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1 Problem Solving Model Preparation for Implementation Adapted from the NC Department of Public Instruction.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Problem Solving Model Preparation for Implementation Adapted from the NC Department of Public Instruction."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Problem Solving Model Preparation for Implementation Adapted from the NC Department of Public Instruction

2 2 Shift Happens Why change, why now? Legislation is necessitating a change Research has shown that there is a better way

3 3 What about Assessments? RtI advocates two principles: Assessments should have a relationship to positive child outcomes, not just predictions of failure Assessments without this relationship do little to benefit children and waste precious time and resources

4 4 What About Traditional Evaluations? Brief screening measures of IQ can rule out mental retardation If mental retardation is not suspected, measures of IQ have no role in LD diagnosis with RtI

5 5 Assessment In RtI Focus on achievement, behavior, and the instructional environment Measurable and changeable Related to child outcomes In-depth analysis of performance relative to peers Intervention aimed at improving rate and level of skill development

6 6 Cautions in Assessment Focusing only on the child can miss important factors Instructional casualties Not exposed to early literacy skills Marginally effective general education Instruction not scientifically validated Instruction implemented with poor integrity

7 7 Core of RtI Assessment Measures all domains that may affect achievement Comprehensive assessment includes: Screening of hearing & vision Social Developmental History In-depth assessments in: Current academic skills Instructional environment Behaviors Interventions

8 8 RtI Focuses on assessment of instructional principles Variables assessed and considered for intervention: Time allocated for instruction Academic learning time Pacing of instruction Number of opportunities to respond Sequencing of examples and non-examples of skills etc

9 9 RtI Use assessment to make good teaching decisions Include a measure of integrity in interventions

10 10 RtI Measurement of intervention effectiveness Early identification and early intervention Intervention increase in intensity, guided by data based decision making

11 11 So How Do We Do This Differently? Problem-Solving Model!

12 12 PSM Problem-solving involves both a conceptual and applied activity Activities necessary prior to implementation of RtI: Training Local norms

13 13 PSM Model designed to meet the needs of diverse learners within school districts Attempts to identify and implement best educational strategies to meet the needs of all learners Requires significant changes in mind set and philosophy

14 14 Thinking Outside the Box !

15 15 Prerequisites Changes in mind-set that are necessary for all of those involved Student problems can be defined (academic and behavioral) Questions drive assessments Engage in instruction that addresses learning Intervention is derived from analysis of baseline data

16 16 More About This Magic ! PSM: Seven step cyclical process Approach to develop interventions and ensure positive student outcomes, rather than determining failure or deviance (Deno, 1995).

17 17 Implementation of a RtI System All seven cyclical stages occur on four different tiers Movement through the tiers guided by intensity of services of needed

18 18 7 Problem Solving (PSM) Process Step 7 Analysis of the Intervention Plan make a team decision on the effectiveness of the intervention Step 1 Define the Problem Develop a behavioral (observable) definition of problem Step 2 Develop an Assessment Plan Generate a hypothesis and assessment questions related to the problem Step 3 Analysis of the Assessment Plan Create a functional and multidimensional assessment to test the hypothesis Step 4 Generate a Goal Statement Specific Description of the changes expected in student behavior Step 5 Develop an Intervention Plan Base interventions on best practices and research-proven strategies Step 6 Implement the Intervention Plan Provide strategies, materials, and resources: include progress monitoring

19 19 Training Important to have training on at least two components of RtI Problem-Solving Model (PSM) Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM)

20 20 PSM Implementation is guided by nine principles of the PSM

21 21 PSM Principle #1 Should involve seven steps Develop behavioral definition of the problem Generate hypothesis and assessment questions related to problem Functional and multi-dimensional assessment to test hypothesis and respond to questions

22 22 PSM Principle #1 (continued) Generation of goal statement Develop and implement intervention Progress monitoring Decision-making about effectiveness of intervention

23 23 PSM Principle #2 Collaborative consultation is the means by which PSM is conducted Team work No longer does one expert make determinations Each member of team provides their expertise from their perspective

24 24 PSM Principle #3 Develop hypothesis as to why the problem is occurring The hypothesis is tested through assessment questions and baseline data collection Hypothesis is designed collaboratively

25 25 PSM Principle #4 Functional assessment procedures are implemented Assessment is performed relevant to the identified problem, rather than determination of disability Data is collected to prove or disprove hypothesis, answer assessment questions, and provide basis for interventions Data serves as baseline, comparison to peers, and progress monitoring

26 26 PSM Principle #5 Implementation of multi-dimensional assessment procedures – RIOT Four domains are considered: environment, curriculum, instruction, and learner Remember problems do not always belong to the learner Review, Interview, Observe, and Test (RIOT) in all four domains if relevant

27 27 PSM Principle #6 Goals identified that should occur as result of intervention Performance described in concrete, measurable terms Period of time for intervention identified Exit criteria for intervention identified

28 28 PSM Principle #7 Development of prescriptive interventions Based on data collected and address changeable variables in the relevant domains Intervention is direct service, progress monitoring, on-going consultation, technical assistance, and a team effort Effectiveness of intervention continuously tested and changes made when necessary

29 29 PSM Principle #8 Progress monitoring Data collected regularly and frequently Data graphed and analyzed Effectiveness of intervention analyzed and changes made when needed

30 30 PSM Principle #9 Decision making based on progress monitoring data Responsiveness to Instruction evaluated, based on progress monitoring data relative to goal Continue intervention, change intervention, new intervention, Evaluation of program, modify program, exit program

31 31 Implementation of a RtI System First three tiers call for implementation of PSM and CBM in the general education setting Fourth tier represents determining the need for special education referral – the highest level of service intensity

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33 33 PSM Procedures Activities at Tier I Parent and teacher working together to define the problem What is it? When does it occur? Why is this happening? Then, analyze baseline data or develop plan for collecting baseline data

34 34 PSM Procedures Activities at Tier I Based on baseline data develop an intervention plan Parent and teacher together brainstorm ideas for interventions Discuss what interventions look like Look at differentiated instruction Create a Parent/Teacher Log Develop progress monitoring plan Set time table for reconvening to evaluate interventions

35 35 PSM Procedures Activities at Tier I Implement intervention plan Evaluate Use progress monitoring Determine effectiveness of intervention

36 36 Examples of Data at Tier I STAR reading Pre-EOG Running Record Curriculum based measurements (DIBELS, Aimsweb, for example) Specific skill growth or performance

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40 40 PSM Procedures Activities at Tier II Steps of cyclical problem-solving model repeat, but more school personnel are involved as needed Parent Teacher Counselor, school psychologist, reading teacher, administrator, social worker, nurse, etc.

41 41 PSM Procedures Examples at Tier II Parent, Teacher and Other Teacher/Specialist (other professional in the building) Reading Recovery Title 1 services Informal speech interventions Intervention groups 3 times a week for 30 minutes Computer remediation lab: Orchard, Waterford

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44 44 PSM Procedures Activities at Tier III Steps of cyclical problem-solving model repeat Team members may vary

45 45 PSM Procedures Formalization of process Problem-solving model forms are completed Baseline, goal setting, and progress monitoring data systematically collected and charted Research based interventions are implemented Data is provided as evidence for need of intervention

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51 51 PSM Procedures Activities of Tier IV Make the decision to refer for consideration of special education Define the problem Progress monitoring data becomes baseline data on IEP or additional data can be collected IEP (intervention) is developed based on data collected

52 52 PSM Procedures Activities of Tier IV, cont Progress monitoring occurs during implementation Program modification or exit criteria is established Objectives are developed

53 53 Tier IV Form

54 54 7 Problem Solving (PSM) Process Step 7 Analysis of the Intervention Plan make a team decision on the effectiveness of the intervention Step 1 Define the Problem Develop a behavioral (observable) definition of problem Step 2 Develop an Assessment Plan Generate a hypothesis and assessment questions related to the problem Step 3 Analysis of the Assessment Plan Create a functional and multidimensional assessment to test the hypothesis Step 4 Generate a Goal Statement Specific Description of the changes expected in student behavior Step 5 Develop an Intervention Plan Base interventions on best practices and research-proven strategies Step 6 Implement the Intervention Plan Provide strategies, materials, and resources: include progress monitoring

55 55 Define the Problem In general - Identify initial concern General description of problem Prioritize and select target behavior Describe what is known about problem and generate questions Environment Instruction Curriculum Learner Observable and measurable terms – stranger test?

56 56 Define the Problem The most difficult step of the model Done collaboratively However, if done correctly, solution ideas easily follow Describe the problem precisely, then formulate hypothesis, predictions, and referral questions

57 57 Define the Problem Characteristics of a definition Concrete, observable terms (understanding long division – accurate completion of long division problems) a stranger can determine if behavior has occurred Measurable – difficult to count number of times student understood division easily to count digits completed correctly in a division problem

58 58 Define the Problem Characteristics of a definition, cont Specific – break things down into its smallest components – appropriate classroom behavior – attending to task, remaining in seat, etc Leads to interventions – poor accuracy when applying phonological principles – leads to assessment and intervention ideas

59 59 Define the Problem Procedures for defining the problem Select target behavior – teacher may have several concerns, prioritize according to significance of impact Define in concrete, observable, and measurable terms, everyone should agree Hypothesize an explanation for the problem based on the definition – consider modifiable factors – (Bill is off task because he is distracted by noises in the classroom)

60 60 Define the Problem Procedures for defining the problem, cont Predict change in student behavior, use if/then wording – (If classroom is quiet then Bill will not be distracted) Develop assessment questions to be answered – questions stem from hypothesis and predictions – data collected supports or refutes hypothesis – consider setting, current level of performance, frequency, intensity, and duration of problem

61 61 Define the Problem Procedures for defining the problem, cont Hypothesis development Traditionally hypotheses have been circular Hypotheses should be stated : (Tom has out of seat behavior in math because he lacks the computation skills necessary to complete the independent seatwork) Hypotheses are generated through brainstorming

62 62 Hypothesis development Four domains of hypotheses Environment – how environment effects learning – arrangement of classroom, material, media equipment Curricular – is curriculum appropriate for student? Consider sequence of objectives, teaching methods, and practice materials provided Instructional – manner in which teacher uses curriculum – consider instructional techniques, presentation style, questioning, feedback techniques Learner – Student skill – necessary prerequisite skills Student process – capacity to learn and problem solving techniques

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64 64 Assessment Plan Assessments must be functional Direct link between assessment and intervention Data collected: skill deficits and/or performance deficits academic and/or non-academic behaviors Questions drive assessments Data leads to instructional decisions and goal setting

65 65 Assessment Plan In general Develop assessment plan to answer questions generated Validate target behavior Data across four domains should be gathered from multiple sources Reviews Interviews Observations Tests Roles, responsibilities, and timeline

66 66 Assessment Plan Characteristics of functional assessments Relevance- data related to instruction Direct – assessments derived from curriculum, behaviors and environment Multi-dimensional – data collected using RIOT

67 67 Assessment Plan Characteristics of functional assessments Formative – data used to formulate interventions Individually focused –focus on students strengths and weaknesses / establish a baseline Technically adequate – reliable and valid

68 68 Assessment Plan Data is collected regarding Environmental variable Instructional variables

69 69 Assessment Plan Data is collected regarding Curricular variables Student variables

70 70 Assessment Plan RIOT ( Review, Interview, Observe, Test) Review records and work samples, interview staff and parents, use CBM data Proceed from general to specific Global – vision, hearing, environmental factors Specific assessment aimed at answering assessment questions –

71 71 Analysis of Assessment Plan Review data – cant do or wont do? Calculate discrepancy between baseline and acceptable level of performance Baseline is median of three measures Indicate standard Make an informed statement as to why the problem is occurring Make a prediction regarding intervention Chart and set goal

72 72 Analysis of Assessment Plan Prediction and goal setting Without goal setting, impossible to judge progress and determine effectiveness of intervention Goal statements are based on baseline data Written in specific and measurable terms

73 73 Analysis of Assessment Plan Definition Goal statement specific description of change you expect to see in students behavior as a result of the intervention Includes behavior to change Conditions that will bring about change Level of behavior that is expected

74 74 Analysis of Assessment Plan Definition Short-term goals describe progress student is expected to make in a short period of time – during and intervention phase Long term goals describe progress student is expected to make in a year – often associated with a program, sometimes with intervention phases Program modification or exit goal statements identify requirements necessary to student to have program adjusted or exit program - EC

75 75 Analysis of Assessment Plan Goal statement Behavior needs to be measurable, observable, and specific – focus on increasing positive behaviors, rather than decreasing negative ones Conditions: (timeline, measurement situation, and measurement materials used) *For behavioral issues, conditions include ( timeline, setting, environmental stimuli)

76 76 Analysis of Assessment Plan Goal statement Level of behavior that is expected – several ways to establish this Norms/percentile cutoffs Expectations Realistic/ambitious growth Growth rates *More details and application in CBM

77 77 Analysis of Assessment Plan Examples of goal statements Long-term – In 30 weeks, when presented with random reading passages from Basic Skill Builders, level 5, Sam will read aloud at a rate of 50 words correct per minute Short-term – Each week, when presented with a reading passage from Basic Skill Builders, level 5, Sam will increase his oral reading rate by two words correct per minute Non-academic – In nine weeks during math class, Sam will complete all daily written assignment by the end of each math period

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79 79 Development of Intervention Plan In general, based on data, identify interventions with highest likelihood of success Interventions involve explicit instruction and progress monitoring Interventions are not accommodations and modifications Decision making for progress monitoring data – three below? Roles, responsibilities, and timeline

80 80 Development of Intervention Plan Accommodations Supports or services provided to help access curriculum and demonstrate learning – examples Modifications Changes made to content and performance expectations - examples

81 81 Development of Intervention Plan Characteristics: Focus on modifying students environment to improve performance – consider time allocated for instruction, engagement time, questioning techniques, feedback, contingencies Intervention and monitoring is continuation of hypothesis testing No magic interventions Implement, monitor, adjust

82 82 Development of Intervention Plan Characteristics: Interventions need to be feasible – implementers must agree, understand, be committed, and possess the necessary skills Team must share responsibility and accountability for outcome

83 83 Development of Intervention Plan Develop intervention plan, then consider: In what setting should the plan be implemented? Would it be best for this plan to be implemented on an individual level, an entire classroom, an entire school building?

84 84 Development of Intervention Plan Procedures: Brainstorm interventions Evaluate ideas – potential to succeed, ease of use, compatibility with existing programs, time, cost Select intervention – focus on increasing positives, rather than decreasing negatives

85 85 Development of Intervention Plan Procedures: Write action plan – identify roles and responsibilities, when, where, how, need for programs, progress monitoring, goals as a result of intervention Implement the intervention – support interventionist, progress monitor, evaluate integrity of intervention, make adjustments

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88 88 ORFSiggy

89 89 ORFSiggy

90 90 ORFSiggy

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92 92 Important Points to Consider and/or Remember when Implementing RtI School-based collaborative process Uses problem solving approach to identify academic/behavioral needs Involves data-based decision-making Primary purpose is to design useful interventions in the regular education environment

93 93 Important Points to Consider and/or Remember when Implementing RtI The focus is on Problem Solving… Not a mechanism for referring students to special education It is Not a Pre-referral team Assessment is functional & diagnostic Interventions based on data… Not a guessing game

94 94 Important Points to Consider and/or Remember when Implementing RtI Interventionists School Volunteers Any available staff member Peer tutoring Parents Teachers Aides Intervention Specialist Key: Training !

95 95 Final Thoughts and Conclusions OWNERSHIP Administrators are key !

96 96 Final Thoughts and Conclusions Change in mind-set Areas for training Team Building PSM CBM Local Norming Research-Based Interventions for reading, math, written expression, and behavior Progress monitoring and charting etc

97 97 Final Thoughts and Conclusions Research has shown repeatedly that all of the time, effort, and money is worth it !

98 98 Critical Skills/Competencies Problem solving-interviewing skills Behavior assessment including CBM Powerful instructional interventions Powerful behavior change interventions Relationship skills Tailoring assessment to referral concerns

99 99 General education/special education changes Send us your tired, your hungry, your poor…. Your students who arent performing…. Shift from placement to high quality interventions Progress of ALL students (tied with NCLB – AYP)

100 100 Questions Regular Educators May Ask: What is a high quality intervention? How do I do more in my class? How do I collect and use data to make decisions?

101 101 Special Educators Skills in individualized, remedial interventions Share with general educators! Classroom, teacher, and individual student support

102 102 Roles of District and School Leaders: District: Support Provide vision Reinforce effective practices Expect accountability Provide support for systems change effort Training Coaching Technology Policies Batsche & Curtis, 2005

103 103 Roles, cont: Principal Vision of Problem-Solving Process Supports development of expectations Allocation of resources Facilitates priority setting Ensures follow-up Supports program evaluation Monitors staff support/climate Batsche & Curtis, 2005

104 104 Questions learning/responsiveness/rtimaterials


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