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Animal Science II- Small Animal

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Presentation on theme: "Animal Science II- Small Animal"— Presentation transcript:

1 Animal Science II- Small Animal
Unit B- The Small Animal Care Industry

2 Discuss the importance of the small animal industry.
Essential Standard 3.00 Discuss the importance of the small animal industry.

3 Objective 3.01 Discuss careers and skills needed for employment in the small animal care industry.

4 Assignment Title your notes today Small Animal Industry
Brainstorm how the Small Animal Industry can benefit society in general. Put a few of your own ideas in you notebook.

5 Benefits of Small Animals
Economic $38.5 billion to national economy (2006) Companions to 60% of American Families Children learn responsibility Improves quality of life for elderly

6 Benefits of Small Animals
Product testing Develop drugs and vaccines Hepatitis, diphtheria, tetanus, and polio vaccines

7 Benefits of Small Animals
Pet therapy Relieve depression Reduces heart disease Watch dogs, police dogs, seeing eye dogs Rabbit meat Low in cholesterol, sodium and fat Fur and wool

8 Benefits of Small Animals
Exhibition Zoos, circus acts, etc. Rabbits provide multiple benefits Pets Food Clothing Research

9 Economics Retail pet stores Biomedical research Education
15,000-18,000 in the U.S. Biomedical research Supported by $15 billion in taxes and charity million small animals Education 6 million used for dissection

10 Economics 4 million small animals used in the LD50 test
Americans spending on pets $20.3 billion

11 Economics Veterinary expenses
$9.2 billion annually Supplies and OTC medicines $9.3 billion Grooming and Boarding $2.7 billion Dogs require twice as much for veterinary care as cats Pet food manufacturers produce $15.4 billion in sales (2006)

12 General Pet Ownership 10 million more cats than dogs (81.7 to 72 million) Each owner averages two cats More households have dogs (37.2%) than cats (32.4%) Fish, birds, and rabbits rank third, fourth, and fifth respectively.

13 Job Types Care and management industry Food and equipment supply Pets
Lab animals Zoo animals Health Training Biological Sciences Food and equipment supply

14 Job Types Pharmaceutical and biotechnology research Hospitals
Universities Diagnostic Labs Private firms

15 Job Types Exhibitors Operates animals acts Carnivals Circus
Fairs (Cleveland County Fair) Zoo Marine mammal displays

16 Care and Management Jobs
Pet care worker Boarding kennels Animal hospitals Shelters Pet stores Training schools Pet grooming parlors

17 Care and Management Jobs
Kennel attendants Feeds and cares for animals Cleans Animal groomers Bathes, brushes & trims hair and nails Dog trainers Teaches the dog to obey signals or commands

18 Care and Management Jobs
Small Animal Breeders Raise & market fur-bearing animals, lab animals, and supply animals for pet shops Usually specialized for one breed Pet shop owners and managers Dealers Sell lab animals Research Education

19 Care and Management Jobs
Veterinarians (DVM) Control animal injuries and disease Disease prevention Inspection Meat and animals products Surgery Establish diets Prescribe medications 1/3 small animals only

20 Care and Management Jobs
Vet. Technicians Assist veterinarians and other staff Skills needed: Previous experience as a keeper Part-time volunteer work Shelters Pet shops clinics

21 Discuss the importance of the small animal industry.
Essential Standard 3.00 Discuss the importance of the small animal industry.

22 Objective 3.02 Discuss medical terminology used by those working in the veterinarian phase of the small animal care industry

23 Medical Terminology Components of medical terminology Prefix
Beginning of the word indicating: Number Location Time Status Root words Word part that gives the fundamental meaning of a word

24 Medical Terminology Suffixes
Word part at the end of a word indicating: Procedure Condition Disease Disorder

25 Medical Prefixes a-, an- without, lack of anti- against, opposing
Anemia- without blood anti- against, opposing Antiseptic- against infection bi- two, double, twice Bilateral- two sides dys- painful, difficult, abnormal Dysentery- abnormal infection of the colon pre- before Preoperative- before surgery

26 Medical Root Words carp cardi dors wrist heart back
carpel- pertaining to the wrist cardi heart cardiology- study of the heart dors back dorsal- relating to the back

27 Medical Root Words dent, odont Gastr Gingiv phleb, ven teeth stomach
dentist- person who works with teeth Gastr stomach gastronomy- surgical opening of the stomach Gingiv gums gingivitis- inflammation of the gums phleb, ven vein phlebotomist- person who obtains blood from veins

28 Medical Suffixes algia centesis itis rrhea Pain
arthralgia- painful joints centesis Procedure to remove fluid Cytocentesis- removing fluid from the bladder itis inflammation bronchitis rrhea Flow or discharge diarrhea

29 Positional Terminology
Ventral-underside of the body Cranial-head Anterior-front of the body Posterior-rear of the body Dorsal-back Caudal-tail

30 Positional Terminology
Dorsal (frontal) plane-plane that divides the body into the dorsal (back) and ventral (belly) parts

31 Positional Terminology
Transverse (horizontal or cross-sectional) plane-plane that divides the body into cranial and caudal parts.

32 Positional Terminology
Visit the following website to view a Virtual Cat Dissection External Anatomy Link

33 General Terminology Antisepsis Biopsy Catheterization Clutch

34 General Terminology Colostrum Contact transmission Endogenous
Exogenous Incubation

35 General Terminology Infectious disease Pocket pets
Preventative health care programs Quarantine Spaying Neutering Zoonoses

36 Explore social issues related to working with small animals.
Essential Standard 4.00 Explore social issues related to working with small animals.

37 Objective 4.01 Summarize animal rights and animal welfare

38 Animal Rights Not the same as animal welfare.
Media may wrongly use the two terms interchangeably.

39 Modern Animal Rights Movement
Over 400 animal rights groups exist today Came into prominence in the 1960s and 1970s Initially mainly made up of urban people, many of whom were vegetarians

40 Animal Rights Beliefs Animals have same rights as humans (humans are also animals). Use of animals for human purpose is wrong and suggests that humans are superior to animals. Animals should not be used for entertainment.

41 Animal Rights Beliefs Animals should not be used for:
Food Clothing Medical research Product testing Ecoterrorism is often used to prevent people from using animals.

42 PETA People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals
Largest animal rights group in the world with over 800,000 members Since 1980, it has been dedicated to establishing and protecting rights of animals.

43 Animal Welfare Animal domestication dates back to early Chinese and Egyptian cultures. Early U.S. used animals for food, clothing, shelter, transportation, and horsepower.

44 Animal Welfare (Religious)
Creation view that God gave man dominion over animals including use and care Genesis 1:26 Various religions use animal sacrifice and detail how to humanely slaughter the animal.

45 Animal Welfare (Legal)
Animal welfare influenced early laws. Laws protecting animals were present before the animal rights movement.

46 Animal Welfare Beliefs
Humane treatment of animals Proper housing and nutrition Proper care for disease prevention and treatment for injuries Euthanasia or slaughter should be done in a humane way.

47 The Vote? YES NO Do animals have rights?
Should animals be used for food? Should animals be used for experimentation? Should hunting and trapping of animals be allowed?

48 Objective 4.02 Demonstrate safe work habits and techniques used when working with small animals.

49 Zoonoses A disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans
Example: Rabies

50 Rabies A viral disease Affects the nervous system Contracted by: Bites
Scratches Saliva


52 Rabies Immunization is recommended when in doubt
93% of reported cases were in wild animals Children ages 5-9 make up less than 9% of the population receive the most animal bites (30%) Most domestic animals are not infected if vaccinated regularly

53 Toxoplasmosis Disease from Toxoplasma gondii parasite
Usually carried by cats Infected by ingesting contaminated mice Spread by: Cat feces Contaminated cat litter Affects those with suppressed immune system


55 Toxoplasmosis Concern for pregnant women Prevention: Miscarriage
Premature babies Blindness in babies Prevention: Disposable gloves when cleaning litter box Thoroughly washing hands

56 Ringworm Fungal disease Skin lesion: Spread by direct contact
Round Scaly and encrusted Loss of hair at site Spread by direct contact Indirectly by equipment Treatment: Iodine soap or antifungal drugs

57 Psittacosis (Parrot Fever)
Contracted by caged birds such as parrots, budgerigars, and related birds Transmitted through feces and fecal dust Bacteria Prevention: Wear dust mask Eliminating mites and lice Spraying disinfectants on bird feathers

58 Cat-scratch fever Non-serious Cat bites and scratches Symptoms:
Localized swelling and soreness Treated with antibiotics Affected area may be slow to heal

59 Cat-scratch fever

60 Samonellosis Caused by the Salmonella bacteria
Children and elderly most at risk Symptoms appear 12-72hrs after infection: Abdominal pain Vomiting Diarrhea for 4-7 days Pet turtles and reptiles Most likely to infect humans

61 Streptococcal Bacteria Results in sore throat
Can be transmitted by dogs Treated with penicillin

62 Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Cause coagulation of the blood Fever Headaches Nausea & Vomiting Skin rash Death if not treated Primarily passed by the American dig tick 6 other species can carry the disease

63 Lyme Disease First case in 1969 in Wisconsin Named in 1977
Lyme Connecticut Children developed arthritic condition Bacterial disease (Borrelia burgdurferi) Distinctive skin lesion 3-32 days

64 Lyme Disease Flu like symptoms
Painful joints Fatigue may last for months Can damage internal organs without antibiotics used as treatment Vaccines can be administered

65 Parasites Gain subsistence from a host organism
Can be internal or external Children are most at risk because they play with animals and in the areas where animals have been.

66 Ticks Seven species carry Rocky Mountain Spotted fever
Five species carry Lyme disease

67 Roundworms Ascarids (Toxocara species) & Hookworms
Affect dogs and cats May be passed to humans Fever Headache De-worming cats and dogs most effective preventative method

68 Tapeworms Tapeworm Occasionally carried by dogs and cats
Alveolar Hydatid Disease (AHD) Rare Potentially fatal (50-70%) Parasitic tumors of the liver May go unnoticed for years Avoid hand to mouth contact

69 Tapeworm

70 Life Cycle of AHD

71 Working with Animals Safely
Frequently wash hands and use protective clothing to avoid contamination. Separate sick animals and treat in separate areas. Do not eat, drink, or store food and drink in treatment areas. Never wash lab coats and protective clothing with regular clothes.

72 Working with Animals Safely
Protective Clothing Rubber unlined gloves, rubber boots, and face shield or goggles with anti-fog lenses should be worn when handling chemicals or applying pesticides. Leather gloves help to protect from bites and scratches.

73 Working with Animals Safely
Protective Clothing Coveralls and lab coats offer some protection from bites and scratches. Respirators should be worn when there is a danger of inhaling toxic dust and other substances.

74 Chemical Safety Use chemicals according to label instructions
Store chemicals in the original container Avoiding over-mixing and storing chemicals, but if they must be stored make sure they are in a locked location and clearly labeled.

75 Chemical Safety Dispose of all chemicals and their containers according to label instructions. Frequently wash hands and exposed area after using chemicals.

76 Proper Handling Techniques
Prevent injury to the animal and the handler. Keep a first-aid kit available for workers who do suffer bites or scratches. Briefly restrain animals when needed for examination or treatment.

77 Proper Handling Techniques
To work around the head of a cat, wrap the animal in a blanket and place it into a zippered canvas bag so the handler can grasp the back of the head and hold the head between the thumb and fingers.

78 Proper Handling Techniques
Dogs are restrained by placing one arm under the dog’s neck with the forearm holding the head while the other arm is placed around the animals body to pull it close to the handler.

79 Proper Handling Techniques
Dog muzzles can be created by looping a strip of gauze over the nose and mouth, crossing under the jaw and then tying into a bow behind the dog’s ears.

80 Proper Handling Techniques
Rabbits can be picked up by grabbing the scruff of the neck and placing a hand under the rump for support. To hold them, simply move the hand from the rump to the abdomen.

81 Proper Handling Techniques
Rabbits seldom bite, but can cause injury by kicking with their back legs. They may be injured if placed on a smooth surface. Foot pads are covered with fur. Can result in dislocation of hips or spine.

82 Proper Handling Techniques
Rats and mice that are used to being held may be picked up by grasping the tail close to the body and then using the other hand to grasp the loose skin in the neck and shoulder area.

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