Presentation on theme: "Problem Solving Model Preparation for Implementation"— Presentation transcript:
1Problem Solving Model Preparation for Implementation Adapted from the NC Department of Public Instruction
2Shift Happens Why change, why now? Legislation is necessitating a changeResearch has shown that there is a better wayBriefly touch on the fact that IDEIA, 2004 put in place Response to Intervention (RtI) for eligibility determination of SLD students. This training will briefly touch on the eligibility piece, as you’re already heard. Research show us that intervening early is much more effective when correcting student’s academic difficulties or weaknesses.
3What about Assessments? RtI advocates two principles:Assessments should have a relationship to positive child outcomes, not just predictions of failureAssessments without this relationship do little to benefit children and waste precious time and resourcesWe have historically had norm-referenced assessments, such as EOGs. They give us scores but have little direct effect on instruction. Using curriculum based assessments provides us with
4What About Traditional Evaluations? Brief screening measures of IQ can rule out mental retardationIf mental retardation is not suspected, measures of IQ have no role in LD diagnosis with RtIThere may still be a need for assessments to rule out other disabilities. With the RtI model, the magical 15 discrepancy is no longer an issue.
5Assessment In RtIFocus on achievement, behavior, and the instructional environmentMeasurable and changeableRelated to child outcomesIn-depth analysis of performance relative to peersIntervention aimed at improving rate and level of skill developmentDiscuss the components of assessment in RtI.
6Cautions in Assessment Focusing only on the child can miss important factors“Instructional casualties”Not exposed to early literacy skillsMarginally effective general educationInstruction not scientifically validatedInstruction implemented with poor integrityIn the discrepancy model, we reflected that everything is tied to IQ and achievement – all problems are those of the student. We did not look at environment, curriculum or instruction.Some students previously identified as LD are merely “instructional casualties”.Discuss reasons for Instructional casualities.If student were not exposed to literature prior to entering school, they come to us without a reference to literature.
7Core of RtI AssessmentMeasures all domains that may affect achievementComprehensive assessment includes:Screening of hearing & visionSocial Developmental HistoryIn-depth assessments in:Current academic skillsInstructional environmentBehaviorsInterventionsRtI uses a process to look at multiple factors that make effect the learner.We will continue to screen vision and hearing. We need to rule out concerns in these areasWe need to take a close look at the current academic skills of the student, consider the environment where instruction is occurring, evaluate behaviors that may be affecting the performance of the learner, and use interventions that are appropriate for the need or skill identified.
8RtI Focuses on assessment of instructional principles Variables assessed and considered for intervention:Time allocated for instructionAcademic learning timePacing of instructionNumber of opportunities to respondSequencing of examples and non-examples of skillsetcPresenter note: (Next 3 slides will review the components of RtI.)
9RtI Use assessment to make good teaching decisions Include a measure of integrity in interventionsDecisions on instruction will be based on data.
10RtI Measurement of intervention effectiveness Early identification and early interventionIntervention increase in intensity, guided by data based decision makingMonitor the intervention to ensure it is effectively addressing the need of the student. If it’s not working, change it.Identify need early and begin intervention.A graduated series of interventions that increase in intensity, as neededEarly intervening means getting help early for the student. Again, we’re not waiting for the student to fail.As the demonstration of need increases, so does the intensity of the intervention.
11So How Do We Do This Differently? Problem-SolvingModel!
12PSM Problem-solving involves both a conceptual and applied activity Activities necessary prior to implementation of RtI:TrainingLocal norms1.PS guides you though determining the problem and then applying appropriate instruction/interventions to the problem.Each school/LEA will determine how to best set up training. The key is to train the entire staff as your roll out RtI so that everyone feels prepared to implement this model. State norms were obtained in with the five original pilot LEAs. Norms are valid for up to five years will be the year to renorm in NC.**Remember that local norming is an option and is not a requirement to implement RtI. NC has state norms and we will look at those later.State norms were completed in 2005 and recommendation is to re-norm every five years.Any LEA can complete their own local norms. This is optional and not mandatory.
13PSMModel designed to meet the needs of diverse learners within school districtsAttempts to identify and implement best educational strategies to meet the needs of all learnersRequires significant changes in mind set and philosophyRtI will look differently in different places. Learners will also look different. We are changing our mind set to get the whole pictrure of the child. We need to ensure that appropriate strategies meet the needs of the student.
14Thinking Outside the Box ! In other words, we want to think outside the box. We want to look at defining what the issues are. Our questions need to drive our assessment, which in turn drive the instruction.
15PrerequisitesChanges in mind-set that are necessary for all of those involvedStudent problems can be defined (academic and behavioral)Questions drive assessmentsEngage in instruction that addresses learningIntervention is derived from analysis of baseline dataChange is needed: Change in mind-set; change in focus; change in ownership. What can we do differently? Questioning leads us to know what areas to assess. Instruction must address the learning needs that were identified. The intervention comes from looking at the data and making decisions based on the results of the data.
16More About This Magic ! PSM: Seven step cyclical process Approach to develop interventions and ensure positive student outcomes, rather than determining failure or deviance (Deno, 1995).We don’t want to be known just by our failures. We should not identify students by just their failures either. PSM follows a seven step cyclical process that is inductive, empirical, and rooted in behavioral analysis2. Academics are behaviors. Not all behaviors is “acting out”.
17Implementation of a RtI System All seven cyclical stages occur on four different tiersMovement through the tiers guided by intensity of services of neededThis model applies at all tiers of the problem-solving model. It is repeated as you move through the tiers. PSM is dependent upon the intensity of the problem and the intensity of the services needed to adequately meet the student’s needsThe intensity of the problem drives movement through the tiers.
181 2 7 6 3 5 4 Problem Solving (PSM) Process Step 1 Define the Problem Develop a behavioral(observable) definitionof problem27Step 7Analysis of theIntervention Planmake a team decision on the effectiveness of theinterventionStep 2Develop anAssessment PlanGenerate a hypothesis and assessment questionsrelated to the problem63Step 6Implement the Intervention PlanProvide strategies, materials, and resources: includeprogress monitoringStep 3Analysis of the Assessment PlanCreate a functional and multidimensional assessment totest the hypothesis(Refer to “super circle” sheet—separate handout)Discuss the seven stepsThe state forms walk you through this process, but some folks like the visual of this graph as a reminder of the steps.54Step 5Develop an Intervention PlanBase interventions on best practices and research-proven strategiesStep 4Generate a Goal StatementSpecific Description of the changes expected in studentbehavior
19Training Important to have training on at least two components of RtI Problem-Solving Model (PSM)Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM)It is imperative that teams be trained in what a problem-solving model is, and how to use information from this monitoring to affect instruction. Curriculum Based Measurement or formative assessment measures what is being instructed and utilizes charting/graphing and progress monitoring. Don’t forget – peer reviewed research based interventions, team building, local norming, and case studies
20Implementation is guided by nine principles of the PSM
21PSM Principle #1 Should involve seven steps Develop behavioral definition of the problemGenerate hypothesis and assessment questions related to problemFunctional and multi-dimensional assessment to test hypothesis and respond to questionsRefer back to the Super Circle page.
22PSM Principle #1 (continued) Generation of goal statement Develop and implement interventionProgress monitoringDecision-making about effectiveness of intervention
23PSMPrinciple #2Collaborative consultation is the means by which PSM is conductedTeam workNo longer does one “expert” make determinationsEach member of team provides their expertise from their perspectiveSome LEAs are using Instructional Consultation Teams (ICT), which is problem solving. ICT really fits in nicely here in the process.
24PSM Principle #3 Develop hypothesis as to why the problem is occurring The hypothesis is tested through assessment questions and baseline data collectionHypothesis is designed collaborativelyWe’re using a scientific method. We need to create the question or hypothesis of why the student is struggling.
25PSM Principle #4 Functional assessment procedures are implemented Assessment is performed relevant to the identified problem, rather than determination of disabilityData is collected to prove or disprove hypothesis, answer assessment questions, and provide basis for interventionsData serves as baseline, comparison to peers, and progress monitoring
26PSMPrinciple #5Implementation of multi-dimensional assessment procedures – RIOTFour domains are considered: environment, curriculum, instruction, and learnerRemember problems do not always belong to the learnerReview, Interview, Observe, and Test (RIOT) in all four domains if relevant
27PSMPrinciple #6Goals identified that should occur as result of interventionPerformance described in concrete, measurable termsPeriod of time for intervention identifiedExit criteria for intervention identified
28PSM Principle #7 Development of prescriptive interventions Based on data collected and address changeable variables in the relevant domainsIntervention is direct service, progress monitoring, on-going consultation, technical assistance, and a team effortEffectiveness of intervention continuously tested and changes made when necessary
29PSM Principle #8 Progress monitoring Data collected regularly and frequentlyData graphed and analyzedEffectiveness of intervention analyzed and changes made when needed
30PSM Principle #9 Decision making based on progress monitoring data Responsiveness to Instruction evaluated, based on progress monitoring data relative to goalContinue intervention, change intervention, new intervention,Evaluation of program, modify program, exit program
31Implementation of a RtI System First three tiers call for implementation of PSM and CBM in the general education settingFourth tier represents determining the need for special education referral – the highest level of service intensity
33PSM Procedures Activities at Tier I Parent and teacher working together to define the problemWhat is it?When does it occur?Why is this happening?Then, analyze baseline data or develop plan for collecting baseline dataIn our problem solving model, NC chose to use a four-tier model. Let’s see what that looks like.
34PSM Procedures Activities at Tier I Based on baseline data develop an intervention planParent and teacher together brainstorm ideas for interventionsDiscuss what interventions look likeLook at differentiated instructionCreate a Parent/Teacher LogDevelop progress monitoring planSet time table for reconvening to evaluate interventions
35PSM Procedures Activities at Tier I Implement intervention plan EvaluateUse progress monitoringDetermine effectiveness of interventionPut the plan in place. Teacher and parent use progress monitoring data to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions
36Examples of Data at Tier I STAR readingPre-EOGRunning RecordCurriculum based measurements (DIBELS, Aimsweb, for example)Specific skill growth or performance
40PSM Procedures Activities at Tier II Steps of cyclical problem-solving model repeat, but more school personnel are involved as neededParentTeacherCounselor, school psychologist, reading teacher, administrator, social worker, nurse, etc.
41PSM Procedures Examples at Tier II Parent, Teacher and Other Teacher/Specialist (other professional in the building)Reading RecoveryTitle 1 servicesInformal speech interventionsIntervention groups 3 times a week for 30 minutesComputer remediation lab: Orchard, Waterford
44PSM Procedures Activities at Tier III Steps of cyclical problem-solving model repeatTeam members may varyCycle repeats, but in a more formal and systematic way. May include the school-based problem solving team. Team may consist of referring teacher, parent, administrator, psychologist, EC staff member, counselor, regular education representative, anyone else needed
45PSM Procedures Formalization of process Problem-solving model forms are completedBaseline, goal setting, and progress monitoring data systematically collected and chartedResearch based interventions are implementedData is provided as evidence for need of interventionForms are completed to document each step of the process. Data are collected and charted to provide visual representation of skill acquisition. In final step, data is provided as evidence that student is in need or not in need of intervention with highest level of intensity – special education services
51PSM Procedures Activities of Tier IV Make the decision to refer for consideration of special educationDefine the problemProgress monitoring data becomes baseline data on IEP or additional data can be collectedIEP (intervention) is developed based on data collectedDefine the problem: Team identifies areas to be addressed as concerns and determines that intensity of interventions require more than can be addressed in the regular classroom.
52PSM Procedures Activities of Tier IV, con’t Progress monitoring occurs during implementationProgram modification or exit criteria is establishedObjectives are developedPilots are still helping to determine appropriate application of exit criteria.Team develops Annual goals and may also develop short term objectives, based on the decision of the local LEA.
541 2 7 6 3 5 4 Problem Solving (PSM) Process Step 1 Define the Problem Develop a behavioral(observable) definitionof problem27Step 7Analysis of theIntervention Planmake a team decision on the effectiveness of theinterventionStep 2Develop anAssessment PlanGenerate a hypothesis and assessment questionsrelated to the problem63Step 6Implement the Intervention PlanProvide strategies, materials, and resources: includeprogress monitoringStep 3Analysis of the Assessment PlanCreate a functional and multidimensional assessment totest the hypothesis(Refer to “super circle” sheet—separate handout)Discuss the seven stepsThe state forms walk you through this process, but some folks like the visual of this graph as a reminder of the steps.54Step 5Develop an Intervention PlanBase interventions on best practices and research-proven strategiesStep 4Generate a Goal StatementSpecific Description of the changes expected in studentbehavior
55Define the Problem In general - Identify initial concern General description of problemPrioritize and select target behaviorDescribe what is known about problem and generate questionsEnvironmentInstructionCurriculumLearnerObservable and measurable terms – stranger test?
56Define the Problem The most difficult step of the model Done collaborativelyHowever, if done correctly, solution ideas easily followDescribe the problem precisely, then formulate hypothesis, predictions, and referral questions
57Define the Problem Characteristics of a definition Concrete, observable terms (understanding long division – accurate completion of long division problems) a stranger can determine if behavior has occurredMeasurable – difficult to count number of times student “understood division” easily to count digits completed correctly in a division problem
58Define the Problem Characteristics of a definition, con’t Specific – break things down into its smallest components – “appropriate classroom behavior” – attending to task, remaining in seat, etcLeads to interventions – poor accuracy when applying phonological principles – leads to assessment and intervention ideas
59Define the Problem Procedures for defining the problem Select target behavior – teacher may have several concerns, prioritize according to significance of impactDefine in concrete, observable, and measurable terms, everyone should agreeHypothesize an explanation for the problem based on the definition – consider modifiable factors – (Bill is off task because he is distracted by noises in the classroom)
60Define the Problem Procedures for defining the problem, con’t Predict change in student behavior, use if/then wording – (If classroom is quiet then Bill will not be distracted)Develop assessment questions to be answered – questions stem from hypothesis and predictions – data collected supports or refutes hypothesis – consider setting, current level of performance, frequency, intensity, and duration of problem
61Define the Problem Procedures for defining the problem, con’t Hypothesis developmentTraditionally hypotheses have been circularHypotheses should be stated : (Tom has out of seat behavior in math because he lacks the computation skills necessary to complete the independent seatwork)Hypotheses are generated through brainstormingTraditionally hypotheses have been circular – student has problem because of disability, student has disability because of problemHypotheses should be stated in following manner – (Tom has out of seat behavior in math because he lacks the computation skills necessary to complete the independent seatwork)
62Hypothesis development Four domains of hypothesesEnvironment – how environment effects learning – arrangement of classroom, material, media equipmentCurricular – is curriculum appropriate for student? Consider sequence of objectives, teaching methods, and practice materials providedInstructional – manner in which teacher uses curriculum – consider instructional techniques, presentation style, questioning, feedback techniquesLearner –Student skill – necessary prerequisite skillsStudent process – capacity to learn and problem solving techniques
64Assessment Plan Assessments must be functional Direct link between assessment and interventionData collected:skill deficits and/or performance deficitsacademic and/or non-academic behaviorsQuestions drive assessmentsData leads to instructional decisions and goal settingData collected regarding skill deficits and/or performance deficits, academic and/or non-academic behaviors
65Assessment Plan In general Develop assessment plan to answer questions generatedValidate target behaviorData across four domains should be gathered from multiple sourcesReviewsInterviewsObservationsTestsRoles, responsibilities, and timelineRemember: RIOT…(Review as needed)
66Assessment Plan Characteristics of functional assessments Relevance- data related to instructionDirect – assessments derived from curriculum, behaviors and environmentMulti-dimensional – data collected using RIOTRelevance – collect data directly related to problem, hypothesis, and questions – no standard test batteryDirect – assessments are derived from curriculum, behaviors and environment are observed in relevant settingsMulti-dimensional – data collected regarding environment, curriculum, instruction, and learner using RIOT
67Assessment Plan Characteristics of functional assessments Formative – data used to formulate interventionsIndividually focused –focus on student’s strengths and weaknesses / establish a baselineTechnically adequate – reliable and validFormative – data is used to formulate interventions –pinpoint deficiencies and deficits – identify variables affecting student performance, environment, instruction, curriculumIndividually focused –focus on identifying student’s strengths and weaknesses and establishing a baselineTechnically adequate – reliable and valid for their intended purpose
68Assessment Plan Data is collected regarding Environmental variable Instructional variablesEnvironmental variables – class size, physical arrangement of classroom, equipment and materials, etcInstructional variables – behaviors and techniques used by teacher; questioning techniques, feedback, behavior management, prompts
69Assessment Plan Data is collected regarding Curricular variables Student variablesCurricular variables – pacing, sequence, scope, opportunities for practice, level of performance of student(s)Student variables – academic portfolio of student and consideration of a skill deficit or a performance deficit
70Assessment Plan RIOT (Review, Interview, Observe, Test) Review records and work samples, interview staff and parents, use CBM dataProceed from general to specificGlobal – vision, hearing, environmental factorsSpecific assessment aimed at answering assessment questions –Global – vision, hearing, environmental factorsSpecific-Specific strengths and weaknesses in academics; Curricular, instructional, and environmental factors affecting performance
71Analysis of Assessment Plan Review data – can’t do or won’t do?Calculate discrepancy between baseline and acceptable level of performanceBaseline is median of three measuresIndicate standardMake an informed statement as to why the problem is occurringMake a prediction regarding interventionChart and set goal
72Analysis of Assessment Plan Prediction and goal settingWithout goal setting, impossible to judge progress and determine effectiveness of interventionGoal statements are based on baseline dataWritten in specific and measurable terms
73Analysis of Assessment Plan DefinitionGoal statement specific description of change you expect to see in student’s behavior as a result of the interventionIncludes behavior to changeConditions that will bring about changeLevel of behavior that is expected
74Analysis of Assessment Plan DefinitionShort-term goals describe progress student is expected to make in a short period of time – during and intervention phaseLong term goals describe progress student is expected to make in a year – often associated with a program, sometimes with intervention phasesProgram modification or exit goal statements identify requirements necessary to student to have program adjusted or exit program - EC
75Analysis of Assessment Plan Goal statementBehavior needs to be measurable, observable, and specific – focus on increasing positive behaviors, rather than decreasing negative onesConditions: (timeline, measurement situation, and measurement materials used)*For behavioral issues, conditions include ( timeline, setting, environmental stimuli)
76Analysis of Assessment Plan Goal statementLevel of behavior that is expected – several ways to establish thisNorms/percentile cutoffsExpectationsRealistic/ambitious growthGrowth rates*More details and application in CBMYou will get more information on establishing goals when we do the CBM section.
77Analysis of Assessment Plan Examples of goal statementsLong-term – In 30 weeks, when presented with random reading passages from Basic Skill Builders, level 5, Sam will read aloud at a rate of 50 words correct per minuteShort-term – Each week, when presented with a reading passage from Basic Skill Builders, level 5, Sam will increase his oral reading rate by two words correct per minuteNon-academic – In nine weeks during math class, Sam will complete all daily written assignment by the end of each math periodThese are examples of a goal statement. More to come in CBM
79Development of Intervention Plan In general, based on data, identify interventions with highest likelihood of successInterventions involve explicit instruction and progress monitoringInterventions are not accommodations and modificationsDecision making for progress monitoring data – three below?Roles, responsibilities, and timeline
80Development of Intervention Plan AccommodationsSupports or services provided to help access curriculum and demonstrate learning – examplesModificationsChanges made to content and performance expectations - examples
81Development of Intervention Plan Characteristics:Focus on modifying student’s environment to improve performance – consider time allocated for instruction, engagement time, questioning techniques, feedback, contingenciesIntervention and monitoring is continuation of hypothesis testingNo magic interventionsImplement, monitor, adjustconsider adjustments to time allocated for instruction, engagement time, questioning techniques, feedback, contingenciesno magic interventions, guaranteed to succeed
82Development of Intervention Plan Characteristics:Interventions need to be feasible – implementers must agree, understand, be committed, and possess the necessary skillsTeam must share responsibility and accountability for outcome
83Development of Intervention Plan Develop intervention plan, then consider:In what setting should the plan be implemented?Would it be best for this plan to be implemented on an individual level, an entire classroom, an entire school building?
84Development of Intervention Plan Procedures:Brainstorm interventionsEvaluate ideas – potential to succeed, ease of use, compatibility with existing programs, time, costSelect intervention – focus on increasing positives, rather than decreasing negatives
85Development of Intervention Plan Procedures:Write action plan – identify roles and responsibilities, when, where, how, need for programs, progress monitoring, goals as a result of interventionImplement the intervention – support interventionist, progress monitor, evaluate integrity of intervention, make adjustments
92Important Points to Consider and/or Remember when Implementing RtI School-based collaborative processUses problem solving approach to identify academic/behavioral needsInvolves data-based decision-makingPrimary purpose is to design useful interventions in the regular education environment
93Important Points to Consider and/or Remember when Implementing RtI The focus is on Problem Solving…Not a mechanism for referring students to special educationIt is Not a Pre-referral teamAssessment is functional & diagnosticInterventions based on data…Not a guessing game
94Important Points to Consider and/or Remember when Implementing RtI InterventionistsSchool VolunteersAny available staff memberPeer tutoringParentsTeacher’s AidesIntervention SpecialistKey: Training !
95Final Thoughts and Conclusions OWNERSHIPAdministrators are key !To successfully implement a PSM/CBM system on the district, school, and individual levels, everyone must take ownershipTop down implementation is very important
96Final Thoughts and Conclusions Change in mind-setAreas for trainingTeam BuildingPSMCBMLocal NormingResearch-Based Interventions for reading, math, written expression, and behaviorProgress monitoring and chartingetcImplementation requires a significant shift in philosophy and a focused training effort
97Final Thoughts and Conclusions Research has shown repeatedly that all of the time, effort, and money is worth it !
98Critical Skills/Competencies Problem solving-interviewing skillsBehavior assessment including CBMPowerful instructional interventionsPowerful behavior change interventionsRelationship skillsTailoring assessment to referral concernsSkills that all team members need to acquire.
99General education/special education changes Send us your tired, your hungry, your poor…. Your students who aren’t performing….Shift from placement to high quality interventionsProgress of ALL students (tied with NCLB – AYP)Shift from focus on placement in special education as the intervention TO high quality interventions in general education
100Questions Regular Educators May Ask: What is a high quality intervention?How do I do more in my class?How do I collect and use data to make decisions?
101Special Educators Skills in individualized, remedial interventions Share with general educators!Classroom, teacher, and individual student support
102Roles of District and School Leaders: SupportProvide visionReinforce effective practicesExpect accountabilityProvide support for systems change effortTrainingCoachingTechnologyPoliciesBatsche & Curtis, 2005Provide vision for outcomes based service delivery
103Roles, con’t: Principal Vision of Problem-Solving Process Supports development of expectationsAllocation of resourcesFacilitates priority settingEnsures follow-upSupports program evaluationMonitors staff support/climateBatsche & Curtis, 2005