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Graphing Data

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OGT Benchmark SI-A Participate in and apply the processes of scientific investigation to create models and to design, conduct, evaluate and communicate the results of these investigations.

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OGT Indicator SI-5 Develop oral and written presentations using clear language, accurate data, appropriate graphs, tables, maps and available technology.

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OGT Indicator SI-6 Draw logical conclusions based on scientific knowledge and evidence from investigations.

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**1. Create a data table labeled with units.**

Graphing Notes 1. Create a data table labeled with units. Time (s) Distance (m) Red Car Blue Car

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**2. Decide what type of graph**

*Line (scatter) – shows changes over time, relationships or trends

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***Bar – compares different things**

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***Pie (circle) – shows parts or % of a whole thing**

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**3. For line graphs (and bars),. determine the range and scale**

3. For line graphs (and bars), determine the range and scale of your variables * range – lowest number to highest number Start at zero if it’s reasonable Example: range of 5 to 50 – start with zero Example: range of 2000 to 3000 – don’t start with zero – most of your graph will be empty space

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*** scale – labels for each line on the graph**

Must be evenly spaced, counting by a reasonable number – 2, 5, 10, 25, 100, etc For line graphs, number the lines, not the spaces Example: - each line is worth 2

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3. Label the horizontal axis with the independent variable and its unit – the independent variable is the one you set ahead of time

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Label the vertical axis with the dependent variable and its unit – the dependent variable is the one you are testing for Choose a title for your graph. Plot your data points.

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**8. The graph can then be used to predict unmeasured data points.**

Determine the trend in the data – draw a “best fit” line through your data points. 8. The graph can then be used to predict unmeasured data points. * interpolate points within your data range * extrapolate points beyond your data range

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Graphing Example Determine the relationship between the number of times a cricket chirps in a minute and the air temperature. Temperature in degrees F # of cricket chirps/min 90 3 80 6 70 11 60 15

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***Starting with zero, most of the graph is empty**

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*** With a “best fit” trend line**

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***Use the graph to interpolate the # of chirps at 75 degrees F.**

*Use the graph to extrapolate the # of chirps at 100 degrees F.

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Elements of a Graph Insanity of Statements. Why use a graph? Graphs are very useful tools in science: A graph is used by scientist to organize the facts.

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