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Animal Science II- Small Animal Unit B- The Small Animal Care Industry.

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Presentation on theme: "Animal Science II- Small Animal Unit B- The Small Animal Care Industry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Animal Science II- Small Animal Unit B- The Small Animal Care Industry

2 Essential Standard 3.00 Discuss the importance of the small animal industry.

3 Objective 3.01 Discuss careers and skills needed for employment in the small animal care industry. Discuss careers and skills needed for employment in the small animal care industry.

4 Assignment Title your notes today Small Animal Industry Title your notes today Small Animal Industry Brainstorm how the Small Animal Industry can benefit society in general. Put a few of your own ideas in you notebook. Brainstorm how the Small Animal Industry can benefit society in general. Put a few of your own ideas in you notebook.

5 Benefits of Small Animals Economic Economic $38.5 billion to national economy (2006) $38.5 billion to national economy (2006) Companions to 60% of American Families Companions to 60% of American Families Children learn responsibility Children learn responsibility Improves quality of life for elderly Improves quality of life for elderly

6 Product testing Product testing Develop drugs and vaccines Develop drugs and vaccines Hepatitis, diphtheria, tetanus, and polio vaccines Hepatitis, diphtheria, tetanus, and polio vaccines Benefits of Small Animals

7 Pet therapy Pet therapy Relieve depression Relieve depression Reduces heart disease Reduces heart disease Watch dogs, police dogs, seeing eye dogs Watch dogs, police dogs, seeing eye dogs Rabbit meat Rabbit meat Low in cholesterol, sodium and fat Low in cholesterol, sodium and fat Fur and wool Fur and wool

8 Benefits of Small Animals Exhibition Exhibition Zoos, circus acts, etc. Zoos, circus acts, etc. Rabbits provide multiple benefits Rabbits provide multiple benefits Pets Pets Food Food Clothing Clothing Research Research

9 Economics Retail pet stores 15,000-18,000 in the U.S. 15,000-18,000 in the U.S. Biomedical research Biomedical research Supported by $15 billion in taxes and charity Supported by $15 billion in taxes and charity million small animals million small animals Education Education 6 million used for dissection 6 million used for dissection

10 Economics 4 million small animals used in the LD50 test 4 million small animals used in the LD50 test Americans spending on pets Americans spending on pets $20.3 billion $20.3 billion

11 Economics Veterinary expenses Veterinary expenses $9.2 billion annually $9.2 billion annually Supplies and OTC medicines $9.3 billion Supplies and OTC medicines $9.3 billion Grooming and Boarding $2.7 billion Grooming and Boarding $2.7 billion Dogs require twice as much for veterinary care as cats Dogs require twice as much for veterinary care as cats Pet food manufacturers produce $15.4 billion in sales (2006) Pet food manufacturers produce $15.4 billion in sales (2006)

12 General Pet Ownership 10 million more cats than dogs (81.7 to 72 million) 10 million more cats than dogs (81.7 to 72 million) Each owner averages two cats Each owner averages two cats More households have dogs (37.2%) than cats (32.4%) More households have dogs (37.2%) than cats (32.4%) Fish, birds, and rabbits rank third, fourth, and fifth respectively. Fish, birds, and rabbits rank third, fourth, and fifth respectively.

13 Job Types Care and management industry Care and management industry Pets Pets Lab animals Lab animals Zoo animals Zoo animals Health Health Training Training Biological Sciences Biological Sciences Food and equipment supply Food and equipment supply

14 Job Types Pharmaceutical and biotechnology research Pharmaceutical and biotechnology research Hospitals Hospitals Universities Universities Diagnostic Labs Diagnostic Labs Private firms Private firms

15 Job Types Exhibitors Exhibitors Operates animals acts Operates animals acts Carnivals Carnivals Circus Circus Fairs (Cleveland County Fair) Fairs (Cleveland County Fair) Zoo Zoo Marine mammal displays Marine mammal displays

16 Care and Management Jobs 1. Pet care worker Boarding kennels Boarding kennels Animal hospitals Animal hospitals Shelters Shelters Pet stores Pet stores Training schools Training schools Pet grooming parlors Pet grooming parlors

17 Care and Management Jobs 2. Kennel attendants Feeds and cares for animals Feeds and cares for animals Cleans Cleans 3. Animal groomers Bathes, brushes & trims hair and nails Bathes, brushes & trims hair and nails 4. Dog trainers Teaches the dog to obey signals or commands Teaches the dog to obey signals or commands

18 Care and Management Jobs 5. Small Animal Breeders Raise & market fur-bearing animals, lab animals, and supply animals for pet shops Raise & market fur-bearing animals, lab animals, and supply animals for pet shops Usually specialized for one breed Usually specialized for one breed 6. Pet shop owners and managers 7. Dealers Sell lab animals Sell lab animals Research Research Education Education

19 Care and Management Jobs 8. Veterinarians (DVM) Control animal injuries and disease Control animal injuries and disease Disease prevention Disease prevention Inspection Inspection o Meat and animals products Surgery Surgery Establish diets Establish diets Prescribe medications Prescribe medications

20 Care and Management Jobs 9. Vet. Technicians 1. Assist veterinarians and other staff Skills needed: Skills needed: Previous experience as a keeper Previous experience as a keeper Part-time volunteer work Part-time volunteer work Shelters Shelters Pet shops Pet shops clinics clinics

21 Essential Standard 3.00 Discuss the importance of the small animal industry.

22 Objective 3.02 Discuss medical terminology used by those working in the veterinarian phase of the small animal care industry Discuss medical terminology used by those working in the veterinarian phase of the small animal care industry

23 Medical Terminology Components of medical terminology Components of medical terminology Prefix Prefix Beginning of the word indicating: Beginning of the word indicating: Number Number Location Location Time Time Status Status Root words Root words Word part that gives the fundamental meaning of a word Word part that gives the fundamental meaning of a word

24 Medical Terminology Suffixes Suffixes Word part at the end of a word indicating: Word part at the end of a word indicating: Procedure Procedure Condition Condition Disease Disease Disorder Disorder

25 Medical Prefixes 1. a-, an- without, lack of Anemia- without blood Anemia- without blood 2. anti- against, opposing Antiseptic- against infection Antiseptic- against infection 3. bi- two, double, twice Bilateral- two sides Bilateral- two sides 4. dys- painful, difficult, abnormal Dysentery- abnormal infection of the colon Dysentery- abnormal infection of the colon 5. pre- before Preoperative- before surgery Preoperative- before surgery

26 Medical Root Words 1. carp wrist wrist carpel- pertaining to the wrist carpel- pertaining to the wrist 2. cardi heart heart cardiology- study of the heart cardiology- study of the heart 3. dors back back dorsal- relating to the back dorsal- relating to the back

27 Medical Root Words 4. dent, odont teeth teeth dentist- person who works with teeth dentist- person who works with teeth 5. Gastr stomach stomach gastronomy- surgical opening of the stomach gastronomy- surgical opening of the stomach 6. Gingiv gums gums gingivitis- inflammation of the gums gingivitis- inflammation of the gums 7. phleb, ven vein vein phlebotomist- person who obtains blood from veins phlebotomist- person who obtains blood from veins

28 Medical Suffixes algia algia Pain Pain arthralgia- painful joints arthralgia- painful joints centesis centesis Procedure to remove fluid Procedure to remove fluid Cytocentesis- removing fluid from the bladder Cytocentesis- removing fluid from the bladder itis itis inflammation inflammation bronchitis bronchitis rrhea rrhea Flow or discharge Flow or discharge diarrhea diarrhea

29 Positional Terminology Ventral-underside of the body Ventral-underside of the body Cranial-head Cranial-head Anterior-front of the body Anterior-front of the body Posterior-rear of the body Posterior-rear of the body Dorsal-back Dorsal-back Caudal-tail Caudal-tail

30 Positional Terminology Dorsal (frontal) plane-plane that divides the body into the dorsal (back) and ventral (belly) parts Dorsal (frontal) plane-plane that divides the body into the dorsal (back) and ventral (belly) parts

31 Positional Terminology Transverse (horizontal or cross-sectional) plane-plane that divides the body into cranial and caudal parts. Transverse (horizontal or cross-sectional) plane-plane that divides the body into cranial and caudal parts.

32 Positional Terminology Visit the following website to view a Virtual Cat Dissection Visit the following website to view a Virtual Cat Dissection External Anatomy Link External Anatomy Link

33 General Terminology 1. Antisepsis 2. Biopsy 3. Catheterization 4. Clutch

34 General Terminology 5. Colostrum 6. Contact transmission 7. Endogenous 8. Exogenous 9. Incubation

35 General Terminology 10. Infectious disease 11. Pocket pets 12. Preventative health care programs 13. Quarantine 14. Spaying 15. Neutering 16. Zoonoses

36 Essential Standard 4.00 Explore social issues related to working with small animals.

37 Objective 4.01 Summarize animal rights and animal welfare Summarize animal rights and animal welfare

38 Animal Rights Not the same as animal welfare. Not the same as animal welfare. Media may wrongly use the two terms interchangeably. Media may wrongly use the two terms interchangeably.

39 Modern Animal Rights Movement Over 400 animal rights groups exist today Over 400 animal rights groups exist today Came into prominence in the 1960s and 1970s Came into prominence in the 1960s and 1970s Initially mainly made up of urban people, many of whom were vegetarians Initially mainly made up of urban people, many of whom were vegetarians

40 Animal Rights Beliefs Animals have same rights as humans (humans are also animals). Animals have same rights as humans (humans are also animals). Use of animals for human purpose is wrong and suggests that humans are superior to animals. Use of animals for human purpose is wrong and suggests that humans are superior to animals. Animals should not be used for entertainment. Animals should not be used for entertainment.

41 Animal Rights Beliefs Animals should not be used for: Animals should not be used for: Food Food Clothing Clothing Medical research Medical research Product testing Product testing Ecoterrorism is often used to prevent people from using animals. Ecoterrorism is often used to prevent people from using animals.

42 PETA People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals Largest animal rights group in the world with over 800,000 members Largest animal rights group in the world with over 800,000 members Since 1980, it has been dedicated to establishing and protecting rights of animals. Since 1980, it has been dedicated to establishing and protecting rights of animals.

43 Animal Welfare Animal domestication dates back to early Chinese and Egyptian cultures. Animal domestication dates back to early Chinese and Egyptian cultures. Early U.S. used animals for food, clothing, shelter, transportation, and horsepower. Early U.S. used animals for food, clothing, shelter, transportation, and horsepower.

44 Animal Welfare (Religious) Creation view that God gave man dominion over animals including use and care Creation view that God gave man dominion over animals including use and care Genesis 1:26 Genesis 1:26 Various religions use animal sacrifice and detail how to humanely slaughter the animal. Various religions use animal sacrifice and detail how to humanely slaughter the animal.

45 Animal Welfare (Legal) Animal welfare influenced early laws. Animal welfare influenced early laws. Laws protecting animals were present before the animal rights movement. Laws protecting animals were present before the animal rights movement.

46 Animal Welfare Beliefs Humane treatment of animals Humane treatment of animals Proper housing and nutrition Proper housing and nutrition Proper care for disease prevention and treatment for injuries Proper care for disease prevention and treatment for injuries Euthanasia or slaughter should be done in a humane way. Euthanasia or slaughter should be done in a humane way.

47 The Vote? Do animals have rights? Do animals have rights? Should animals be used for food? Should animals be used for food? Should animals be used for experimentation? Should animals be used for experimentation? Should hunting and trapping of animals be allowed? Should hunting and trapping of animals be allowed?

48 Objective 4.02 Demonstrate safe work habits and techniques used when working with small animals. Demonstrate safe work habits and techniques used when working with small animals.

49 Zoonoses A disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans A disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans Example: Rabies

50 Rabies A viral disease A viral disease Affects the nervous system Affects the nervous system Contracted by: Contracted by: Bites Bites Scratches Scratches Saliva Saliva

51

52 Rabies Immunization is recommended when in doubt Immunization is recommended when in doubt 93% of reported cases were in wild animals 93% of reported cases were in wild animals Children ages 5-9 make up less than 9% of the population receive the most animal bites (30%) Children ages 5-9 make up less than 9% of the population receive the most animal bites (30%) Most domestic animals are not infected if vaccinated regularly Most domestic animals are not infected if vaccinated regularly

53 Toxoplasmosis Disease from Toxoplasma gondii parasite Disease from Toxoplasma gondii parasite Usually carried by cats Usually carried by cats Infected by ingesting contaminated mice Infected by ingesting contaminated mice Spread by: Spread by: Cat feces Cat feces Contaminated cat litter Contaminated cat litter Affects those with suppressed immune system Affects those with suppressed immune system

54

55 Toxoplasmosis Concern for pregnant women Concern for pregnant women Miscarriage Miscarriage Premature babies Premature babies Blindness in babies Blindness in babies Prevention: Prevention: Disposable gloves when cleaning litter box Disposable gloves when cleaning litter box Thoroughly washing hands Thoroughly washing hands

56 Ringworm Fungal disease Fungal disease Skin lesion: Skin lesion: Round Round Scaly and encrusted Scaly and encrusted Loss of hair at site Loss of hair at site Spread by direct contact Spread by direct contact Indirectly by equipment Indirectly by equipment Treatment: Treatment: Iodine soap or antifungal drugs Iodine soap or antifungal drugs

57 Psittacosis (Parrot Fever) Contracted by caged birds such as parrots, budgerigars, and related birds Contracted by caged birds such as parrots, budgerigars, and related birds Transmitted through feces and fecal dust Transmitted through feces and fecal dust Bacteria Bacteria Prevention: Prevention: Wear dust mask Wear dust mask Eliminating mites and lice Eliminating mites and lice Spraying disinfectants on bird feathers Spraying disinfectants on bird feathers

58 Cat-scratch fever Non-serious Non-serious Cat bites and scratches Cat bites and scratches Symptoms: Symptoms: Localized swelling and soreness Localized swelling and soreness Treated with antibiotics Treated with antibiotics Affected area may be slow to heal Affected area may be slow to heal

59 Cat-scratch fever

60 Samonellosis Caused by the Salmonella bacteria Caused by the Salmonella bacteria Children and elderly most at risk Children and elderly most at risk Symptoms appear 12-72hrs after infection: Symptoms appear 12-72hrs after infection: Abdominal pain Abdominal pain Vomiting Vomiting Diarrhea for 4-7 days Diarrhea for 4-7 days Pet turtles and reptiles Pet turtles and reptiles Most likely to infect humans Most likely to infect humans

61 Streptococcal Bacteria Bacteria Results in sore throat Results in sore throat Can be transmitted by dogs Can be transmitted by dogs Treated with penicillin Treated with penicillin

62 Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Cause coagulation of the blood Cause coagulation of the blood Fever Fever Headaches Headaches Nausea & Vomiting Nausea & Vomiting Skin rash Skin rash Death if not treated Death if not treated Primarily passed by the American dig tick Primarily passed by the American dig tick 6 other species can carry the disease 6 other species can carry the disease

63 Lyme Disease First case in 1969 in Wisconsin First case in 1969 in Wisconsin Named in 1977 Named in 1977 Lyme Connecticut Lyme Connecticut Children developed arthritic condition Children developed arthritic condition Bacterial disease (Borrelia burgdurferi) Bacterial disease (Borrelia burgdurferi) Distinctive skin lesion 3-32 days Distinctive skin lesion 3-32 days

64 Lyme Disease Flu like symptoms Flu like symptoms Painful joints Painful joints Fatigue may last for months Fatigue may last for months Can damage internal organs without antibiotics used as treatment Can damage internal organs without antibiotics used as treatment Vaccines can be administered Vaccines can be administered

65 Parasites Gain subsistence from a host organism Gain subsistence from a host organism Can be internal or external Can be internal or external Children are most at risk because they play with animals and in the areas where animals have been. Children are most at risk because they play with animals and in the areas where animals have been.

66 Ticks Seven species carry Rocky Mountain Spotted fever Seven species carry Rocky Mountain Spotted fever Five species carry Lyme disease Five species carry Lyme disease

67 Roundworms Ascarids (Toxocara species) & Hookworms Ascarids (Toxocara species) & Hookworms Affect dogs and cats Affect dogs and cats May be passed to humans May be passed to humans Fever Fever Headache Headache De-worming cats and dogs most effective preventative method De-worming cats and dogs most effective preventative method

68 Tapeworms Tapeworm Tapeworm Occasionally carried by dogs and cats Occasionally carried by dogs and cats Alveolar Hydatid Disease (AHD) Alveolar Hydatid Disease (AHD) Rare Rare Potentially fatal (50-70%) Potentially fatal (50-70%) Parasitic tumors of the liver Parasitic tumors of the liver May go unnoticed for years May go unnoticed for years Avoid hand to mouth contact Avoid hand to mouth contact

69 Tapeworm

70 Life Cycle of AHD

71 Working with Animals Safely Frequently wash hands and use protective clothing to avoid contamination. Frequently wash hands and use protective clothing to avoid contamination. Separate sick animals and treat in separate areas. Separate sick animals and treat in separate areas. Do not eat, drink, or store food and drink in treatment areas. Do not eat, drink, or store food and drink in treatment areas. Never wash lab coats and protective clothing with regular clothes. Never wash lab coats and protective clothing with regular clothes.

72 Working with Animals Safely Protective Clothing Protective Clothing Rubber unlined gloves, rubber boots, and face shield or goggles with anti-fog lenses should be worn when handling chemicals or applying pesticides. Rubber unlined gloves, rubber boots, and face shield or goggles with anti-fog lenses should be worn when handling chemicals or applying pesticides. Leather gloves help to protect from bites and scratches. Leather gloves help to protect from bites and scratches.

73 Protective Clothing Protective Clothing Coveralls and lab coats offer some protection from bites and scratches. Coveralls and lab coats offer some protection from bites and scratches. Respirators should be worn when there is a danger of inhaling toxic dust and other substances. Respirators should be worn when there is a danger of inhaling toxic dust and other substances. Working with Animals Safely

74 Chemical Safety Use chemicals according to label instructions Use chemicals according to label instructions Store chemicals in the original container Store chemicals in the original container Avoiding over-mixing and storing chemicals, but if they must be stored make sure they are in a locked location and clearly labeled. Avoiding over-mixing and storing chemicals, but if they must be stored make sure they are in a locked location and clearly labeled.

75 Chemical Safety Dispose of all chemicals and their containers according to label instructions. Dispose of all chemicals and their containers according to label instructions. Frequently wash hands and exposed area after using chemicals. Frequently wash hands and exposed area after using chemicals.

76 Proper Handling Techniques Prevent injury to the animal and the handler. Prevent injury to the animal and the handler. Keep a first-aid kit available for workers who do suffer bites or scratches. Keep a first-aid kit available for workers who do suffer bites or scratches. Briefly restrain animals when needed for examination or treatment. Briefly restrain animals when needed for examination or treatment.

77 Proper Handling Techniques To work around the head of a cat, wrap the animal in a blanket and place it into a zippered canvas bag so the handler can grasp the back of the head and hold the head between the thumb and fingers. To work around the head of a cat, wrap the animal in a blanket and place it into a zippered canvas bag so the handler can grasp the back of the head and hold the head between the thumb and fingers.

78 Proper Handling Techniques Dogs are restrained by placing one arm under the dogs neck with the forearm holding the head while the other arm is placed around the animals body to pull it close to the handler. Dogs are restrained by placing one arm under the dogs neck with the forearm holding the head while the other arm is placed around the animals body to pull it close to the handler.

79 Proper Handling Techniques Dog muzzles can be created by looping a strip of gauze over the nose and mouth, crossing under the jaw and then tying into a bow behind the dogs ears. Dog muzzles can be created by looping a strip of gauze over the nose and mouth, crossing under the jaw and then tying into a bow behind the dogs ears.

80 Proper Handling Techniques Rabbits can be picked up by grabbing the scruff of the neck and placing a hand under the rump for support. Rabbits can be picked up by grabbing the scruff of the neck and placing a hand under the rump for support. To hold them, simply move the hand from the rump to the abdomen. To hold them, simply move the hand from the rump to the abdomen.

81 Proper Handling Techniques Rabbits seldom bite, but can cause injury by kicking with their back legs. Rabbits seldom bite, but can cause injury by kicking with their back legs. They may be injured if placed on a smooth surface. They may be injured if placed on a smooth surface. Foot pads are covered with fur. Foot pads are covered with fur. Can result in dislocation of hips or spine. Can result in dislocation of hips or spine.

82 Proper Handling Techniques Rats and mice that are used to being held may be picked up by grasping the tail close to the body and then using the other hand to grasp the loose skin in the neck and shoulder area. Rats and mice that are used to being held may be picked up by grasping the tail close to the body and then using the other hand to grasp the loose skin in the neck and shoulder area.


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