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1-1 1 Quality Management Chapter 9. 1-2 2 Total Quality Management (TQM) Total quality management is defined as managing the entire organization so that.

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Presentation on theme: "1-1 1 Quality Management Chapter 9. 1-2 2 Total Quality Management (TQM) Total quality management is defined as managing the entire organization so that."— Presentation transcript:

1 1-1 1 Quality Management Chapter 9

2 1-2 2 Total Quality Management (TQM) Total quality management is defined as managing the entire organization so that it excels on all dimensions of products and services that are important to the customer

3 1-3 3 Quality Specifications Design quality: Inherent value of the product in the marketplace –Dimensions include: Performance, Features, Reliability/Durability, Serviceability, Aesthetics, and Perceived Quality. Conformance quality: Degree to which the product or service design specifications are met

4 1-4 4 Costs of Quality External Failure Costs Appraisal Costs Prevention Costs Internal Failure Costs Costs of Quality

5 1-5 5 Quality movement

6 1-6 6 The birth of 6 Sigma In 1980, Motorola involved in Japanese BB Call market Through the use of statistical tools On Jan. 15, 1987, Motorola launched ‘Six Sigma Quality Program’

7 1-7 7 Six Sigma Quality A philosophy and set of methods companies use to eliminate defects in their products and processes Seeks to reduce variation in the processes that lead to product defects

8 Sigma

9 1-9 9 Standard Deviation vs Performance SigmaErrors/million transactions 63.4 ( %) 5233 (99.98%) (99.38%) (93.32%) (70%) (29%) transaction99%6 sigma Lost orders/per 300,000 trans complaints/50,000 trans. 410<2 Computer down time1.68hrs/wk<1.8sec/wk

10 Six Sigma Quality (Continued) Six Sigma allows managers to readily describe process performance using a common metric: Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO)

11 The 6 sigma organization Champion Master Black Belt Black Belt Green Belt

12 Six Sigma Quality: DMAIC Cycle (Continued) 1. Define (D) 2. Measure (M) 3. Analyze (A) 4. Improve (I) 5. Control (C) Customers and their priorities Process and its performance Causes of defects Remove causes of defects Maintain quality

13 Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Flow Chart No, Continue… Material Received from Supplier Inspect Material for Defects Defects found? Return to Supplier for Credit Yes Can be used to find quality problems

14 Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Cause & Effect Diagram Effect ManMachine MaterialMethod Environment Possible causes: The results or effect Can be used to systematically track backwards to find a possible cause of a quality problem (or effect)

15 Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Checksheet Billing Errors Wrong Account Wrong Amount A/R Errors Wrong Account Wrong Amount Monday Can be used to keep track of defects or used to make sure people collect data in a correct manner

16 Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Histogram Number of Lots Data Ranges Defects in lot Can be used to identify the frequency of quality defect occurrence and display quality performance

17 Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Pareto Analysis Can be used to find when 80% of the problems may be attributed to 20% of the causes Can be used to find when 80% of the problems may be attributed to 20% of the causes Assy. Instruct. Frequency DesignPurch.Training 80%

18 Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Run Chart Can be used to identify when equipment or processes are not behaving according to specifications Time (Hours) Diameter

19 Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Control Charts Can be used to monitor ongoing production process quality and quality conformance to stated standards of quality LCL UCL

20 Six Sigma Roles and Responsibilities 1.Executive leaders must champion the process of improvement 2.Corporation-wide training in Six Sigma concepts and tools 3.Setting stretch objectives for improvement 4.Continuous reinforcement and rewards

21 PDCA Cycle (Deming Wheel) 1. Plan a change aimed at improvement. 1. Plan 2. Execute the change. 2. Do 3. Study the results; did it work? 3. Check 4. Institutionalize the change or abandon or do it again. 4. Act

22 Continuous Improvement (CI) Management's view of performance standards of the organization – performance level of the firm as something to be "continuously challenged and incrementally upgraded." The way management views the contribution and role of its workforce – believe employee involvement and team efforts are the key to improvement

23 ISO 9000 and ISO Series of standards agreed upon by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Adopted in 1987 More than 160 countries A prerequisite for global competition? ISO 9000 an international reference for quality, ISO is primarily concerned with environmental management

24 ISO 9000 Series 9001 – Model for Quality Assurance in Design, Production Installation, and Servicing – Model for Quality Assurance in Production and Installation 9003 – Model for Quality Assurance in Final Inspection Test

25 Guidelines for Use 9000 – Quality Management and Quality Assurance Standards: Guidelines for Selection and Use 9004 – Quality Management and Quality System Elements--Guidelines

26 Three Forms of ISO Certification 1. First party: A firm audits itself against ISO 9000 standards 2. Second party: A customer audits its supplier 3. Third party: A "qualified" national or international standards or certifying agency serves as auditor

27 External Benchmarking Steps 1. Identify those processes needing improvement 2. Identify a firm that is the world leader in performing the process 3. Contact the managers of that company and make a personal visit to interview managers and workers 4. Analyze data


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