Presentation on theme: "THE INDUSTRIALREVOLUTION THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ORIGINSCAUSES WHY GREAT BRITAIN ORIGINS, CAUSES & “WHY GREAT BRITAIN?”"— Presentation transcript:
THE INDUSTRIALREVOLUTION THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ORIGINSCAUSES WHY GREAT BRITAIN ORIGINS, CAUSES & “WHY GREAT BRITAIN?”
took place during the 18 th and 19 th centuries, was a period during which mostly AGRICULTURAL and RURAL societies in Europe and America became INDUSTRIAL & URBAN “…took place during the 18 th and 19 th centuries, was a period during which mostly AGRICULTURAL and RURAL societies in Europe and America became INDUSTRIAL & URBAN.” The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ‘BIG PICTURE’ MANUFACTURING COTTAGE INDUSTRY INDUSTRIALIZATION ‘BIG PICTURE’ Before the Indus. Rev., which began in GB (late 1700s), MANUFACTURING was often done in people’s homes (COTTAGE INDUSTRY), using hand tools & basic machines. INDUSTRIALIZATION marked a shift to powered, special-purpose machinery, factories and mass production! ‘BIG PICTURE’ IRON TEXTILE STEAM ENGINE TRANSPORTATIONCOMMUNICATION BANKING ‘BIG PICTURE’ The IRON & TEXTILE industries, along with the development of the STEAM ENGINE, played central roles in the Indus. Rev., which also saw improved systems of TRANSPORTATION, COMMUNICATION and BANKING. ‘BIG PICTURE’ MANUFACTURED GOODS IMPROVED STANDARD OF LIVING ‘BIG PICTURE’ While industrialization brought about an increased volume and variety of MANUFACTURED GOODS & an IMPROVED STANDARD OF LIVING for some, it also resulted in often grim employment & living conditions for the poor and working classes.
“What are the ORIGINS & CAUSES of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain?” GEOGRAPHYNATURAL RESOURCES STRONG NAVY 5.) GEOGRAPHY, NATURAL RESOURCES and a STRONG NAVY… CAPITAL INVESTMENTS 4.) Wealthy British had the ability to make CAPITAL INVESTMENTS! STRONGSUPPORTIVE STABLE GOVERNMENT 6.) A STRONG, SUPPORTIVE and STABLE GOVERNMENT allowed for growth! AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION 1.) An AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION that changed farming in Europe! POPULATION GROWTH 2.) POPULATION GROWTH in Great Britain during the 18 th century! BRITISH EMPIRE SUPPLY MARKETS 3.) The BRITISH EMPIRE had a wide SUPPLY of MARKETS…
AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT WEALTHY FARMERS BOUGHT LAND FROM SMALL FARMERS 1.) The ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT spread to England in the 17 th century (process of privatizing ‘common land’) – WEALTHY FARMERS BOUGHT LAND FROM SMALL FARMERS! MOVEMENT LED TO MOVEMENT LED TO: 1.) Larger farms 2.) More efficient farms URBANIZATION 3.) URBANIZATION THINK THINK – “WHAT EFFECTS did the ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT have?” EUROPE UNDERWENT AN AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION (1690S) … WHICH WOULD HELP LEAD TO THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION!
AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION CROP ROTATION 2.) Charles ‘Turnip’ Townsend, wealthy landlord from Norfolk – encouraged CROP ROTATION GROW MORE CROPS BETTER YIELD FROM THE LAND * GROW MORE CROPS and get a BETTER YIELD FROM THE LAND (if a crop was not rotated, the nutrient level in the field would go down – yield of the crop from the field decreased) BENEFICIAL AGRICULTURAL CYCLE * BENEFICIAL AGRICULTURAL CYCLE WHAT DID THIS NEW TECHNIQUE LEAD TO “WHAT DID THIS NEW TECHNIQUE LEAD TO?” 1.) Increased food for animals & people 2.) …more manure = better crops
AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION Jethro Tull SEED DRILL ECONOMICALLY 3.) Jethro Tull perfected the SEED DRILL (1701) that ECONOMICALLY sowed the seeds in neat rows… (more seed taking root = more crops…) WASTEFULIMPRECISE POOR DISTRIBUTION OF SEEDS LOW PRODUCTIVITY * Before the seed drill, common practice was to plant seeds by hand… besides being WASTEFUL, planting was IMPRECISE and led to a POOR DISTRIBUTION OF SEEDS, leading to LOW PRODUCTIVITY ! Robert Bakewell SELECTIVEBREEDING sheep cattle 4.) Robert Bakewell, 18 th century English Agriculturalist, well known for SELECTIVE BREEDING of sheep and cattle (larger cattle, better cattle = more food!)
POPULATION GROWTH AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION The AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION : MORE FOOD … MORE FOOD ! 1.) = MORE people being fed!2.) = MORE people surviving! URBANIZATION! 4.) URBANIZATION! POPULATION BOOM GREAT BRITAIN These factors led to a POPULATION BOOM in GREAT BRITAIN during the 18 th century! MORE FOOD = MORE PEOPLE = MORE DEMAND = MORE PRODUCTION! MORE STABILITY 3.) = MORE STABILITY throughout society!
BRITISH EMPIRE AND THE SUPPLY OF MARKETS 1.) …world’s leading colonial power; meant that its colonies could serve as: SOURCE FOR RAW MATERIALS MARKETPLACE FOR MANUFACTURED GOODS MARKET SELLERS BUYERS “A MARKET is any place where the SELLERS of a good or service can meet with the BUYERS of that good or service where there is potential for a transaction to take place.”
CAPITAL INVESTMENTS WHAT IS CAPITAL WHAT IS CAPITAL? MATERIAL WEALTH MATERIAL WEALTH… in the form of money or property. COLONIAL EXPANSION 1.) British COLONIAL EXPANSION during the 17 th century led to: INTERNATIONAL TRADE Development of INTERNATIONAL TRADE NEW FINANCIAL MARKETS Creation of NEW FINANCIAL MARKETS ACCUMULATION OF CAPITAL The ACCUMULATION OF CAPITAL NEW WEALTH ENTREPRENEURS TEXTILECOAL MINING METAL INDUSTRIE 2.) NEW WEALTH allowed for ENTREPRENEURS to make large investments of capital into the TEXTILE, COAL MINING and METAL INDUSTRIES EXAMPLE EXAMPLE “The textile industry, for instance, relied on raw material from America; finished goods were sold internally but also abroad, especially in India, where British colonial rule was able virtually to destroy the once flourishing Indian textile industry by forbidding the export of Indian textiles.”
GEOGRAPHY, NATURAL RESOURCES & A STRONG NAVY RIVERS CANALS TRANSPORTATION WATER POWER 1.) RIVERS and CANALS for TRANSPORTATION and WATER POWER COAL FUEL 3.) COAL provided for FUEL ISLAND PORTS ENABLED TRADE 2.) ISLAND … PORTS ENABLED TRADE POPULATION WORKERS 5.) POPULATION provided for WORKERS STRONG NAVY ECONOMY 6.) STRONG NAVY to protect & expand ECONOMY NATURAL RESOURCES NATURAL RESOURCES : “naturally occurring exploitable material” (coal, wood, water, minerals, etc.) IRON ORE MANUFACTURING 4.) IRON ORE strengthened MANUFACTURING
STRONG, SUPPORTIVE AND STABLE GOVERNMENT POLITICAL STABILITY Great Britain used their POLITICAL STABILITY to their advantage: STRONG LARGE EMPIRE STRONG & LARGE EMPIRE STABLE GOVERNMENT STABLE GOVERNMENT at home INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Gov’t that supported INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAISSEZ-FAIRE ECONOMICS Gov’t that supported LAISSEZ-FAIRE ECONOMICS ALL THE WARS ENGLAND 1.) Out of ALL THE WARS that had been fought during the 17 th and 18 th centuries – how many were fought in ENGLAND ? ABOLISHED FEUDALISM 2.) Great Britain had ABOLISHED FEUDALISM (1660) – no feudal class to hold back the working class! …led to a very large and free peasantry/working class in England!