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Workshop for the LDC National Focal Points 17-21 May 2004, UN Headquarters, New York.

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Presentation on theme: "Workshop for the LDC National Focal Points 17-21 May 2004, UN Headquarters, New York."— Presentation transcript:

1 Workshop for the LDC National Focal Points May 2004, UN Headquarters, New York

2 The Least Developed Countries

3 Criteria for identification of LDCs 1.low income level, measured by gross national income (GNI) per capita 2.stock of human assets, measured by a Human Assets Index (HAI) 3.economic vulnerability, measured by an Economic Vulnerability Index (EVI)

4 1. Low-income criterion based on a three-year average estimate of the gross national income (GNI) per capita: based on a three-year average estimate of the gross national income (GNI) per capita: under $750 for inclusion or above $900 for graduation under $750 for inclusion or above $900 for graduation

5 2. Stock of human assets Measured by the Human Assets Index (HAI), based on four indicators: Measured by the Human Assets Index (HAI), based on four indicators: nutrition, measured by average calorie consumption per capita as a percentage of the minimum requirement nutrition, measured by average calorie consumption per capita as a percentage of the minimum requirement health, measured by the under-5 child mortality rate health, measured by the under-5 child mortality rate education, measured by (i) by gross secondary school enrolment ratio and (ii) adult literacy education, measured by (i) by gross secondary school enrolment ratio and (ii) adult literacy

6 3. Economic vulnerability Measured by the Economic Vulnerability Index (EVI) (risk of exogenous shocks and structural characteristics). It is an average of five indicators: Measured by the Economic Vulnerability Index (EVI) (risk of exogenous shocks and structural characteristics). It is an average of five indicators: merchandise export concentration merchandise export concentration instability of export earnings instability of export earnings instability of agricultural production instability of agricultural production share of manufacturing and modern services in GDP and share of manufacturing and modern services in GDP and population size population size % of population displaced by natural disasters (new) % of population displaced by natural disasters (new)

7 Inclusion/Graduation For inclusion, all three criteria must be met For inclusion, all three criteria must be met For graduation, at least two criteria must be met in two consecutive triennial reviews by Committee for Development Policy of the ECOSOC, which: For graduation, at least two criteria must be met in two consecutive triennial reviews by Committee for Development Policy of the ECOSOC, which: Reviews criteria Reviews criteria Determines thresholds Determines thresholds Makes recommendations on inclusion/graduation Makes recommendations on inclusion/graduation

8 Fundamental meaning of LDC category - recognition of structural handicaps - excludes large economies Fundamental meaning of LDC category - recognition of structural handicaps - excludes large economies Population must not exceed 75 million Population must not exceed 75 million

9 Milestones of the LDCs Late 1960s - International recognition of LDCs as the most vulnerable group Late 1960s - International recognition of LDCs as the most vulnerable group 1970s - International Development Strategy for Second UN Development Decade: special measures for the LDCs 1970s - International Development Strategy for Second UN Development Decade: special measures for the LDCs First UN Conference on LDCs (LDC I), Paris: Substantial New Programme of Action (SNPA) First UN Conference on LDCs (LDC I), Paris: Substantial New Programme of Action (SNPA)

10 Second UN Conference on LDCs (LDC II): Paris Declaration and PoA for the decade Second UN Conference on LDCs (LDC II): Paris Declaration and PoA for the decade Millennium Declaration and MDGs: poverty identified as the most daunting challenge of new century Millennium Declaration and MDGs: poverty identified as the most daunting challenge of new century Third UN Conference on LDCs (LDC III): Brussels Declaration and Programme of Action ( ) Third UN Conference on LDCs (LDC III): Brussels Declaration and Programme of Action ( )

11 Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the Decade Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the Decade

12 Framework for partnership between LDCs and their development partners Based on their shared but differentiated responsibilities: Based on their shared but differentiated responsibilities: to accelerate sustained economic growth and sustainable development in LDCs, to accelerate sustained economic growth and sustainable development in LDCs, to end marginalization by eradicating poverty, inequality and deprivation in these countries, and to end marginalization by eradicating poverty, inequality and deprivation in these countries, and to enable them to integrate beneficially into the global economy to enable them to integrate beneficially into the global economy

13 Overarching goal: To make substantial progress toward halving the proportion of people living in extreme poverty and suffering from hunger by 2015 and promote the sustainable development of the LDCs To make substantial progress toward halving the proportion of people living in extreme poverty and suffering from hunger by 2015 and promote the sustainable development of the LDCs Contains 30 international development goals, including the MDGs, embedded in commitments Contains 30 international development goals, including the MDGs, embedded in commitments

14 Commitments: 1.fostering a people- centered policy framework 2.good governance at national and international levels 3.building human and institutional capacities 4.building productive capacities to make globalization work for LDCs 5.enhancing the role of trade in development 6.reducing vulnerability and protecting the environment 7.mobilizing financial resources

15 Cross-cutting issues: poverty eradication poverty eradication gender equality gender equality employment employment governance at national and international levels governance at national and international levels capacity-building capacity-building sustainable development sustainable development special problems of landlocked and small island LDCs, and special problems of landlocked and small island LDCs, and challenges faced by LDCs affected by conflict challenges faced by LDCs affected by conflict

16 Guiding principles: 1.An integrated approach 2.Genuine partnership 3.Country ownership 4.Market considerations 5.Result orientation

17 1. An integrated approach The development process should be viewed in a comprehensive, coherent and long-term manner by LDCs and their partners, including the multilateral agencies within and outside the United Nations system. The development process should be viewed in a comprehensive, coherent and long-term manner by LDCs and their partners, including the multilateral agencies within and outside the United Nations system. When addressing economic development and poverty eradication, there should be a balance between economic and other objectives of development. The implementation of the PoA should be integrated into all international processes of concern to the LDCs When addressing economic development and poverty eradication, there should be a balance between economic and other objectives of development. The implementation of the PoA should be integrated into all international processes of concern to the LDCs

18 2. Genuine partnership With greater alignment between national policies and strategies in LDCs and the external assistance strategies of their partners, the scope for more effective dialogue between them has expanded. Open and transparent development cooperation, underpinned by strong political will, can help bring about rapid transformations in LDCs With greater alignment between national policies and strategies in LDCs and the external assistance strategies of their partners, the scope for more effective dialogue between them has expanded. Open and transparent development cooperation, underpinned by strong political will, can help bring about rapid transformations in LDCs

19 3. Country ownership All efforts should be made by LDCs and their partners to ensure genuinely country-led development. This will be aided by the joint identification of development priorities by LDCs and their development partners. Also, LDCs will need to be effectively involved in areas such as aid coordination and debt relief All efforts should be made by LDCs and their partners to ensure genuinely country-led development. This will be aided by the joint identification of development priorities by LDCs and their development partners. Also, LDCs will need to be effectively involved in areas such as aid coordination and debt relief

20 4. Market considerations While acknowledging the importance of market forces in the sustained process of economic growth and poverty reduction, there is a need to ensure an appropriate mix of public-private participation. While acknowledging the importance of market forces in the sustained process of economic growth and poverty reduction, there is a need to ensure an appropriate mix of public-private participation. However, this cannot be achieved without adequate attention to market weaknesses as well as government weaknesses, and consideration of the preparedness of the private sector. … To be fully productive, however, a market must operate within a stable legal and economic framework However, this cannot be achieved without adequate attention to market weaknesses as well as government weaknesses, and consideration of the preparedness of the private sector. … To be fully productive, however, a market must operate within a stable legal and economic framework

21 Only positive concrete processes and outcomes can sustain public confidence in the development partnership between LDCs and their development partners. Only positive concrete processes and outcomes can sustain public confidence in the development partnership between LDCs and their development partners. The process of identifying, assessing and monitoring progress on processes and concrete outcomes will be a key aspect of the implementation of the PoA and its success will be judged by its contribution to progress of LDCs towards achieving international development targets, as well as their graduation from the list of LDCs The process of identifying, assessing and monitoring progress on processes and concrete outcomes will be a key aspect of the implementation of the PoA and its success will be judged by its contribution to progress of LDCs towards achieving international development targets, as well as their graduation from the list of LDCs 5. Result orientation

22 Follow-up and Implementation Three track approach: Three track approach: success in attaining BPoA objectives will depend critically on the effective follow-up, implementation, monitoring and review at: success in attaining BPoA objectives will depend critically on the effective follow-up, implementation, monitoring and review at: 1.national 2.regional and 3.global levels

23 Follow-up at the global level : assess economic and social performance of LDCs, assess economic and social performance of LDCs, monitor implementation of commitments by LDCs and their partners monitor implementation of commitments by LDCs and their partners review the functioning of implementation and follow-up mechanisms at country, subregional, regional and sectoral levels, and policy developments at the global level with implications for LDCs review the functioning of implementation and follow-up mechanisms at country, subregional, regional and sectoral levels, and policy developments at the global level with implications for LDCs

24 Follow-up at the regional level : cooperation between LDCs and other countries at the regional and subregional levels cooperation between LDCs and other countries at the regional and subregional levels

25 Follow-up at the national level : each LDC, with development partners support, to promote implementation of BPoA actions each LDC, with development partners support, to promote implementation of BPoA actions by translating them into specific measures within national development framework and poverty eradication strategy, including, where they exist, Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), common country assessments (CCAs), and the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), by translating them into specific measures within national development framework and poverty eradication strategy, including, where they exist, Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), common country assessments (CCAs), and the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), involvement of civil society, including the private sector, on the basis of a broad-based inclusive dialogue involvement of civil society, including the private sector, on the basis of a broad-based inclusive dialogue

26 Role of United Nations system: Assist the LDCs in translating goals and targets of major global conferences and summits into concrete actions in light of national priorities Assist the LDCs in translating goals and targets of major global conferences and summits into concrete actions in light of national priorities Mainstream the BPoA in work programmes and activities Mainstream the BPoA in work programmes and activities Governing bodies are invited to organize sectoral appraisals at regular intervals in their respective areas of competence and make available the outcomes of such appraisals to the annual global reviews Governing bodies are invited to organize sectoral appraisals at regular intervals in their respective areas of competence and make available the outcomes of such appraisals to the annual global reviews Setting up the system of focal points to ensure the full mobilization and coordination of all parts of the United Nations system Setting up the system of focal points to ensure the full mobilization and coordination of all parts of the United Nations system

27 Thank you


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