Presentation on theme: "Animal Science and Biotechnology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Animal Science and Biotechnology Objective BA011.01: Summarize the physiological needs of animals for growth and reproduction.
2 Physiological Needs of Animals Food/ NutrientsAnimals CANNOT produce their own foodMust consume other living organisms for energyRespirationConverting sugars to chemical energyOccurs in the mitochondriaSome nutrients can be absorbed through environmental conditions- i.e.: sunlight
3 Physiological Needs of Animals OxygenUsually absorbed by animals from the airOccasionally absorbed through water or other means (ex- fish)All animals are AEROBICAka- they will die without oxygen
4 Physiological Needs of Animals WaterOther than air, the single most important factor in the survival of all animalsAnimals can only last a few days at most without water, though they can last days without food.
5 Physiological Needs of Animals Other Important Inorganic NutrientsVitaminsB12, A, E, C, etc.MineralsCalcium, Phosphorus, etc.
6 Immune System Characteristics Lymph SystemIn advanced animalsUtilizes white blood cells and antibodies to attack any antigens in the blood of an organismVaccines help the body form antibodies more quickly, while under less stress
7 Animal Science and Biotechnology Objective BA011.02: Analyze the impact of biotechnology on animal disease prevention, diagnosis, and management
8 Animal Disease Diagnosis ELISA testsUtilize antigens to determine the presence of antibodies for a given pathogen in a blood sampleAntibodies indicate the presence of a particular pathogen being foughtThe tests are usually produced from antigens extracted from research animals
9 Animal Disease Diagnosis Bacterial InfectionsAre tested in animals by biotechnology by culturing samples in an incubatorDifferent agar medias can be used to determine the presence of different bacteria upon examination after growth
10 Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment Biotechnology has enabled researchers to produce animals with genetic resistance to many pathogensUse gene segments from naturally resistant organismsFind the gene in sharks that makes them resistant to cancer for use in humansProduce animals with gene segments coding for the production of proteins to attack potential parasitic organisms
11 Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment The production of antibodies in one organism for use in another is an important biotechnology technique used in vaccinesJumpstarts the immune system of an animalAlso used in humans
12 Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment The utilization of genes coding for the production of certain medical compounds (including antibiotics) in a variety of livestock enables agriculturalists toProvide preventative medication in semi-controlled doses to populations on a large scale
13 Animal Science and Biotechnology Objective BA011.03: Discuss the role of genetic engineering and biotechnology on improving animal breeding
14 Biotechnology Techniques in Animal Breeding Artificial InseminationProcess of extracting and diluting semen from a male animal for use in a female animalAllows for outstanding genetic characteristics to be spread through a population rapidly with minimal expense and high successOne ejaculate can produce more than 60 semen straws in cattle and horses
15 Biotechnology Techniques in Animal Breeding Knockout AnimalsUsed to determine the function of specific genes, by creating animals without these genes
16 Biotechnology Techniques in Animal Breeding CloningRarely used in animalsExpensive and large amounts of tissue damageUsed for research or to preserve the most outstanding traits and characteristicsUsually requires the use of specialized sex cells, though recent advancements with enucleation have led to applications for cloning other cells
17 Biotechnology Techniques in Animal Breeding In Vitro FertilizationProcess involving the removal of embryos from a female for fertilization and insertion into surrogate mothers for developmentExpensive and chancy (embryos could be rejected by the surrogates)Many haploid cells and embryos may be destroyed
18 Biotechnology Techniques in Animal Breeding In Vitro FertilizationA more common method is transferring fertilized eggs from a super-ovulated female to other femalesOne female can produce many times more offspring
19 Problems with Biotechnology in Animal Reproduction Genetic DiversityCould possibly decrease with increased use of biotechnologyLess diversity in breeds/ speciesMost important negative aspect of increased use of biotechnology
20 Problems with Biotechnology in Animal Reproduction Expense/ Technical KnowledgeSome processes can easily be completed on the farmMany techniques still require expensive laboratory equipment or facilities.
21 Animal Science and Biotechnology Objective BA011.04: Evaluate the function of hormones in animal growth and body regulation
22 Function of Animal Hormones Control animal growth and behaviorInitiate physiological responses necessary for the reproduction of animalsLocated in specialized glands throughout the bodyPituitary gland, thyroid gland
23 Function of Animal Hormones Anabolic SteroidsSpecialized hormones that are partially responsible for muscle growth and developmentEven with prolonged use, steroid use in animals has little effect on muscle and boneUSDA and FDA have approved the use of low levels of hormones in beef cattle, dairy cattle, and hogsHORMONE USE IN POULTRY IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED
24 Examples of Animal Hormones Bovine Somatotropine (BST)Naturally occurring hormone in dairy cows that controls the process of milk productionExtra BST produced by bacteria can be injected into dairy cattle to increase milk production
25 Examples of Animal Hormones Hormones important in sexual reproduction and characteristicsEstrogenProduced in large quantities in femalesFeminine characteristicsControls the menstrual cycleTestosteroneCommon in varying levels in malesCan lead to aggression- castration
26 Animal Science and Biotechnology Objective BA012.01: Practice biotechnology techniques utilized in animal breeding.
27 Performing Artificial Insemination Analyzing the breeding potential of an animalUtilizes EPDsLikelihood that an offspring will possess the same beneficial characteristics of the parent
28 Performing Artificial Insemination Semen Collection/ AnalysisSemen is collected from male animals either by hand or through the use of an artificial vaginaSample is analyzed to measure concentration and test motility/ viabilityMotility- movement of individual sperm cellsViability- # or % of active and functional sperm cells in a sample
29 Performing Artificial Insemination Semen Collection/ AnalysisSample is then divided into 80+ straws and flash frozen for long term storageExtension solutions- semen can be diluted and stored for long periods of timeSemen can remain viable for over 30 yearsSperm can be sexed, but it requires expensive equipment utilizing lasers: can measure larger amounts of genetic material in female sperm cells
30 Performing Artificial Insemination Monitoring and Prepping the FemaleFemale is monitored to predict time of ovulationCan use hormones to induce ovulation in an entire population or herd“Standing” is a good sign that ovulation is closeIf timing is not correct, artificial insemination is useless because fertilization won’t happen
31 Performing Artificial Insemination Thawing SemenStraws should be stored in a container using liquid nitrogen to maintain subzero temperaturesStraws should be quickly removed from the container, shaken, an immediatedly placed in a water bath at 99 F for 15 secondsShaking removes water from the exterior to avoid breaking the seal
32 Performing Artificial Insemination Inseminating the FemaleMost methods utilize a specialized gun to deliver the semen from the straw to the femaleThe inseminator (that’s the person) inserts the gun into the vagina of the female, through the cervix, to release the semen into the uterusThe other hand of the inseminator is gloved and inserted into the rectum to palpate the location of the cervix and guide the gun through without damage
33 Performing In Vitro Fertilization & Embryo Transfer Gathering EggsIn Vitro- Eggs are usually removed from the ovaries in large quantities through simple surgeryEmbryo Transfer- Eggs are fertilized in the uterus of the femaleFemale given hormone to induce super-ovulationDuring ovulation, the female is inseminated (results in many viable embryos)A special catheter is used to take out the fertilized eggs from the womb and into surrogate mothers
34 Performing In Vitro Fertilization & Embryo Transfer Benefits of In Vitro FertilizationRequires the smallest amount of semenEnsures the production of viable embryos, which can be stored indefinitelyOften used in cloning because the sperm or egg can be genetically manipulated prior to fertilization
35 Animal Science and Biotechnology Objective BA012.02: Trace the process of cloning in animals
36 Cloning History First animal cloned was a tadpole in 1957 First animal cloned from diploid cells was Dolly the sheep in 1996In 2002, a private company claimed to have successfully cloned the first human child
37 Animal Cloning Process The simplest method is the division of fertilized eggs (embryos)All methods are expensive and result in large losses of developing embryosDolly was the only success out of 300+ attempts
38 Animal Cloning Process Most require the use of sex cells to obtain genetic materialUnder normal conditions, diploid cells in animals rarely differentiateDolly was cloned from DNA removed from a mammary cell placed into an enucleated egg
39 Animal Cloning Process ToolsMicromanipulator is the most important toolUsed to divide cells, remove DNA, enucleate cells, and reinsert DNA
40 Animal Cloning IssuesMost animal clones produced are not “true clone” since their production utilizing enucleated eggs DOES NOT alter all nucleic acidsClones retain the mitochondrial DNA of the original egg
41 Animal Cloning IssuesEnvironmental factors limit the effectiveness of clones in producing exact physical replicas of animalsClones may have identical DNA, yet have different color patterns, be a different size, and exhibit different mental/physical characteristics depending on ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.