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Essential Standard 3.00: Summarize Plant Anatomy

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Presentation on theme: "Essential Standard 3.00: Summarize Plant Anatomy"— Presentation transcript:

1 Essential Standard 3.00: Summarize Plant Anatomy
Plant Physiology Essential Standard 3.00: Summarize Plant Anatomy

2 Objective 3.01 Discuss biological terms used to describe plants.

3 Plant Sciences Biology-the branch of science that deals with both plant and animal organisms and life processes Zoology-the part of biology that deals with animals Botany the part of biology that deals with plants

4 Plant Sciences Applied plant sciences are based on the purposes for which the plants are grown Agronomy Forestry Horticulture

5 Agronomy The science and practice of growing field crops such as cotton, wheat, tobacco, corn and soybeans.

6 Forestry The science and practice of growing, managing and harvesting trees for building materials and other products.

7 Horticulture The science and practice of growing, processing and marketing fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants

8 Life Cycles of Plants Annual-a plant that completes its life cycle in one year Biennial-a plant that completes its life cycle in two years Perennial-a plant that lives more than two years

9 Leaf Retention Deciduous-loses leaves during the dormant season
Evergreen-keeps leaves and remains green year-round

10 Plant Hormones Several types of hormones are used to help plants work more efficiently. Inhibitors cytokinins gibberellias auxins

11 Inhibitors Inhibitors hasten fruit ripening, retain seed germination and stem elongation.

12 Cytokinins Hormones that work with auxins to stimulate cell division.

13 Gibberellias Hormones that stimulate cell elongation, premature flowering, and breaking of dormancy.

14 Auxins Hormones that speed plant growth by stimulating cell enlargement

15 Moisture in Plants Turgid-plant is swollen or filled with moisture
Wilted-plant is limp because it does not have enough moisture

16 Plant Growth Dormant A plant rest or grows very little
Response to an adverse condition

17 Season Crop Type Cool Season Warm Season Plants relish cool weather
Pansies grow best in spring or fall Warm Season Grow best in summer and early fall Zinnia Marigold Vinca Poinsettia

18 Objective 3.02 Discuss the anatomy and functions of plants.

19 Leaves-External Petiole-leaf stalk or part that connects the leaf to the stem Blade-the large, flat part of the leaf Midrib-the large center vein Veins-the structural framework of the leaf Margin-the edge of the leaf

20 Leaves-External

21 Leaves-Internal Upper and lower epidermis-skin of the leaf that prevents the loss of too much moisture Stomates-small openings under the leaf for breathing or transpiration Guard Cells-open and close stomates

22 Leaves-Internal Chloroplasts-small green particles that contain chlorophyll gives leaves their green color necessary for photosynthesis

23 Leaves-Internal

24 Leaves-Internal

25 Leave-Functions Photosynthesis Respiration Transpiration
process by which plants capture sunlight and use it to convert carbon dioxide and water into food Respiration converts sugars and starches into energy Transpiration release of water vapor from the leaves of plants It also cools the plant

26 Leave-Additions Sessile describes leaves without a petiole
Example zinnia Bracts are modified leaves Example poinsettia Needles and scales are modified leaves Example pine tree

27 Leave-Additions Glabrous leaves or stems have a smooth non-hairy feel
Example southern magnolia Pubescent leaves or stems have a hairy feel Example African violet

28 Stems-External Lenticels-breathing pores
Bud scale scars-show where terminal buds have been located Leaf Scars-show where leaves were attached Terminal bud-bud on the end of a stem Axillary or lateral bud-bud on side of stem

29 Stems-Internal Xylem-tissue that transports water and nutrients up from the roots to stems and leaves Phloem-tissue that transports food down from leaves to roots

30 Stems-Internal Phloem Phloem Xylem

31 Stems-Internal Cambium-thin, green, actively growing tissue located between bark and wood and produces all new stem cells Bark-old inactive phloem Heartwood-old inactive xylem Sapwood-new active xylem

32 Stems-Internal Bark Cambium Sapwood Heartwood

33 Stems-Internal Monocota-plant stems have vascular bundles that contain both xylem and phloem in each bundle examples: corn, grasses Dicata-plant stems have the phloem layer and xylem layer separated by cambium example: trees

34 Stems-Internal Monocot Dicot

35 Roots-External Root cap-indicates growth of new cells
Root hairs-absorb moisture (water) and minerals Root images from a rice plant

36 Roots-Internal Much like stems in that they have a phloem, cambium, and xylem layer Phloem-the outer layer that carries food down the root Xylem-the inner layer that carries water and minerals up to the stem

37 Layers of Roots Fibrous-many branched shallow roots
are easier to transplant Tap-long root with few branched ones more difficult to transplant

38 Flowers Sepals-Green parts that cover and protect flower bud before it opens Petals-are really leaves that are modified to attract insects for flower pollination, the pretty part that we call flowers Stamen-male part of the flower Pistil-female part of the flower

39 Flowers

40 Parts of the Stamen Filament-short stalk that holds up the anther
Anther-a sac-like structure that contains pollen, the male sex cells

41 Parts of the Pistil Ovules-the eggs or female sex cells that become seeds if fertilized Ovary-if fertilized becomes a fruit or seed coat Style-holds up the stigma and connects it to the ovary Stigma-sticky part on top of style where insects leave pollen

42 Parts of the Pistil Stigma Style Ovary

43 Complete-vs-Incomplete
Complete flowers have both male and female parts Incomplete flowers have only male or female parts

44 What are the functions of these plant parts?

45 Functions of Leaves Photosynthesis-manufactures food in green plants which is the beginning of the food chain for all living things Photosynthesis is the process by which carbon dioxide and water in the presence of light are converted to sugar and oxygen

46 Functions of Stems Translocation-moves water and minerals from roots up to the leaves and move food from the leaves down to the roots Supports branches, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds

47 Functions of Roots Absorption-take water and nutrients from the soil and conduct them to the stem Anchor the plant and hold it upright Store food for plant use Asexual reproduction in some plants

48 Functions of Flowers Produce seeds used for sexual reproduction
Attract insects for pollination (Pollination is the transfer of pollen from anther to stigma.) Produce fruit to protect, nourish and carry seeds

49 Objective 3.03 Discuss floriculture and landscape plants

50 Taxonomy The science of classifying and identifying plants
Scientific names are used because the same common name is used for different plants in different areas of the world.

51 Karl von Linne Swedish botanist that developed the binomial system of naming plants using two Latin words to indicate the genus and species. Linne changed his name to the Latin name Carolus Linneaus.

52 Scientific Names Latin is the language used for scientific classification. The first word is the genus and the second word is the species. If there are additional words, they indicate a variety or cultivar.

53 Genus vs. Species Plants in the same genus have similar characteristics. Plants in the same species consistently produce plants of the same type.

54 Scientific Classification
The broadest category of scientific classification is the Kingdom--either plant or animal. The broadest category in the plant kingdom is division or phylum.

55 Divisions The four most important divisions of the plant kingdom are:
Thallophites Bryophytes Pteriophytes Spermatophytes

56 Spermatophytes Contains flowering or seed-bearing plants
Two subdivisions are: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

57 Common Plant Genus Pinus-Pine Acer-Maple Ilex-Holly Ficus-fig
Cornus-dogwood Rhododendron-rhododendron Quercus-oak

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