D/cm 2 (depending on geometry and plasma conditions) Laser induced ablation spectroscopy (LIAS) Systematic studies of laser ablation of bulk C, W and C deposits on C and W in lab experiments (ongoing) Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) No LIBS experiments/experience at that time Plan: LIBS induced light to be detected in lab device and in TEXTOR (end 2009 / beginning 2010) WP3.1 - To perform a feasibility study on non-invasive methods: Port-plug based scanning laser system, preferably with parallel light collection optics (LIDS, LIAS, LIBS)

35 Status at intermediate report LIDS has been further qualified for fuel retention measurements on different CFC materials, including the previous and new ITER CFC material (NB31, NB41). LIDS on W materials exposed to TEXTOR plasmas and laboratory plasma experiments has been started In TEXTOR, work on coaxial LIDS light detection has been started WP3.1 - To perform a feasibility study on non-invasive methods: Port-plug based scanning laser system, preferably with parallel light collection optics (LIDS, LIAS, LIBS) LIAS: Extensive basic R&D has been done on laser ablation (10ns Ruby laser) of bulk graphite at various energy densities. Experiments on ablation of carbon layers (a-C:H on C and W) have been started. LIBS: A wide range (350 nm -720nm), high resolution (λ/ λ = 20000) Echelle spectrometer has been procured and taken into operation. First LIBS measurements in the laboratory on bulk graphite have been performed showing appearance of CI- CIV carbon ions. Modelling - For application of LIDS and LIAS in ITER, extensive B2-Eirene modelling has been started.

36 -Assessment of ITER ports for application of laser based diagnostics has been started. First analysis favours the port plug in the equatorial plane and at the dome. -A principle set-up for a coaxial beam injection and observation system has been developed. -The laser beam properties for LIDS and LIAS (LIBS) for application at ITER are determined: First parameter for the necessary laser beam expander and diameter of the focussing mirror are developed. - B2-EIRENE calculation on H - light distribution the parameters for a coaxial observation system, located at the midplane port, have been evaluated. Status at intermediate report WP3.1 - To perform a feasibility study on non-invasive methods: Port-plug based scanning laser system, preferably with parallel light collection optics (LIDS, LIAS, LIBS) 3. Technical implementation of LIDS, LIAS and LIBS in ITER

37 WP4.4 - To perform a feasibility study envisaging a possible implementation of a photonic heating technique on the IVVS carrier or a robotic arm system A.Semerok, D. Farcage, A. Leontyev, P.- Y. ThroCEA Saclay, FranceC. HernandezCEA Cadarache, France

38 Status at KoM The developed compact system (called LASK) is a Remote Handled system. It can be plug on a robotic arm system or a multipurposedeployer (MPD) to be used at a pressure range from atmospheric to10-6Pa and a Temperature up to 200°C. WP4.4 - To perform a feasibility study envisaging a possible implementation of a photonic heating technique on the IVVS carrier or a robotic arm system

39 Status in common with Tasks WP3.2, WP4.4 & WP4.5: Pre-Design of two Remote handling systems to perform : - LIBS analysis for Tritium inventory - Heating for Tritium removal - Laser ablation and waste collection The first system will be able to be used without pressure break (between two plasma sessions) and the other one during maintenance phases. Status at intermediate report WP4.4 - To perform a feasibility study envisaging a possible implementation of a photonic heating technique on the IVVS carrier or a robotic arm system

40 WP4.5 - To proceed with a feasibility study on a potential remote handled application of a photonic ablation technique on ITER, emphasising the need to guarantee an efficient collection of the wastes (CEA Cadarache and CEA Saclay) C. HERNANDEZ & A. SEMEROK

41 1. Dust characterization after laser treatment 2. Evaluation of efficiency and limitations of two wastes collection systems by respect to ITER and carrier constraints 3. Development of a Remote Handling system usable on a dedicated carrier to perform tritium removal (with a photonic ablation technique) and an efficient collection of the wastes 4. Impact of ITER conditions on a Remote Handling system able to perform laser ablation and wastes collection Status at KoM WP4.5 - To proceed with a feasibility study on a potential remote handled application of a photonic ablation technique on ITER, emphasising the need to guarantee an efficient collection of the wastes Sub-tasks:

42 Status at KoM WP4.5 - To proceed with a feasibility study on a potential remote handled application of a photonic ablation technique on ITER, emphasising the need to guarantee an efficient collection of the wastes

43 Status at KoM Vacuum vessel for dust collection validation under different environment conditions and embedded LIBS system validation WP4.5 - To proceed with a feasibility study on a potential remote handled application of a photonic ablation technique on ITER, emphasising the need to guarantee an efficient collection of the wastes

44 Status at intermediate report Microparticles size dispersion measurements (in the range 10nm -10µm) will be performed with the ablated matter collected in the sealed cell. The ablation will be performed with an high repetition rate Yb-fiber laser (20kHz, 1 mJ/puls, 1,06 µm wavelength) in the cleaning and detritiation regimes. Sealed cell for ablated matter collection Yb-fiber laser inside protecting box WP4.5 - To proceed with a feasibility study on a potential remote handled application of a photonic ablation technique on ITER, emphasising the need to guarantee an efficient collection of the wastes

45 45 DUST AND TRITIUM MANAGEMENT commentscomments 5 working packages left from 2009 will make part of a new Work Programme in working packages left from 2009 will make part of a new Work Programme in 2010 In some of the on-going tasks Potential techniques have been reviewed and the most relevant selected In some of the on-going tasks Potential techniques have been reviewed and the most relevant selected Some activities are not yet start or achieved a reasonable development state – it will be closed follow Some activities are not yet start or achieved a reasonable development state – it will be closed follow Feasibility studies must be completed in order to support a decision on further project proposals for 2010 and beyond Feasibility studies must be completed in order to support a decision on further project proposals for 2010 and beyond


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