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Immigration, Industrialization, And the Gilded Age

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Presentation on theme: "Immigration, Industrialization, And the Gilded Age"— Presentation transcript:

1 Immigration, Industrialization, And the Gilded Age
Goal 5 Immigration, Industrialization, And the Gilded Age

2 5.01 Evaluate the influence of immigration and rapid industrialization on urban life.

3 Urban Issues

4 Jacob Riis Wrote a book called How the other Half Lives
Described the foul smelling living conditions of the city Exposed unsafe and unsanitary living conditions of the city

5 Housing Tenements-overcrowded apartments; immigrants usually lived in these Ethnic neighborhoods formed: Little Italy, Lower East Side

6 Technology in the City Elevators-invented by Elisha Otis; allows people to operate in high rise buildings (skyscrapers) Telephone-invented by Alexander Graham Bell

7 Sanitation Sanitation is the #1 problem in cities
No water systems; water is tainted Sewers were inadequate Healthcare was non-existent Diseases spread rapidly in the crowded conditions

8 Transportation Cities had been limited in size by the ability of people to get from one place to the other Electric trains Trolley Subways All allow people to live in surrounding areas and work in the cities

9 The Rise of Ethnic Neighborhoods

10 Culture Shock Many immigrants were unprepared for America
Language barriers, nativism, lack of jobs, political machines Most lived in ethnic neighborhoods; tried to preserve their culture (religion, customs, language) Americanization happens in schools

11 Settlement Houses Designed to help immigrants assimilate
Halfway house; helps immigrants with education, child care, show how to fit in Jane Addams starts Hull House; most famous settlement house; Chicago

12 Chinese Exclusion Act Limits number of Chinese immigrants coming to America Americans thought Chinese were driving down wages Example of racism in America at that time

13 Ellis Island / Angel Island
Main entry points for immigrants coming to America Ellis Island; NYC; European Immigrants Angel Island; San Francisco; Asian Immigrants

14 Immigration

15 New vs. Old Old- 1840’s; Western and Northern Europe; left their home due to potato famine New- 1880’s; Eastern and Southern Europe; Jews; left due to religious persecution

16 Cultural Pluralism Melting Pot- American society is a blend of different cultures Cultural Pluralism- blending of religions and cultures Nativism- believe immigrants brought evils with them; lowered wages Immigrants would work for less

17 New Forms of Leisure Amusement Parks such as Coney Island
Spectator Sports- baseball, football, basketball, boxing

18 5.02 Explain how business and industrial leaders accumulated wealth and wielded political and economic power

19 Emergence of new Industries

20 Railroads Spurred the 2nd Industrial Revolution
Connects the different regions of America

21 Steel Bessemer Process makes the production of steel cheaper and more efficient Steel allows for the transformation of construction, buildings, and machinery

22 Oil First oil well- Titusville, Pa
First used for kerosene and lamps and later used for automobiles

23 Changes in the ways businesses form and consolidate power

24 Rise of the Corporation
Sale of stocks allow companies to grow exponentially

25 Trusts Combination of firms or corporations for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices throughout a business or industry

26 Monopoly A company or group having exclusive control over a business activity (often associated with trust)

27 Influence of business leaders as “captains of industry” or as “robber barons”

28 Andrew Carnegie Steel Industry
Vertical Integration-owning all the steps of manufacturing from raw materials to the finished product Homestead Steel Disliked unions; paid workers very little

29 John D. Rockefeller Oil Industry Standard Oil Company
Horizontal Integration-owning several firms within the same industry (forms the trust)

30 Cornelius Vanderbilt Consolidated Railroads Known as “The Commodore”
Philanthropist-gave money for Vanderbilt University; Biltmore House

31 JP Morgan Financial giant Made money through banking

32 Big Business and Government
Big businessmen begin to buy and sell politicians Government begins to side with big business at the expense of the public

33 Social Darwinism and the Gospel of Wealth

34 Social Darwinism Applies Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection, survival of the fittest, only the strong survive to society Social Darwinism applies to business and society Those that could change and adapt would be successful; those that couldn’t would remain poor Seemed to justify the “captains of industry”

35 Gospel of Wealth Idea that the rich should care for their families and use the rest of their wealth to benefit society Philanthropy Build schools, libraries, hospitals Carnegie Hall, Rockefeller Center, Vanderbilt University

36 5.03 Assess the impact of labor unions on industry and the lives of the workers

37 Formation of Unions

38 Working Conditions Unsafe Threat of death or dismemberment
Long hours and little pay Workers decide to unite

39 Craft Unions Limited membership to workers engaged in the same craft (type of work) Example: shoe makers union

40 Industrial Union Similar to craft union but membership is limited to those in the same industry Example: American Railway Union

41 Child Labor Children of working class families and immigrants worked in factories and mines instead of going to school

42 Famous Unions

43 Knights of Labor Skilled and unskilled labor Led by Terrence Powderly
Men, women, black, white Unsuccessful due to its size and violent strikes Haymarket Riot-strike led by Knights which resulted in violence; Knights of Labor lose support after this

44 American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Skilled workers only Led by Samuel Gompers Most successful union Stayed out of politics

45 American Railway Union
Industrial Union Led by Eugene Debs who was a socialist Unsuccessful due to violence at Pullman Strike

46 Tactics used by Labor Unions

47 Tactics by Workers Strike-workers refuse to work; picket outside the workplace Featherbedding-workers would work slow to create more work Collective Bargaining-workers unite to negotiate and force management to give in on certain issues

48 Tactics used by business leaders
Lockout-owners would close the industry based on the idea that the factory could absorb the loss more than the worker could Scabs-replacement workers Blacklist-list of trouble makers shared by business leaders Yellow Dog Contract-workers were forced to sign this saying they could be fired if they joined a union

49 Tactics used by Government
Injunction-court order to end strike and go back to work (Coal Strike 1902) Mediation-3rd party decide; makes a suggestion Arbitration-3rd party decide and both sides have to agree Sherman Anti Trust Act 1890-outlawed trusts and monopolies; unsuccessful; hard to enforce

50 People’s view of Unions
Many associate unions with violence Haymarket Square Homestead Strike Pullman Car Co. McCormick Reaper plant

51 5.04 Describe the changing role of government in economic and political affairs

52 Impact of law and court decisions

53 US v. EC Knight & Co. Dispute over sugar refining company
Court said the Sherman Anti Trust act applied only to commerce (buying and selling) not manufacturing

54 Laissez Faire Business of America was business
Government tried to stay out of business; supply and demand would regulate business This mentality will last through the 1920’s

55 Political Machines

56 Tammany Hall Machine Political machine in NYC
Led by William “Boss” Tweed Gained votes and power by helping immigrants Gained power through grafts- taking public money for personal use; corruption

57 Thomas Nast Cartoonist
Satirically exposed Tweed as taking advantage of the poor public

58 Patronage or Civil Service System

59 Patronage Spoils System-winner of elections would give party supporters government jobs

60 Pendleton Civil Service Act
Passed to end the abuses of the patronage (“spoils system”) Passed after President James Garfield was assassinated by a disgruntled party supporter who wanted a job Act said job seekers would have to apply and score well on a test (merit system)

61 Impact of Corruption and Scandal in the Government

62 Credit Mobilier Scandal
Involved a company that built the Transcontinental RR They overcharged the government When the government investigated they paid off Congress

63 Whiskey Ring US distillers did not pay the substantial whiskey tax
They were helped by government insiders

64 Government Reform Brought on by Populist
Initiative-allow people to propose laws Referendum- allow people to vote directly on laws Recall-allow people to remove officials from office 17th Amendment- direct election of senators

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