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Graphing Data

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OGT Benchmark SI-A Participate in and apply the processes of scientific investigation to create models and to design, conduct, evaluate and communicate the results of these investigations.

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OGT Indicator SI-5 Develop oral and written presentations using clear language, accurate data, appropriate graphs, tables, maps and available technology.

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OGT Indicator SI-6 Draw logical conclusions based on scientific knowledge and evidence from investigations.

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Graphing Notes 1. Create a data table labeled with units. Time (s) Distance (m) Red Car Blue Car

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2. Decide what type of graph *Line (scatter) – shows changes over time, relationships or trends

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*Bar – compares different things

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*Pie (circle) – shows parts or % of a whole thing

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3. For line graphs (and bars), determine the range and scale of your variables * range – lowest number to highest number Start at zero if its reasonable –Example: range of 5 to 50 – start with zero –Example: range of 2000 to 3000 – dont start with zero – most of your graph will be empty space

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* scale – labels for each line on the graph Must be evenly spaced, counting by a reasonable number – 2, 5, 10, 25, 100, etc For line graphs, number the lines, not the spaces –Example: - each line is worth

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3. Label the horizontal axis with the independent variable and its unit – the independent variable is the one you set ahead of time

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4.Label the vertical axis with the dependent variable and its unit – the dependent variable is the one you are testing for 5.Choose a title for your graph. 6.Plot your data points.

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7.Determine the trend in the data – draw a best fit line through your data points. 8. The graph can then be used to predict unmeasured data points. * interpolate points within your data range * extrapolate points beyond your data range

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Graphing Example Determine the relationship between the number of times a cricket chirps in a minute and the air temperature. Temperature in degrees F # of cricket chirps/min

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*Starting with zero, most of the graph is empty

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* With a best fit trend line

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*Use the graph to interpolate the # of chirps at 75 degrees F. *Use the graph to extrapolate the # of chirps at 100 degrees F.

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