Presentation on theme: "Essential Standard 3.00: Summarize Plant Anatomy"— Presentation transcript:
1Essential Standard 3.00: Summarize Plant Anatomy Plant PhysiologyEssential Standard 3.00: Summarize Plant Anatomy
2Objective 3.01Discuss biological terms used to describe plants.
3Plant SciencesBiology-the branch of science that deals with both plant and animal organisms and life processesZoology-the part of biology that deals with animalsBotany the part of biology that deals with plants
4Plant SciencesApplied plant sciences are based on the purposes for which the plants are grownAgronomyForestryHorticulture
5AgronomyThe science and practice of growing field crops such as cotton, wheat, tobacco, corn and soybeans.
6ForestryThe science and practice of growing, managing and harvesting trees for building materials and other products.
7HorticultureThe science and practice of growing, processing and marketing fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants
8Life Cycles of PlantsAnnual-a plant that completes its life cycle in one yearBiennial-a plant that completes its life cycle in two yearsPerennial-a plant that lives more than two years
9Leaf Retention Deciduous-loses leaves during the dormant season Evergreen-keeps leaves and remains green year-round
10Plant HormonesSeveral types of hormones are used to help plants work more efficiently.Inhibitorscytokininsgibberelliasauxins
11InhibitorsInhibitors hasten fruit ripening, retain seed germination and stem elongation.
12CytokininsHormones that work with auxins to stimulate cell division.
13GibberelliasHormones that stimulate cell elongation, premature flowering, and breaking of dormancy.
14AuxinsHormones that speed plant growth by stimulating cell enlargement
15Moisture in Plants Turgid-plant is swollen or filled with moisture Wilted-plant is limp because it does not have enough moisture
16Plant Growth Dormant A plant rest or grows very little Response to an adverse condition
17Season Crop Type Cool Season Warm Season Plants relish cool weather Pansies grow best in spring or fallWarm SeasonGrow best in summer and early fallZinniaMarigoldVincaPoinsettia
18Objective 3.02Discuss the anatomy and functions of plants.
19Leaves-ExternalPetiole-leaf stalk or part that connects the leaf to the stemBlade-the large, flat part of the leafMidrib-the large center veinVeins-the structural framework of the leafMargin-the edge of the leaf
21Leaves-InternalUpper and lower epidermis-skin of the leaf that prevents the loss of too much moistureStomates-small openings under the leaf for breathing or transpirationGuard Cells-open and close stomates
22Leaves-InternalChloroplasts-small green particles that contain chlorophyllgives leaves their green colornecessary for photosynthesis
25Leave-Functions Photosynthesis Respiration Transpiration process by which plants capture sunlight and use it to convert carbon dioxide and water into foodRespirationconverts sugars and starches into energyTranspirationrelease of water vapor from the leaves of plantsIt also cools the plant
26Leave-Additions Sessile describes leaves without a petiole Example zinniaBracts are modified leavesExample poinsettiaNeedles and scales are modified leavesExample pine tree
27Leave-Additions Glabrous leaves or stems have a smooth non-hairy feel Example southern magnoliaPubescent leaves or stems have a hairy feelExample African violet
28Stems-External Lenticels-breathing pores Bud scale scars-show where terminal buds have been locatedLeaf Scars-show where leaves were attachedTerminal bud-bud on the end of a stemAxillary or lateral bud-bud on side of stem
29Stems-InternalXylem-tissue that transports water and nutrients up from the roots to stems and leavesPhloem-tissue that transports food down from leaves to roots
33Stems-InternalMonocota-plant stems have vascular bundles that contain both xylem and phloem in each bundleexamples: corn, grassesDicata-plant stems have the phloem layer and xylem layer separated by cambiumexample: trees
35Roots-External Root cap-indicates growth of new cells Root hairs-absorb moisture (water) and mineralsRoot images from a rice plant
36Roots-InternalMuch like stems in that they have a phloem, cambium, and xylem layerPhloem-the outer layer that carries food down the rootXylem-the inner layer that carries water and minerals up to the stem
37Layers of Roots Fibrous-many branched shallow roots are easier to transplantTap-long root with few branched onesmore difficult to transplant
38FlowersSepals-Green parts that cover and protect flower bud before it opensPetals-are really leaves that are modified to attract insects for flower pollination, the pretty part that we call flowersStamen-male part of the flowerPistil-female part of the flower
40Parts of the Stamen Filament-short stalk that holds up the anther Anther-a sac-like structure that contains pollen, the male sex cells
41Parts of the PistilOvules-the eggs or female sex cells that become seeds if fertilizedOvary-if fertilized becomes a fruit or seed coatStyle-holds up the stigma and connects it to the ovaryStigma-sticky part on top of style where insects leave pollen
45Functions of LeavesPhotosynthesis-manufactures food in green plants which is the beginning of the food chain for all living thingsPhotosynthesis is the process by which carbon dioxide and water in the presence of light are converted to sugar and oxygen
46Functions of StemsTranslocation-moves water and minerals from roots up to the leaves and move food from the leaves down to the rootsSupports branches, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds
47Functions of RootsAbsorption-take water and nutrients from the soil and conduct them to the stemAnchor the plant and hold it uprightStore food for plant useAsexual reproduction in some plants
48Functions of Flowers Produce seeds used for sexual reproduction Attract insects for pollination (Pollination is the transfer of pollen from anther to stigma.)Produce fruit to protect, nourish and carry seeds
49Objective 3.03Discuss floriculture and landscape plants
50Taxonomy The science of classifying and identifying plants Scientific names are used because the same common name is used for different plants in different areas of the world.
51Karl von LinneSwedish botanist that developed the binomial system of naming plants using two Latin words to indicate the genus and species.Linne changed his name to the Latin name Carolus Linneaus.
52Scientific NamesLatin is the language used for scientific classification.The first word is the genus and the second word is the species. If there are additional words, they indicate a variety or cultivar.
53Genus vs. SpeciesPlants in the same genus have similar characteristics.Plants in the same species consistently produce plants of the same type.
54Scientific Classification The broadest category of scientific classification is the Kingdom--either plant or animal.The broadest category in the plant kingdom is division or phylum.
55Divisions The four most important divisions of the plant kingdom are: ThallophitesBryophytesPteriophytesSpermatophytes
56Spermatophytes Contains flowering or seed-bearing plants Two subdivisions are:Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
57Common Plant Genus Pinus-Pine Acer-Maple Ilex-Holly Ficus-fig Cornus-dogwoodRhododendron-rhododendronQuercus-oak