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Livestock and Poultry Evaluation Animal Science II.

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Presentation on theme: "Livestock and Poultry Evaluation Animal Science II."— Presentation transcript:

1 Livestock and Poultry Evaluation Animal Science II

2 Performance Data Beef Cattle 4 Reproductive performance –Conception rate –Calf crop percentage (born) –Calf crop percentage (weaned) –Calving interval length of time between calving for each cow in the herd that is breeding age

3 Performance Data Beef Cattle 4 Reproductive performance –Birth weight related to calving difficulty –Fertility testing of bulls should be tested before each breeding season

4 Performance Data Beef Cattle Calving difficulty score 1- No difficulty. No assistance 2- Minor difficulty. Some assistance 3- Major difficulty. Mechanical assistance 4- Cesarean birth or other surgery 5- Abnormal presentation

5 Performance Data Beef Cattle 4 Bull Performance –Information varies from breeder to breeder –15-20 different types of data Average daily gain Scrotum circumference

6 Performance Data Beef Cattle 4 Growth and Gain Performance –Weaning weights adjusted to 205 days –Yearling (365 days) and long yearlings (452 or 550) –Post weaning rate of gain (minimum of 140 days on test) –Weight per day of age

7 Performance Data Beef Cattle 4 Weaning Weights adjusted to 205 –standard basis Actual weight - Birth weight Age in days X 205 days + Birth weight

8 Performance Data Swine 4 Sow Productivity –Fertility (number of pigs per litter) –Litter weight at weaning best overall measure of sow productivity because it is affected by the number of pigs weaned and milk production

9 Performance Data Swine 4 Growth Rate –Adjusted days to 230 pounds –Rate of gain=pounds of gain on test/ days on test –Feed efficiency= amount of feed/ amount of gain –Carcass merit Backfat thickness (less is better) Loin-eye area Percentage of lean cuts

10 Performance Records Poultry 4 Past performance –Pedigree Gives records of ancestors 4 Present performance on individuals and siblings 4 Rate of gain and feed efficiency

11 Production Records 4 Heritability Estimates –Vary by trait ranging from 0 to 70 –Fertility is 0 to 10 percent management affect more than genetics –Loin-eye area is fastest improved by selective breeding 70% in cattle 50% in swine

12 Production Records 4 Sow productivity index –uses a formula that included the number of live pigs born and adjusted 21-day litter weight for individual sow comparison

13 Production Records 4 Use of Data Records –In most cases the highest number is better –Exceptions: birth weight calving difficulty backfat thickness in swine

14 Production Records 4 Estimated Breeding Value (EPV) –Estimate of the animal true breeding ability –Expressed as a percentage to the average of the animal to which the bull is compared 105 is 5% above the average 95 is 5% below the average

15 Production Records 4 Expected Progeny Difference (EPD) –Bulls can only transmit 1/2 of its superiority as shown on its EPV. –If the EPV is 106 that is (106-100=6) which is then halved to make three percent (6/2=3) –Females transmit the other half

16 Production Records 4 Pedigree Index (PI) –The closer the animal is to the bull being evaluated the more effect their performance traits have

17 Poultry Production Records 4 The type of record use to select by pedigree are past performance records 4 Present performance records are used to select physical appearance

18 Judging Livestock 4 Physical Characteristics –Confirmation Appearance including frame size, fat, etc. –Structural soundness More important today because of confinement operations with concrete floors –Especially swine and dairy

19 Judging Livestock 4 Commercial producers are more interested in performance records while breeders are concerned with pedigrees and breed characteristics

20 Judging Poultry 4 Most producers have no input in selection because they are contract farmers 4 Broilers –Must be healthy and well fleshed with normal conformation to produce a grade A carcass dressed

21 Judging Laying Hens 4 Laying hens are evaluated on the ability to produce eggs 4 Things to consider –Present production –Past production –Rate of production

22 Judging Laying Hens 4 Present production –Large bright red comb –Softy waxy comb –Bright eyes

23 Judging Laying Hens 4 Past Production –Production indicated by yellow pigment left in the body –The more eggs produced results in less pigment –A soft pliable abdomen and moist enlarged and bleached vent indicates that the hen is currently in production

24 Judging Laying Hens 4 Pigment bleaches beginning in: vent eye ring ear lobe beak starting at the base front shanks rear shanks tops of toes hock joint

25 Ready to Cook Broilers and Turkeys 4 USDA grades A, B, & C –determined by: Confirmation Exposed flesh on breast and other parts Missing parts Broken and dislocated joints

26 Ready to Cook Broilers and Turkeys FactorABC Exposed Flesh BreastNone Elsewhere1 ½ inch Disjointed and broken bones Missing Parts 1/3 flesh on each part No Limit 1 disjointed no broken 2 disjointed no broken No Limit Wing tip and tail To the second wing joint

27 What Grade is this? Grade A No Defects

28 B Grade Back is cut out halfway between the base of the tail and the hip joints What Grade is this?

29 C Grade More than 1/3 of flesh exposed on breast What Grade is this?

30 B Grade Parts of wing removed beyond the second joint What Grade is this?

31 C Grade Entire wing removed What Grade is this?

32 C Grade Over 1/3 of the drumstick flesh is exposed What Grade is this?

33 C Grade Trimmed more than halfway between base of tail and hip joints What Grade is this?

34 C grade Protruding broken bone in wing tip What Grade is this?

35 Grading Eggs 4 Interior quality determined by candling –AA, A, B or Reject –Bloody eggs are rejected 4 Exterior quality –A, B or Dirty –Any surface matter grades dirty

36 Grading Eggs 4 Interior quality (air cell size): AA- 1/8(dime) A- 3/16(nickel) B- Over 3/16(quarter)

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