England Passes new Laws Sugar Act o British troops remained in the colonies after the F & I War. o Parliament passed a tax on sugar and molasses. The Stamp Act (1765) o Tax on all govt/legal documents such as contracts and licenses. o Affected lawyers, printers, and ministers. o Colonists protested heavily.
Quartering Act o Colonist must provide housing for British Troops. Townshend Acts (1767) o Declared British authority over the colonies. o Suspended the colonial govts. Colonial Response o The Boston Massacre (1770)- British troops opened fire on protesting colonies. 5 colonists died. o Colonists called for the removal of British troops.
Tea Act (1773) o Colonial tea merchants lost business. o Result- Boston Tea Party Intolerable Acts (1774) o Closed the Port of Boston. o Shut down self- govt.
The First Continental Congress o The Intolerable Acts unified the colonies. o Delegates met in Philadelphia in September 1774. o Composed a list of grievances and sent it to England. o Agreed to boycott British goods. o Formed a force of minutemen- colonial soldiers who would be ready to resist a British attack with short notice.
The Battles of Lexington and Concord Build up to battle o The colonists were stockpiling weapons and gunpowder. o The British were anticipating battle and planned a surprise attack for April 18, 1775. o Alarm riders (including Paul Revere) rode out to warn of the attack. The Battles o Colonists severely outnumbered in Lexington. o First shot of the Revolutionary War shot. o Colonists were ready at Concord and were successful in gaining a British retreat.
Assignment Page 113 Questions: 1bc, 2abc, 3ab, 4a Construct a timeline of events leading up to the Battles of Lexington and Concord.
Declaring Independence The Second Continental Congress o Formed the Continental Army; George Washington is Commander in Chief. o Issued Continental currency o Proposed Olive Branch Petition w/ King George o Explained why Americans were at war The Battle of Bunker Hill o Colonists were low on gunpowder o The put up a good and brave defense even though the British won. o The British took control on Boston.
Washington takes command o Washington took command 2 weeks after Bunker Hill. o By March 1776, Washington retook Boston. The Declaration of Independence o The events of 1775 angered the colonists more. o They did not feel that they were treated the same as other British citizens. o People began to call for independence. o Virginia called for independence in May 1776. o The Continental Congress decided to declare independence in June. o Thomas Jefferson was chosen to write the declaration. o Independence was officially declared on July 4, 1776.
Reactions to Independence o Some Loyalists remained loyal to Britain (25% of colonists.) o All colonist did not want to fight. o Most supported independence at any cost.
Back to the War… Continental ArmyBritish Army Strengths: -Strong military leadership -Fighting on home territory -Alliance with France Strengths: -Well-trained military -Ample resources -Alliances with loyalists Weaknesses: -Small, untrained military -Shortages of resources -Weak central government Weaknesses: -Fighting in unfamiliar territory -Fighting far from home
Battles In the North o Fighting was centered in NY, NJ, and PN in 1776. o The British took control of NY and Philadelphia and dominated the North. o The Battle of Saratoga (1777) was the biggest victory in the North for the colonists (and maybe the war.) It encouraged colonist and rallied support. It persuaded the French to join the American cause. o Washingtons leadership carried the colonists through hard times at Valley Forge.
In the South o The British thought this war would be a quick win…it was not. o Dependent on loyalist for help they moved the fighting to the South. o At the Battle of Kings Mountain the Patriots defeated a loyalist forces. o Battles in NC severely hurt the British forces (Spring of 1781.) Help Arrives o The French sent supplies and promised military help.
Victory at Yorktown o Colonial Armies from the North and South forced the British towards the coast. o They built a fort at Yorktown, Virginia. o Washingtons Army surrounded the British on land. o The French set up a blockade on the coast. o The British were forced to surrender after 3 weeks of bombardment. o They surrendered on October 19, 1781.
Treaty of Paris o England formally recognized the United States as a nation. o Established the Mississippi River as the western border of the US.
The American Republic Republicanism o Americans were scared of a monarchy or a powerful central govt. o Rule with the consent of the governed.
The Articles of Confederation Americas first plan of government. Went into effect in March 1781. Established a Congress which made laws. Problems with the Articles o Congress could not impose taxes or regulate trade. o 9 of 13 states had to agree to pass laws. o No executive branch to enforce laws passed by Congress. o No judicial branch. o States had more power than the national govt.
Problems… With the States o States were to independent and separate. o States did not recognize each others laws and agreements. With finances o Large war debts. o Not able to support and Army and Navy. o No taxes = No money With foreign nations o Seen as weak by other nations.
Accomplishments under the Articles Land Ordinance of 1785 o The plan for dividing the Northwest Territory. o The land was surveyed, divided, and sold. Northwest Ordinance o Encouraged the orderly settlement and the formation of new states in the Northwest Territory. o Slavery was outlawed in the territory.
Constitutional Convention Meets in Philadelphia from May to September of 1787. President of the Convention- George Washington. Architect of the Constitution- James Madison.
Constitutional Convention The Virginia Plan- President, courts, and a bicameral legislature. Representation is each house of Congress would be based on population. Appealed to the larger states with higher populations. The New Jersey Plan- Called for a unicameral legislature with equal representation for all states. Appealed to smaller states with lower populations.
The Great Compromise- Set up a 2 house (bicameral) legislature. The House of Representatives- based on population. The Senate- Equal representation for all states.
Other Compromises The Three-Fifths Compromise South wanted to count slaves as part of their population. The North said that slaves should not be counted because they are property. The compromise stated that 3/5 of the slave population would be counted in each state. The Electoral College A compromise between popular vote and congressional appointment. Established a group of people picked by each state legislature who would select the president and vice president.
Ratification Federalists: Supported the Constitution. Ex: Alexander Hamilton Showed their support for federalism power is divided between a national govt and state govts. Mainly large landowners who wanted a strong federal govt. Anti-Federalists: Opposed the Constitution. Example: Thomas Jefferson Believed it would create a strong federal govt that would take rights away from the states and people. Compromise: A Bill of Rights was added. All 13 states ratified it by 1790.
The New Nation 1789-1812 The New Nation Chapter 6 1789-1812
George Washington He had retired but was wanted back! He was unanimously voted President and Inaugurated on April 30, 1789. He defined the Presidency and set the rules.
Precedent Set A Precedent is a pattern set for future leaders to follow. He preferred the title, Mr. President. Tried to learn how to balance the government between powerful and democratic. He did not want to mimic Englands Monarchy!
The Presidents Cabinet Henry Knox- Secretary of War Thomas Jefferson- Secretary of State Alexander Hamilton- Secretary of Treasury Edmund Randolph- Attorney General John Adams- Vice President.
Alexander Hamilton -Born poor and worked his way to the top. -Believed the Educated Man should lead. -Favored a Strong Central Government. - Loose interpretation of the Constitution.
Thomas Jefferson Born rich and privileged. Believed the common man should lead. Favored a weaker national government and strong state governments. Strict interpretation of the Constitution.
The Hamilton Plan THE PLAN: 1.) The Federal Government assume every states Revolutionary War debt and pay it for them. THIS IS CALLED ASSUMPTION! 2.) Tax the people. Show Govt power. 3.) National Bank. WHAT HAPPENED: -Congress passed the Tariff of 1789 putting a tax on all imports into the US. -Excise tax on liquor was passed in 1791. The Compromise- -The Capital (Washington D.C) would be moved to the south. -Southerners would vote for Hamiltons Plan.
Strict and Loose Interpretations of the Constitution Main Question: How much power should the Central Government have? ANSWER: Strict Interpreters: The government should only do what the Constitution specifically states that it can do. (Jefferson) Loose Interpreters: The government should be allowed to do some things not specifically stated in the Constitution-as long as the Constitution doesnt say no then its okay. (Hamilton and Madison) Hamiltons Bank Plan (Necessary and Proper Clause)
The Whiskey Rebellion The Whiskey Rebellion resulted in 1794. -the farmers in Pennsylvania did not like the excise tax on Whiskey. -The Rebel farmers led an uprising attacking their enemies. -Washington took command and made it clear that rebellion against the National Government would not be tolerated. -The Virginia Militia was sent to put down the Rebellion and did. This proved the power of the National government and the Constitution.
The Two-Party System Emerges The Federalists Led by Hamilton Supported a Strong Central govt. Made up of wealthy business men. Wanted to use the national debt to establish credit. Favored National Bank Pro-British The Democratic- Republicans Led by Jefferson Supported a weaker central govt. Made up of more common men scared of a strong national govt. Wanted to pay the National Debt. Opposed National Bank Pro-French