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Animal Reproduction and Genetics

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Presentation on theme: "Animal Reproduction and Genetics"— Presentation transcript:

1 Animal Reproduction and Genetics

2 Terminology Objective:
Define terminology related to reproductive management and breeding systems including castration, colustrum, estrus, gestation, lactation and parturition.

3 Terminology Castration Colustrum Gestation
Removing the testicles of the male to prevent breeding Colustrum First milk Gestation Time an animal is pregnant

4 Terminology Estrus Lactation Parturition
When a female is receptive to be bred Lactation Period of time that milk is secreted by the mammary glands Parturition Than act of giving birth

5 Breeding Systems Objective
Discuss crossbreeding, grading-up, inbreeding, linebreeding, and purebreeding

6 Breeding Systems X Pure Breeding Registered male and female animals
Angus X Angus X

7 Breeding Systems X Cross Breeding
Mating a male and female of different breeds Angus X Charolais = Crossbreed X

8 Breeding Systems Inbreeding Mating closely related animals
Brother X Sister Son X Mother Father X Daughter

9 Breeding Systems Linebreeding
Breeding more distant relatives than inbreeding Cousin X Cousin

10 Breeding Systems Grading-Up
Mating purebred male (sires) to unregistered or corssbred females (dams) Yorkshire bore X Yorkshire/Hampshire sow Hybrid Vigor Superior traits from crossbreeding Offspring are better than parents

11 The Female Reproductive System
Objective: Identify the parts of the female reproductive system of livestock

12 Female Tract

13 Female Reproductive System
Ovary - the ovary is comparable to the male testicle and is the site of gamete production. A bovine animal has 20,000 potential eggs per ovary, while a human female has 400,000 potential eggs per ovary. Ova are fully developed at puberty and are not continuously produced as in the male. All species contain two functional ovaries except for the hen which has only a left functioning ovary.

14 Female Reproductive System

15 Female Reproductive System
The ovaries have three major functions: Gamete production Secrete estrogen (hormone) absence of muscle development development of mammary glands development of reproductive systems and external genitalia fat deposition on hips and stomach (source of energy) triggering of heat Form the corpus luteum

16 Female Reproductive System
Infundibulum - the funnel shaped portion of the fallopian tube near the ovary that catches the ovulated egg. Fallopian Tubes (or Oviducts) - pair of small tubes leading from the ovaries to the horns of the uterus (5 - 6 inches). Fertilization occurs in the oviduct. Egg travels from ovary to uterine horn in days.

17 Female Reproductive System

18 Female Reproductive System
Uterine Horn - The anterior, divided end of the uterus in the cow, ewe, and mare. Sow has only 2 horns, no body, woman has no horns, only body.

19 Female Reproductive System

20 Female Reproductive System
Uterus - Muscular sac connecting fallopian tubes and cervix 1. Sustains the sperm and aids in its transport 2. Supports embryo and fetus during gestation 3. Expels fetus at parturition

21 Female Reproductive System
Cervix Area between the uterus and vagina Normally closed Opens at estrus and parturition (2 -3 inches)

22 Female Reproductive System
Vagina - the female organ of copulation 1. admits penis 2. receives semen (except in sow) 3. passageway for fetus at parturition Bladder - storage organ for urine Vulva - extended genitalia; opening for both urinary and genital tracts

23 Female Reproductive System

24 Reproductive Functions (Female)
Steps in the female reproductive process: 1. Ovulation Produce gamete (ova or ovum) Release of egg(s) Infundibulum pushes the ovum into the fallopian tube

25 Reproductive Functions (Female)

26 Reproductive Functions (Female)
2. Estrus (heat, estrous period) Period of time when a female will accept a male in copulation The female must stand (standing heat) to be mounted before the reproductive process can begin

27 Reproductive Functions (Female)
3. Gestation Fertilization to parturition Develop embryo in uterus 4. Parturition Expel fully developed young at birth 5. Lactation Milk production

28 Reproductive Functions (Female)

29 Ovulation Rates Ovulation Rates by Species Cow- 1 egg per estrus
Ewe- 1 to 3 eggs per estrus Sow- 10 to 20 eggs per estrus Mare- 1 egg per estrus Hen- Approx. 28 eggs per month

30 Reproductive Terminology
Species Act Offspring Cows calving calf Ewes lambing lamb Sows farrowing pig Hens hatching chick Mares foaling foal Goats kidding kid

31 Reproductive Functions (Female)
Gestation and Lactation Periods: Species Gestation Period Lactation(Milking) Cow days beef days dairy days Ewe days days Sow days days Mare days days Woman 270 days ? years

32 Reproductive Functions (Female)
Estrous period length by species: Cow hours Ewe hours Sow hours Mare hours Hens & Women none

33 Reproductive Functions of the Female
Estrous cycle - time from one heat period (or menstrual cycle) to the next. Length of estrous cycle by species: Cow days Ewe days Sow days Mare days Woman 28 days Hen none

34 The Male Reproductive Tract
Objective: Identify the parts of the male reproductive system of livestock and poultry

35 Male Reproductive Tract

36 Male Reproductive Tract
Scrotum - external sac that holds testicles outside of the body to keep sperm at 4-5oF cooler than the body temperature Testicles - the primary male organs of reproduction to produce sperm to secrete testosterone

37 Male Reproductive Tract
Epididymis - Long coiled tube that is a path for sperm Provide passageway for sperm out of the seminiferous tubules Storage for sperm Fluid secretion to nourish sperm Place for sperm maturation

38 Male Reproductive Tract
Vas Deferens - slender tube from epididymis to urethra which moves sperm to the urethra at ejaculation Urethra - long tube from bladder to penis; passageway for urine and sperm out of the body

39 Male Reproductive Tract
Penis - male organ of copulation which conveys semen and urine out of the body Penis retractor muscle - allows extension and retraction of the penis; sigmoid flexure extends in copulation

40 Male Reproductive Tract
Accessory Glands: Seminal vesicles- add fructose and citric acid to nourish the sperm Prostate Gland - located at the neck of the bladder cleans the urethra prior to and during ejaculation provides minerals for sperm provides the medium for sperm transport provides the characteristic odor of semen

41 Male Reproductive Tract
Cowper’s gland Also called the Bulbourethral gland Paired organs cleans the urethra prior to semen passage


43 Male Reproductive Tract

44 Reproduction in Poultry
Objective: Specify how the reproductive system for poultry functions


46 Reproduction in Poultry
The poultry oviduct has five parts: 1) Vagina Holds the egg until laid 2) Uterus Secretes the shell 3) Isthmus Adds the two shell membranes 4) Magnum Secretes the albumen 5) Infundibulum Where fertilization takes place



49 Reproduction in Poultry
Major difference: Embryo of livestock develop inside the female’s body while the embryo of poultry develops inside the egg. Poultry only have the left ovary and oviduct when mature The yoke is the ovum Chicken Incubation 21 days

50 Use page 190 in your textbook
Poultry Reproduction In your notes, define the following poultry reproductive terms and tell how they differ from livestock we have studied so far: Papilla Testicles Cloaca Vent Ovary Magnum Isthmus Uterus Vagina Use page 190 in your textbook

51 Assignment: Build a crossword puzzle containing 12 reproductive terms from your class notes. Have another student complete and sign your crossword puzzle. The assignment as well as your other assignment from the handout is due at the end of class.

52 Animal Reproduction and Genetics
Objective: Describe the cell and process involved in cell division including how genes affect the transmission of characteristics

53 Animal Cell The body is made up of millions of tiny cells
Most of the cell is made up of protoplasm Cell parts: Nucleus Cytoplasm Cell membrane

54 Animal Cell Nucleus Cytoplasm Cell Membrane

55 Cell Division Mitosis Meiosis Increases total number of cells
Results in animal growth Chromosomes pairs are duplicated Meiosis Produces gametes Only have one-half the chromosomes of normal cells

56 Fertilization When the sperm from a male reaches the egg from a female
Two cells join to form a complete cell Pairs of chromosomes are formed again Many different combinations of traits are formed

57 Fertilization

58 Chromosomes Rod shaped bodies Made of protein
Found in the cell nucleus Exist in pairs except for gamete cells The number of chromosome pairs differ for various animals Cattle 30 Swine 19 Horses 33 Chickens 6 Humans 23

59 Genes Located on chromosomes Thousands found in each animal
Control inherited characteristics Carcass traits Growth rate Feed efficiency Two types of inherited traits Dominant Recessive

60 Assignment Read pages 186 Complete problems 1-9
Livestock and Poultry Production textbook Complete problems 1-9 Write the question and provide a short answer in complete sentences.

61 Genes Dominant gene Hides the effect of another gene
Polled condition in cattle is dominant The gene is represented by a capital letter Recessive Gene that is hidden by another The gene is represented by a lower case letter

62 Genes Example: The dominant gene is written- P
The recessive gene is written-p P= Polled p= horned

63 Homozygous and Heterozygous
Homozygous gene pair Carries two genes for a trait Polled cow might carry the gene PP Heterozygous Carries two different genes that affect a trait Polled cows might carry a recessive gene with the dominant Pp

64 Predicting Genotype Genotype-kind of gene pairs possessed
Phenotype- the physical appearance of an animal Punnett squares are used to predict genotypes and phenotypes of animals

65 Punnett Square P PP P= Polled p= horned Example:
Two polled cattle that are homozygous for the polled trait Polled Dam P PP Polled Sire

66 Punnett Square N= Normal size n= Dwarfism Example:
Normal size in cattle is dominant to dwarfism Normal Dam N NN n Nn Sire Carrier

67 Punnett Square N= Normal size n= Dwarfism Example:
What if both parents are carriers for a trait or disorder? Normal Dam N n NN Nn nn Sire Carrier Result: one out of every four births could result in a dwarf animal (1:2:1)

68 Assignment Complete a Punnett Square for two animals that are heterozygous for two traits: Polled=P Black= B (Alternatives are horned and red) Dam Sire

69 Answer A Punnett Square for two animals that are heterozygous for two traits: Polled=P Black= B (Alternatives are horned and red) Dam PB Pb pB pb PPBB PPBb PpBB PpBb PPbb Ppbb ppBB ppBb ppbb Sire 9:3:3:1

70 Heritability Objective:
Discuss hertability estimates for beef and swine

71 Heritability Estimated the likelihood of a trait being passes on from the parent to the offspring Low heritability slow herd improvement High heritability faster improvement

72 Heritability Swine rates are usually lower than cattle
Heritiability for carcass traits are higher than reproductive traits Estimates vary from 0 to 70%

73 Heritability Estimates
Birth weight 40% Weaning Weight % Yearling Weight 60% Fertility 10% Tenderness 60%

74 Heritability Review Herd improvement slow for low heritability
faster for high heritability Estimates are higher for: beef compared to swine carcass traits compared to repro

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