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Introduction to Animal Science

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Animal Science"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Animal Science

2 Competency 1.00 Investigate agriculture animals in order to build a foundational knowledge for advanced animal science studies

3 Adapting animal behavior to fit the needs of people.
ANIMAL DOMESTICATION Adapting animal behavior to fit the needs of people.

To ensure a steadier supply of food and clothing Companionship Assist in labor

Less dependence on hunting and wild plants for food A surer source of food and clothing A more settled way of life Selective breeding

Selecting animals with certain desirable characteristics to use for breeding purposes

7 ORIGIN OF CATTLE Bos taurus- European cattle
Bos indicus- Humped cattle from tropical countries. India First brought to the U.S. by Columbus

8 Cattle Bos taurus Bos indicus

9 ORIGIN OF CATTLE Major growth of large herds in great plains states because of grazing. Midwest and north central states became the main area for finishing cattle because of grain.

10 US Cattle Finishing Grazing

11 ORIGIN OF SWINE Sus scrofa and Sus vittatus.
Chinese were first to tame pigs Brought to new world by Columbus DeSoto took hogs westward Midwestern cornbelt states became largest hog producing area

12 Swine Sus scrofa Sus vittatus

13 ORIGIN OF SHEEP One of the first animals tamed by humans
Brought to new world by Columbus Used by colonists mainly for wool Northeast and Western states are main sheep producing areas

14 Sheep 4000 BC

15 ORIGIN OF GOATS Pasang and Grecian Ibex- Wild goats found in Asia Minor Goats brought to new world for milk and hair

16 Goats Western Asia

17 ORIGIN OF HORSES Evolved from Eohippus First tamed in Asia or Persia
Brought to new world by Columbus Horses were left behind by explorers Brought to new world for work animals

18 Horses Asia and Persia

19 ORIGIN OF POULTRY Gallus gallus- Wild jungle fowl, ancestor of tame chickens Turkeys were probably tamed by people originally living in America

20 Poultry Egypt India and China North America

21 Objective 1.01 Define terms used to identify animals by sex, age, & physical traits in the beef, swine, and poultry industry

22 Terms Cattle Swine Poultry Not castrated Bull Boar Rooster
Castrated (young) Steer Barrow Capon Castrated (old) Stag Stag Young female Heifer Guilt That has not given birth Older female Cow Sow That has given birth Baby Calf Pig Chick

23 Objective 1.02 Identify the major breeds of beef, swine, and poultry

24 Angus

25 Beef Breeds Angus Black Polled Originated in Scotland
It is the most “registered” purebred High in carcass quality

26 Hereford

27 Beef Breeds Hereford Red and White face Horns Originated in England
Docile Gentle temperament Good foragers Efficient converters of forage crops

28 Charolais

29 Charolais

30 Beef Breeds Charolais White to light straw colored Naturally Horned
Breeding-up has created polled animals Large framed Originated in France

31 Brahman

32 Brahman

33 Beef Breeds Brahman Light Gray to Black or Red Originated in India
Pronounced hump Loose Dewlap Insect tolerant Disease tolerant

34 Polled Hereford

35 Polled Hereford Developed from the horned Hereford breed
Originated in 1901 Warren Gammon Des Moines, Iowa

36 Limousin

37 Limousin Native to the south central part of France Golden-red cattle

38 Beefmaster (Bull)

39 Beefmaster Developed from: Developed by Ed Lasater in 1908 Brahman
Hereford Shorthorn Developed by Ed Lasater in 1908

40 Shorthorn

41 Texas Longhorn

42 Chianina (pronounced kee-a-nee-na)

43 Dairy Breeds

44 Holstein

45 Dairy Breeds Holstein 90% of the dairy cattle in the US
Black and white Leading producer of milk Produce about 18,000 lbs. Of milk per cow per year

46 Jersey

47 Guernsey

48 Other Dairy Breeds Jersey Guernsey Ayrshire Brown Swiss
Cream to light fawn to almost black Number one in milk fat Guernsey Fawn and white Ayrshire Cherry red and white Brown Swiss Solid brown

49 Ayrshire

50 Brown Swiss

51 Identifying Breeds of Swine

52 American Landrace White Long Body Big loped forward ears Large litters
Good mothering ability Originated in Denmark

53 American Landrace

54 Duroc Red Drooped ears Good growth rate Excellent feed conversion

55 Duroc

56 Hampshire Black with a white belt Erect ears Good muscle
Carcass leanness

57 Hampshire

58 Yorkshire White Erect ears Large litters Good feed efficiency
Excellent growth and mothering ability Long carcass

59 Yorkshire

60 Poland China Drooped ears Black and white Sound in its feet and legs

61 Poland China

62 Chester White Chester County, Pennsylvania Intermingled English breeds

63 Chester White

64 Tamworth English breed Ireland Bacon-type

65 Tamworth

66 Berkshire Black and white Erect ears Fast and efficient growth
Reproductive efficiency Cleanness Meatiness

67 Berkshire

68 Spotted Swine Popular with farmers and commercial swine producers for their ability to transmit their fast-gaining, feed efficient, meat qualities to their offspring

69 Spotted Swine

70 Assignment Read pages 239 to 268 in the Livestock and Companion Animals textbook Answer the following questions and turn in on notebook paper:

71 Assignment (p ) What is a new breed of pig that looks like the Hereford Cattle Breed? Explain what a hybrid hog is. What is the current consumer trend in swine type? How many piglets are produced on average at each birth? How do you accurately measure backfat?

72 Total Confinement


74 Farrowing Crate


76 Identifying Breeds of Poultry

77 Breeds, Varieties, Types & Classes
Breed- group of related fowl that breed true for a specific trait Type- purpose for which it is breed (meat or egg type) Classes- geographic origin (Mediterranean, American, English and Asiatic)

78 Egg Producers Layers- chickens that produce eggs
White egg producers- small in size White Leghorns- white plumage Brown egg producers- larger birds that are not as economical as Leghorns Rhode Island Reds- dark red plumage New Hampshires- red plumage Plymouth Rocks- white plumage

79 White Leghorns

80 Barred Rock

81 Rhode Island Red

82 Layer Cages


84 Meat Producers Chickens used for meat production are called Broilers
Birds used for meat production are usually commercial crosses Example: White Plymouth Rock females mated to Cornish (English class) males

85 Confinement Broiler House

86 Confinement Broiler House

87 Turkeys Broad Breasted White White plumage
Shanks, feet, and beak is white to pink White pinfeathers Increases the value of the carcass Can survive better in hotter climates Good body confirmation but smaller than other breeds

88 Broad Breasted White

89 Turkeys Broad Breasted Bronze Black plumage Dark colored pinfeathers
Largest of the turkey varieties Poor fertility and reproductive problems Males are not good breeders

90 Broad Breasted Bronze

91 Turkeys Beltsville Small Whites Developed by the USDA
Similar to the Broad Breasted Whites Averages about 10 lbs. less in mature body weight

92 Beltsville Small Whites

93 Commercial Livestock Used in the livestock and poultry industry
Crosses of more than one breed or strain of breeds Adds in genetic diversity Livestock have more desired traits Undesirable traits can be lessened Used by most producers

94 Livestock External Anatomy

95 Objective 1.03 Recognize the major parts of cattle, swine and poultry

96 Cattle Parts

97 Cattle Parts

98 Cattle Parts In your notebook draw a diagram of a beef cow labeling 20 different parts including the 11 red stars in the class diagram

99 Cattle Parts

100 Swine Parts In your notebook draw a diagram of a swine labeling 15 different parts including red stars in the class diagram

101 Swine Parts

102 Poultry Parts comb wattles beak eye ring ear lobe vent hock
Diagram a chicken in your notes labeling these parts: (use the diagram in your textbook for help) comb wattles beak eye ring ear lobe vent hock toes breast back abdomen body shank

103 Poultry Parts

104 External Parts Anatomy Modified skin: The science of body structure
horns hooves feathers fur wool hair

105 Selective Breeding Only the best animals are chosen as breeding stock:
Confirmation Breed character Structural soundness of feet and legs Body capacity

106 Structural Soundness

107 Structural Soundness

108 Structural Soundness

109 Structural Soundness

110 Competency 2.00 Recognize the benefits and importance of agricultural animals

111 Objective Breeds 2.01 State the importance of livestock products and by-products

112 Livestock Products Work in groups of three and write down as many animals products and by-products as you can. You have 10 min. to complete this task!

113 Livestock Products 1. Food 2. Clothing 3. Shelter 4. Power
meat, milk, cheese, eggs 2. Clothing wool, leather from hides 3. Shelter tents from hides 4. Power work in less developed countries

114 Livestock Products 5. Recreation 6. Fuel 7. Animals are converters
horse back riding, rodeos 6. Fuel burn dry animal manure 7. Animals are converters eat stuff humans will not eat and convert these materials into food meat, eggs, milk, etc.

115 Which of the following was not made from animals:


117 Answer!

118 By-Products 1. Wool 2. Leather
3. Candy and chewing gum from animal fat 4. Gelatin - from horns, hooves, bones, and hides 5. Glue, cosmetics, waxes, soap, lubricants, brushes, etc.

119 Wool

120 By-Products 6. Animal feeds from scrap meat and bones and blood meal
7. Insulin for diabetics from livestock pancreas

121 By-Products 8. Heparin 9. Candles 10. Fertilizer for blood clotting
from livestock lungs 9. Candles 10. Fertilizer

122 Trends in Animal Science

123 Objective 2.02 Describe the economic importance and trends for each major classes of livestock and poultry produced in North Carolina


125 Swine

126 Trends in NC Swine The top agriculture commodity in North Carolina
found mostly in the eastern 1/2 of the state North Carolina ranks 2nd nationally Iowa is 1st


128 Trends in NC Swine The swine industry brings in over 1.5 billion dollars to the state The number of swine farms is decreasing The size of farms is increasing

129 Poultry



132 Trends in NC Poultry Broilers are Cleveland County’s top agriculture commodity Broilers are NC’s second rank commodity Broilers bring in over 1.3 billion dollars in cash receipts to NC agriculture

133 Trends in NC Poultry Recent health concerns has increased the consumption of poultry products less fat subcutaneous fat layer

134 Animal Agriculture North Carolina livestock commodities brings in twice as much money as other agriculture products

135 Livestock, Dairy and Poultry Cash Receipts from Farm Marketing, 2001

136 Cleveland County Livestock Rank Within State, (2002 estimates)
Hogs- 61st (1,500) (4,100 in 2004) Cattle- 7th (23,500) Beef Cattle 6th Milk Cattle 23rd (800) Broilers- 23rd (7,200,000) All chickens- 30th

137 Statistics Charts and statistics provided by: NCDA USDA

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