Agrimedicine Vocabulary Antibodies: structures produced in the immune system of animals to fight pathogens Antigens: any one of a number of harmful pathogens that can affect the immune system of an animal Red Blood Cells: most common cells in blood stream, cup shaped, responsible for carrying O throughout the body Leukocytes: white blood cells which attack harmful organisms in the body
Agrimedicine Vocabulary Lymph System: fights pathogens and helps maintain health Consists of lymph nodes, blood cells, etc. Plants have no distinct immune system – only physical barriers Pharming: creation and extraction of medicines and other medical products in living organisms through the use of biotechnology Pharmaceutical: compound used to enhance the health of plants and/or animals Either synthetic or organic
Agrimedicine Vocabulary Ribosomes: cellular structures responsible for the manufacture of proteins May be manipulated to allow researchers to cause animals or plants to produce important non-normal proteins.
Biotechnology and Agrimedicine Objective: Outline biomedical applications of agricultural products and processes.
Biomedical Applications Pharming Products Include a variety of hormones, antibodies, and medical substances produced in quickly maturing plants and animals. Example – Insertion of human DNA into swine embryos to allow organs from animals to be transplanted into humans with issues of rejection. Insertion of DNA coding for the production of low levels of antigens in fruits and veggies – CAN BE USED IN PLACE OF TRADITIONAL VACCINES.
Biomedical Applications Genetic Manipulation of Animal Stem Cells Insertion of human DNA into animal stem cells is being investigated as a method of producing human tissues and organs. Utilizes the ability of stem cells to differentiate without destroying human embryos.
Biomedical Applications of Agricultural Processes Gene Therapy: process of removing or replacing gene sequences responsible for genetic disorders Could help eliminate the existence of certain genetic disorders. Concerns include the creation of ideal children. Example: the extraction, genetic alteration, and reinsertion of blood cells from children with rare blood disorder to encourage the formation of an immune system.
Biotechnology and Agrimedicine Objective: The practice of pharming and the creation of genetically altered organisms to produce medical substances.
Strategies for the Production of Agrimedicine Through Pharming Genetic modifications of an embryo or tissue is used to encourage development of a particular medical product. Can be as diverse as hormones, antigens, or any number of organic compounds. Usually requires the isolation and extraction of an existing genetic sequence that results in the production of that compound in another organism. The most difficult aspect is the insertion of the altered gene segment at the CORRECT point in the DNA sequence.
Strategies for the Production of Agrimedicine Through Pharming Compounds produced in organisms must be extracted for use. Lactation if often used in animal extraction by attaching them to the process of milk production. The integration of medical compounds into fruits and veggies is effective, as harvest and introduction to humans are both easily accomplished. Bananas are extremely effective.
Strategies for the Production of Agrimedicine Through Pharming Tests should be conducted to ensure that the production of medical substances in plants and animals will not lead increased pathogen resistance. Overuse of antibiotics can kill off most microorganisms.
Examples of Pharming The first and perhaps most widespread use of pharming was the use of genetically modified bacteria to produce human insulin. Can be easily and produced quickly. Most research in pharming has been focused on the use of genetically modified plants. More easily genetically modified than animals. Reproduce quickly and can be easily cloned.
Biotechnology and Agrimedicine Objective: Conduct a basic experiment in the area of agrimedicine.
Experimental Methodology in Agrimedicine Bacterial swabs and cultures should be created in order to genetically alter bacteria – OR to test for the presence of certain compounds in bacteria. Bacteria are also used to test for the presence of antibiotics in milk, fruit juice, and other compounds. It is important to remember that molds and bacteria are different.
Immunoassay test are used to test for the presence of antigens in a plant or animal. The part of the plant of animal containing the antigen should be diluted into solution. The concentration of antibiotics and other medicines produced by pharming often vary in different specimens, and even parts of the same specimen. To ensure the proper concentration is used in research, each extraction should be individually tested and diluted.
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